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Julio Anguita González (born 21 November 1941) is a Spanish communist politician. He was Mayor of Córdoba from 1979 to 1986, coordinator of United Left (IU) between 1989 and 1999, and Secretary-General of the Communist Party of Spain (PCE) from 1988 to 1998.

Julio Anguita
(Julio Anguita) José María Aznar recibe al coordinador general de Izquierda Unida (cropped).jpg
Member of the Congress of Deputies
In office
1989–2000
ConstituencyMadrid
Member of the Parliament of Andalusia
In office
1986–1989
ConstituencyCórdoba
Mayor of Córdoba
In office
1979–1986
Personal details
Born (1941-11-21) 21 November 1941 (age 77)
Fuengirola, Málaga, Spain
NationalitySpanish
Political partyPCE (since 1972)
IU (since 1986)
ResidenceCórdoba, Spain
Alma materUniversity of Barcelona
OccupationPolitician, professor

BiographyEdit

Born in Fuengirola, Málaga on 21 November 1941,[1] into a family with a military background, son of a sergeant and grandson of a guardia civil.[2] He took teaching studies (magisterio) and later earned a degree in history at the University of Barcelona.[3] Anguita, who had been a militant in Christian grassroots movements, joined the clandestine Communist Party of Spain (PCE) in 1972, when he already had obtained a post as teacher.[2] Five years later he became a member of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Andalusia (PCA).

 
Anguita in La Moncloa next to PM José María Aznar in 1999. He was famously accused multiple times of making a "pincer" against the PSOE teaming up with the People's Party.[4] Anguita later declared that "the pincer" (la pinza) had been a fabrication of the media and disgruntled IU members such as Diego López Garrido and Cristina Almeida who ultimately formed the Democratic Party of the New Left.[5]

In 1979, he was elected as Mayor of Córdoba with a clear majority in the first municipal elections of the current democracy, which thus acquired the distinction of being the first provincial capital governed by Communists since the Second Republic. His administration overcame the misgivings felt by many, contributing to the establishment of democratic normality and earning him appreciation as a leader in his party. He earned the nickname of el Califa Rojo ("the Red Caliph").[6] He was reelected in 1983, but in 1986 he resigned, becoming the new United Left (IU) candidate for the regional government (Junta de Andalucía). In these elections the coalition would obtain the 17.91% of the votes.

In February 1988 he was elected as secretary general of the PCE, and the following year he became the leader of IU, gaining a seat in Congress in the same year.

He was also elected Congress Member and spokesman of the parliamentary group of United Left in the Congress in 1993 and 1996, the years when IU had better than average electoral results.

After a third cardiovascular problem at the end of 1999 he relinquished his candidacy for chairman in the 2000 elections to Francisco Frutos on health grounds. Likewise, he was relieved as general secretary of the PCE by Francisco Frutos. In an interview in 2004, however, he said the main reason had been dissatisfaction about the political agenda of IU. In the 6th Assembly of IU, in October of that same year, he was replaced as General Coordinator by Gaspar Llamazares.

Under his leadership, United Left defined their political program and reached what was, at the time, their best electoral results in their history.

His son Julio Anguita Parrado was one of the two Spanish journalists who died in Iraq during the Anglo-American invasion in 2003, in his case under Iraqi fire.[n. 1]

In 2012, in the midst of the Spanish economic crisis, he promoted and became the figurehead of the Frente Cívico "Somos Mayoría" [es] ("Civic Front 'We are Majority'"), a social movement vowing to gather and mobilise the social majority who was suffering the effects of the crisis and the imposed austerity.[7][8]

PositionsEdit

 
Anguita in 2015, next to Alberto Garzón, during the yearly festivity of the PCE.

He advocated a political program for United Left based on the two shores theory, consisting of the establishment of differences between, on the one hand, the People's Party (PP) and the Spanish Socialist Workers' Party (PSOE), and, on the other, the United Left. He also said that pacts with PSOE should be established under programmatic single agreements, not systematically (a conception expressed in his well-known motto "programa, programa, programa").

