Southern Cross railway station
Southern Cross railway station (formerly and still colloquially known as Spencer Street station) is a major railway station in Docklands, Melbourne. It is on Spencer Street, between Collins and La Trobe Streets, at the western edge of the central business district. The Docklands Stadium sports arena is 500 metres north-west of the station.
|Commuter, regional and inter-city rail station|
|Location||Spencer Street, Melbourne, Victoria|
|Owned by||IFM Investors|
|Operated by||Infranexus Management|
|Line(s)||Alamein (weekday pre-peak and post-peak only)|
Flemington Racecourse (special events only)
Sandringham (weekends only)
Williamstown (weekdays only)
|Structure type||Ground level with mezzanine|
|Website||Southern Cross Station Pty Ltd Public Transport Victoria (public transport information)|
|Opened||17 January 1859|
|Rebuilt||1960s and 2000s|
|Electrified||Platforms 8 to 14 only|
|Previous names||Spencer Street|
|Passengers (2008-2009)||13.089 million|
|Passengers (2009-2010)||14.400 million 10.02%|
|Passengers (2010-2011)||16.930 million 17.57%|
|Passengers (2011-2012)||16.828 million 0.6%|
|Passengers (2012-2013)||Not measured|
|Passengers (2013-2014)||17.091 million 1.56%|
The station is owned, operated and maintained by Infranexus (formerly known as AssetCo), a subsidiary of IFM Investors, under a 30-year lease to 2036 from the Victorian State Government, under a public-private partnership.
The station is the terminus of the state's regional railway network operated by V/Line, The Overland rail service to Adelaide, and NSW TrainLink XPT services to Sydney. It is also served by suburban rail services operated by Metro Trains, being one of five stations on the City Loop, a mostly underground railway that encircles the Central Business District. It is the second busiest railway station in Melbourne's metropolitan network, with 17.091 million passenger movements recorded in 2013/14. This figure excludes V/Line passengers who use the station.
Southern Cross also has a coach terminal underneath the Spencer Outlet shopping complex. Skybus Super Shuttle services to Melbourne Airport and Sunbus Shuttle services to Avalon Airport operate from there, as well as Firefly Express and Greyhound Australia interstate coach services, and V/Line coach services to Mildura, Yarram, Mansfield, and other parts of Victoria not served by rail.
Opened as Spencer Street Station in 1859, five years after the other major Melbourne rail terminus at Flinders Street, the station was a dead-end terminus, running parallel to Spencer Street, composed of a single main platform with a dock platform at the north end. It was not until 1874 that an extra platform was provided.
The two major city stations were not linked until 1879, when a single-track ground-level line was opened. It operated only at night, and only for freight trains. In the 1880s, it was proposed that Spencer Street station be removed in order to facilitate the westward expansion of the city, but the plan was subsequently rejected.
1880s: Passenger services commenceEdit
The 1880s saw the first of several grand but unrealised plans for the station. The first accepted design, drafted by Albert Charles Cook in 1883, was a fanciful Palladian palazzo design of two and three storeys, with central portico.
From 1888 to 1894 the layout of the platforms was altered, with new country platforms being built on an angle to Spencer Street itself. The current coach terminal location was the site of a number of new platforms built for suburban services.
In 1891, further plans were made for a significant new station complex, including three storey office complex and dominant clock tower reminiscent of the later Sydney Central station, but the 1890s Depression put an end to such expensive schemes.
In 1888 work started on the double track Flinders Street Viaduct linking the station to Flinders Street station. The line was initially only used by freight trains, with passenger train operations commencing in 1894. It was at this time that the first through platform was provided at the station, for suburban trains from Essendon and Williamstown. The viaduct to Flinders Street was expanded to four tracks in 1915, and in conjunction with the electrification works on the suburban network today's platforms 11 to 14 were opened between 1918 and 1924, along with a pedestrian subway providing access to them.
In 1938 it was announced that construction of an improved station entrance and new car park had been approved, at a cost of £2,000, designed by architects Messrs Stephenson and Meldrum. Once again however, no construction took place..
In October 1960 work on a new Spencer Street station commenced, sparked by the construction of the interstate standard gauge line to Sydney. A station building was constructed which largely replaced the 1880s iron sheds, and a new 413-metre (1,355 ft) platform number 1 was built. The passenger subway which had been constructed as part of the 1918 works was extended to include access to country platforms. In connection with the construction of the underground loop, platforms 9 and 10 were rebuilt as part of the suburban section of the station, and a new double-track viaduct was constructed between Spencer Street and Flinders Street station, alongside the original one, bringing to six the number of tracks connecting the two stations. At the same time, the four older tracks were resignalled for bi-directional operation.
In 1962 a separate subway network was constructed to carry mail between the station and what was then the Melbourne General Post Office and main postal sorting office, situated on the other side of Spencer Street.
The mechanically interlocked signal box at the station opened in 1887, and was decommissioned in June 2008. Originally built with 120 levers, it had 191 when it closed, making it the world's largest.
Southern Cross was redeveloped by the Civic Nexus consortium, following an innovative design by Grimshaw Architects and Jackson Architecture which features an undulating roof. Construction began in October 2002 and was completed in late 2006, with the majority of the transport facilities finished in time for the 2006 Commonwealth Games. The central features of the design include a wave-shaped roof, a new entrance and concourse on Collins Street, a new coach interchange, a new food court, a bar/restaurant, separate retail outlets inside the station and a separate shopping complex between Bourke and La Trobe Streets.
This new shopping complex originally comprised a Direct Factory Outlets centre, a Virgin Megastore, along with food courts. This opened on 30 November 2006, although not all tenancies were occupied, and stage 2 was opened in March 2007. In 2009 the DFO relocated to a new site at South Wharf, the shopping centre being refitted by owner Austexx and rebranded simply as "Spencer Street fashion station". In 2013 the shopping complex was rebranded as "Spencer Outlet Centre".
In addition to the physical modifications, the station was renamed from Spencer Street to Southern Cross on 13 December 2005.
By July 2004 the project had fallen behind schedule and over budget by $200 million. This was covered extensively in the media. As a result of over-runs and design issues, some elements of the original design, including an additional proposed footbridge connecting Lonsdale Street with Docklands Stadium, were scrapped.
Complaints about access to platforms, empty trains occupying space during the day and lack of government support were raised by Leighton Contractors, the construction firm overseeing the project. This led to concerns that the station might not be ready in time for the Commonwealth Games, and the government arranged with the railway operators to provide more access to the work site.
The station's redevelopment is part of the wider Melbourne Docklands development. The architect responsible for the design is Nicholas Grimshaw. The structural engineering design was performed by WSP Global. The station has been awarded the Royal Institute of British Architects' Lubetkin Prize for most outstanding building outside the European Union. The other buildings nominated were the Des Moines Public Library and the Hearst Tower, New York City.
The redevelopment has meant that passengers take more time to get to the suburban network platforms than before. The pedestrian subway access was removed in favour of street level and elevated concourses. The subway also continued underneath Spencer Street, and its closure means it is necessary for all pedestrians to wait for traffic lights to cross Spencer Street at street level. For all suburban and some country services, passengers using the main entrance on the corner of Collins and Spencer Streets have to ascend two escalators to a shopping concourse and then enter the paid area of the station, before descending again to the metropolitan platforms. There have been some accidents in which people have fallen from this elevated level. The eight metre ascent and descent is more than necessary to clear the height of trains, and more than the three metre descent and ascent of the previous subway.
Local architects have cited some of the Southern Cross Station's shortcomings: the building's poor connection to the surrounding streets; its awkward juncture at the pedestrian bridge that links Spencer Street to Etihad Stadium; and the baffling manner in which the grand architectural gesture of Southern Cross Station tapers off into an uninspired homage to the boxy 1980s shopping mall — Spencer Outlet Centre, which houses department store Harris Scarfe along with Witchery, Cotton On, Starbucks and many more outlets.
The station's wavy roof traps diesel fumes emitted by locomotives, which has caused illness among staff.
2010s: Additional platformsEdit
Water Tower ClockEdit
In May 2014, the historic Water Tower Clock was installed in the concourse of the station. The clock had originally been erected in 1882 at Flinders Street station, opposite the end of Elizabeth Street, atop a lattice tower about 60 feet (18 m) high. In 1902 the clock was moved to Princes Bridge station, and in 1910 it was relocated again, to Spencer Street station, where it remained until it was removed as part of the station's redevelopment in the mid-1960s. The clock mechanism was given to Museum Victoria, but the characteristic turret that housed the clock was sold to a scrap metal merchant. It was later rescued by private collectors, and the clock was returned to public ownership, being put on display in 1999 at the Scienceworks Museum, Spotswood. The clock was extensively restored before its return to Southern Cross, but the original mechanism remains in the collection of Museum Victoria.
Platforms and servicesEdit
Platforms are numbered from east to west.
Concourses are provided at Bourke and Collins Streets. Platform 1 is north of Bourke Street, while Platform 8 South is south of Collins Street. The remainder of platforms are located between Bourke and Collins Streets, with access from both concourses. Both concourses are further divided into an open access regional section for platforms 1 though 8, and a closed access suburban section for platforms 9 though 14.