A firm opponent at the time of the signing of the Treaty of Maastricht in 1992, he has later blamed the treaty for "that big crazy idea that Euro is", "a mix of very different economies in which Germany, as the banker, takes it all".[9] In 2018 he co-authored along Manolo Monereo and Héctor Illueca a series of provocative articles defending specific measures taken by the Italian government of alliance between the 5 Star Movement and the Northern League while feeding a discourse against the European Union.[n. 2]

The deep Catholic convictions he professed in his youth marked him to the point he opposed the right of abortion when he was Mayor of Córdoba.[2] Back then he also expressed to journalist Pedro J. Ramírez his admiration for the validity of the political thought of José Antonio Primo de Rivera.[11] His critics within IU resented as his main political handicap as leader an alleged lack of "(political) party culture".[11] He has declared Vox to be not Fascist, but "representative of an extreme right (that would be a) daughter of a capitalism in crisis", unlike some Falanges that were "anti-capitalists" and "talked about the nationalization of banks".[12]

In 2018, as some embrionary plans for a new movement to promote the 3rd Spanish Republic (with Anguita, Illueca and Monereo reportedly on board) were announced in the media, Anguita, a staunch republicanist, declared to El Español that the new Republic "needs to be transversal", "Neither Right nor Left".[13]

PublicationsEdit

After his first book Corazón Rojo (Red Heart, 2005) where he testifies over his life after the cardiovascular problems, he published in 2007 the Prologue of the book La Globalización Neoliberal y sus repercusiones en la educación (The Neoliberal Globalization and its impact in the education) from the University teacher and researcher Enrique Díez, and in 2008 he published El Tiempo y la Memoria (Time and Memory), written in collaboration with the Cordoban journalist and writer Rafael Martínez Simancas where he manifests his will to keep fighting.[14]

ReferencesEdit

Informational notes
  1. ^ On receiving the news of his death during an event in support of a Third Republic he said: "It was an Iraqi missile but it doesn't matter, the only thing I can say is that I will come again some other time and I will keep fighting for the Third Republic. Damned be the wars and the scoundrels that support them" ("Ha sido un misil iraquí, pero es igual, lo único que puedo decir es que vendré en otra ocasión y seguiré combatiendo por la tercera república. Malditas sean las guerras y los canallas que las apoyan"). This last phrase was heavily used by demonstrators in protests against the war in Iraq.[citation needed]
  2. ^ Those were accussed of being dangerously close to whitewashing Fascism by a part of the Spanish left-wing camp.[10]
Citations
  1. ^ Rodríguez, Juan Carlos (1 December 2013). "'Tengo una pensión de 1.848 euros, un Seat León y un ordenador. ¿Para qué más?'". El Mundo.
  2. ^ a b c Prades, Joaquina (29 October 2000). "Auge y caída del líder que nunca se equivocaba". Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  3. ^ Díaz Arenas, Ángel (1997). Quién es quién en la obra narrativa de Manuel Vázquez Montalbán. Kassel: Edition Reichenberger. p. 87. ISBN 3-930700-53-0.
  4. ^ Toral, Óscar (17 September 2012). "Las 10 reivindicaciones del nuevo proyecto político de Julio Anguita". El Periódico.
  5. ^ Cué, Carlos E. (22 September 2006). "Anguita y la pinza que nunca existió". El País.
  6. ^ García, Jesús (11 February 1988). "El 'califa rojo'". El País.
  7. ^ Reina, Carmen (16 May 2018). "Anguita deja la presidencia de Frente Cívico y se propone la disolución del colectivo". eldiario.es.
  8. ^ "Julio Anguita presenta su Frente Cívico 'Somos Mayoría'". ABC. 20 September 2012.
  9. ^ "Julio Anguita encabeza un "frente cívico" contra la crisis". El Confidencial. 22 July 2012.
  10. ^ Gil, Andrés (28 September 2018). "¿Provocadores, incorrectos o "rojipardos"?: el discurso de Anguita y Monereo sobre Italia y la UE que agita a la izquierda". eldiario.es.
  11. ^ a b Serrano, Rodolfo (8 December 1998). "Anguita: el hombre que no quiso ser el líder". El País.
  12. ^ "Anguita: Vox representa "una extrema derecha hija del capitalismo en crisis"". Agencia EFE. 24 March 2019.
  13. ^ Ramírez, Daniel (27 September 2018). "Anguita vuelve a la carretera para defender la III República con una plataforma transversal". El Español.
  14. ^ Anguita, Julio; Martínez-Simancas, Rafael (19 September 2006). Ortiz, Javier; Blanch, Jaime (eds.). "El tiempo y la memoria" (PDF). La Esfera de los Libros. Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 July 2009. Retrieved 23 November 2009.


Political offices
Preceded by
Antonio Alarcón [es]
Mayor of Córdoba
1979–1988
Succeeded by
Herminio Trigo [es]
Party political offices
Preceded by
Gerardo Iglesias
General Coordinator of United Left
1989–2000
Succeeded by
Gaspar Llamazares
Preceded by
Gerardo Iglesias
General Secretary of the Communist Party of Spain
1988–1998
Succeeded by
Francisco Frutos