Platforms 2 to 7, as well as platforms 15 and 16 are numbered as two sections: section A from the Collins Street concourse to the Bourke Street Footbridge, and section B beyond the Bourke Street Footbridge. These sections were previously known as the "Central" (2C to 8C) and "North" (2N to 8N) platforms, respectively. Platform 8 has these two sections and also a "South" section (8S) underneath Collins Street.
Platforms 1 and 2 are fitted with dual gauge track, permitting both standard gauge interstate trains and V/Line broad gauge trains. The remainder of the platforms are solely broad gauge. A motorail dock is located at the northern end of the platform, with standard gauge access only.
Platform 1 & 2:
- NSW TrainLink Southern: NSW TrainLink XPT services to Sydney (2 per day)
- Great Southern Rail: The Overland services to Adelaide (2 per week)
- Albury line: V/Line services to Albury (3 per day)
Platform 1 through 8 & Platform 15 & Platform 16
- Seymour line: services to Seymour
- Shepparton line: services to Shepparton (4 per day)
- Ballarat line: services to Ballarat
- Ararat line: services to Ararat (4 per day/ 3 on weekends)
- Maryborough line: services to Maryborough (2 per day)
- Bendigo line: services to Bendigo
- Echuca line: services to Echuca (1 weekday/2 weekend per day/1 per weekend)
- Swan Hill line: services to Swan Hill (2 per day)
- Geelong line: services to Geelong
- Warrnambool line: services to Warrnambool (4 per day/3 on weekends)
- Gippsland line: V/Line limited stops services to Traralgon
- Gippsland line: V/Line limited stops services to Bairnsdale
- Flemington Racecourse line (platform 8 only) - express and limited express services to Showgrounds and/or Flemington Racecourse during special events
Suburban Platforms 9 to 14
- Lilydale line: all-stations and limited express services to Lilydale
- Belgrave line: all-stations and limited express services to Belgrave
- Glen Waverley line: all-stations and limited express services to Glen Waverley
- Alamein line: weekday all-stations and limited express services to Alamein
- Williamstown line: weekend Werribee line services connect to a Williamstown line service at Newport
- Werribee line: weekend all-stations services to Werribee
- Flemington Racecourse line - limited express services to Showgrounds and/or Flemington Racecourse during special events
- Craigieburn line: all-stations services to Craigieburn
- Sandringham line: weekend all-stations services to Sandringham
- Upfield line: all-stations services to Upfield
- Sunbury line: all-stations and limited express services to Sunbury
- Pakenham line: all-stations and limited express services to Pakenham
- Cranbourne line: all-stations and limited express services to Cranbourne
- Frankston line: weekday peak and weekend all-stations and limited stops services to Frankston, running via the City Loop
- Sandringham line: weekend all-stations services to Sandringham
- Frankston line: weekday all-stations and limited express services to Frankston, originating from Werribee/Williamstown
- Sandringham line: weekend all-stations services to Sandringham
- Werribee line: weekday all-stations and limited express services to Flinders Street
- Williamstown line: weekday all-stations and limited express services to Flinders Street
- Flemington Racecourse line: limited express services to Flinders Street during special events
McKenzie's Tourist Services operates one route to and from Southern Cross station:
Transdev Melbourne operate three routes via Southern Cross station:
- 232: Queen Victoria Market - Altona North
- 235: Queen Victoria Market - Fishermens Bend
- 237: Queen Victoria Market - Fishermens Bend
Yarra Trams operate nine services via Southern Cross Station:
From Collins Street:
- 11: West Preston - Victoria Harbour
- 48: North Balwyn - Victoria Harbour
- 109: Box Hill - Port Melbourne
- 12: Victoria Gardens - St Kilda
From Harbour Esplanade:
From Spencer Street:
- Mildura via Ballarat, Maryborough and Donald
- Mount Gambier via Ballarat, Hamilton and Casterton
- Barham via Heathcote
- Barmah via Heathcote and Shepparton
- Deniliquin via Heathcote, Rochester, Echuca and Moama
- Mansfield / Mount Buller (snow season only)
- Cowes via Dandenong and Koo Wee Rup
- Inverloch via Dandenong and Koo Wee Rup
- Yarram via Dandenong, Koo Wee Rup and Leongatha
- "About Us". AssetCo. Retrieved 2018-09-28.
- "Train Station Patronage FY2008-2014" (XLS). Public Transport Victoria. 14 May 2015. Archived from the original on 30 March 2016. Retrieved 1 November 2016. (access from "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 3 November 2016. Retrieved 1 November 2016. )
- "Southern Cross Station". Retrieved 2016-10-04.
- Station Patronage Research Archived 23 May 2016 at the Wayback Machine. Public Transport Victoria
- Infrastructure – Southern Cross Vicsig
- Vance Findlay (August 2003). "More on Batman's Hill Station". Newsrail: 238–240.
- "MELBOURNE AND WILLIAMSTOWN RAILWAY". The Argus (Melbourne) (3, 924). Victoria, Australia. 8 January 1859. p. 5. Retrieved 2 March 2017 – via National Library of Australia.
- Sid Brown (November 2002). "Batman's Hill to Southern Cross – via Spencer Street". Newsrail: 335–347.
- Accepted Designs for the New Railway Stations, Melbourne. State Library of Victoria
- Official Design for New Station at Spencer Street
- Department of Infrastructure: Early history of Southern Cross Station Archived 4 June 2009 at the Library of Congress Web Archives
- "Spencer Street Improved Station £2,000 Plan Adopted". The Argus. 1938-02-05. Retrieved 2013-05-31.
- "Spencer Street Subway". Walking Melbourne. Retrieved 2012-11-09.
- Edmonds, Mike (2007-07-20). "Signal box concerns". Herald Sun. News. Retrieved 2008-06-07.
- "The World's Largest Signalbox" The Railway Magazine issue 1341 January 2013 page 33
- The roof transporting us to tomorrow The Age 25 March 2005]
- Marc Pallisco (3 October 2009). "DFO South Wharf, Melbourne to Open October 15". realestatesource.com.au. Retrieved 10 May 2010.
- Time's up at last for railway landmark The Age 14 December 2005
- Auditor-General’s Report on the Annual Financial Report of the State of Victoria, 2005–06 Archived 2 March 2007 at the Wayback Machine.
- All change at Spencer St The Age 9 July 2005]
- "Southern Cross Station in Melbourne Wins Prestigious International Architecture Award". 22 June 2007. Archived from the original on 8 June 2011. Retrieved 23 December 2009.
- "Revamped Melbourne station wins international award". ABC News Online. 2007-06-23. Retrieved 2007-06-23.
- "Man critical after horror fall from escalator at Southern Cross". The Age. Melbourne. 14 July 2010. Retrieved 12 April 2011.
- "Woman badly hurt in station fall". The Age. Melbourne. 25 June 2010. Retrieved 12 April 2011.
- "Station's curves prove real head-turner". The Age. Melbourne. 14 July 2007.
- Cauchi, Stephen (22 June 2006). "Station bosses defend roof but will move staff from fumes". The Age. Melbourne.
- Platforms 15 and 16 Regional Rail Link
- Changes to Geelong line services from 22 December 2013 Public Transport Victoria
- "Melbourne's 130-year-old Water Tower Clock back at Southern Cross station". Melbourne Leader. 2014-05-15. Retrieved 2015-03-02.
- "Old clock's time to shine". Museum Victoria. Retrieved 2015-03-02.
- "Water Tower clock installed at Southern Cross Station" Railway Digest July 2014 page 23
- Route 684 Eildon - Melbourne timetable Public Transport Victoria
- Route 235 City - Fishermens Bend timetable Archived 9 April 2014 at the Wayback Machine. Public Transport Victoria
- Route 237 City - Fishermens Bend timetable Archived 9 April 2014 at the Wayback Machine. Public Transport Victoria
- Route 11 West Preston - Victoria Harbour Docklands timetable Public Transport Victoria
- Route 48 North Balwyn - Victoria Harbour Docklands timetable Public Transport Victoria
- Route 109 Box Hill - Port Melbourne timetable Public Transport Victoria
- Route 12 Victoria Gardens - St Kilda timetable Public Transport Victoria
- Route 35 City Circle timetable Public Transport Victoria
- Route 70 Waterfront City Docklands - Wattle Park timetable Public Transport Victoria
- Route 75 Etihad Stadium Docklands - Vermont South timetable Public Transport Victoria
- Route 86 Bundora RMIT - Waterfront City Docklands timetable Public Transport Victoria
- Route 96 East Brunswick - St Kilda Beach timetable Public Transport Victoria
- "Timetable list". V/Line - Regional public transport for Victoria. Retrieved 2018-03-18.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Southern Cross Station.|
- Southern Cross Station
- Southern Cross Station project at the Library of Congress Web Archives (archived 2009-05-30)
- Railpage Southern Cross Platform allocation discussions
- Southern Cross Station subway re-opening discussions
- Diagram of the track layout at Southern Cross station
- Construction images: 2003 – 2004 and 2005 – 2008
- Melway map at street-directory.com.au