According to the Biblical narrative, Solomon's Temple, also known as the First Temple, was a temple in Jerusalem (בֵּית־הַמִּקְדָּשׁ: Bēṯ hamMīqdāš) built under King Solomon's reign and completed in 957 BCE. The Temple was looted and then destroyed in 586/587 BCE at the hands of the Babylonian king Nebuchadnezzar II, who also deported the Jews to Babylon. The destruction of the temple and the deportation were seen as fulfillments of prophecy and strengthened Judaic religious beliefs.
The Hebrew Bible (Old Testament) describes how Solomon's father, David, the great warrior king, united the Israelite tribes, captured Jerusalem and brought the Israelites' central artifact, the Ark of the Covenant, into the city. David chose Mount Moriah in Jerusalem as the site for a future temple to house the Ark, today known as the Temple Mount or Haram al-Sharif. However, God would not let him build the Temple, for he had "shed much blood." Instead, his son Solomon, known for being an ambitious builder of public works, built it. He placed the Ark in the Holy of Holies, the windowless innermost room and most sacred area of the Temple. In the Holy of Holies, God's presence rested. Only the high priest was allowed to enter the room, once per year on the Day of Atonement, carrying the blood of a sacrificial lamb and burning incense.
According to the Bible, the Temple not only served as a religious building, but also as a place of assembly for the Israelites. The Jews who had been deported in the aftermath of the Babylonian conquest were eventually allowed to return and rebuild their temple — known as the Second Temple. But the building no longer housed the Ark, as it had disappeared.
There is a general agreement that a ritual structure existed on the Temple Mount by the point of the Babylonian siege of Jerusalem, however serious doubts remain in attributing it or its construction to Solomon, or any king roughly contemporaneous to his lifetime. Scholars doubt the veracity of the Biblical account as no evidence for the existence of Solomon's Temple has been found and the Temple is not mentioned in extra-Biblical accounts. Artifacts supposedly proving the existence of Solomon's Temple - an ivory pomegranate and a ninth century BCE stone tablet - have turned out to be fakes. Many scholars believe that the inscription on a pottery shard known as Ostracon 18 written around 600 BCE references the Temple in Jerusalem. If so, it would be the only extra-Biblical corroboration of the Temple found.
In ancient literatureEdit
Rabbinic sources state that the First Temple stood for 410 years and, based on the 2nd-century work Seder Olam Rabbah, place construction in 832 BCE and destruction in 422 BCE (3338 AM), 165 years later than secular estimates.
The Jewish historian Josephus says; "the temple was burnt four hundred and seventy years, six months, and ten days after it was built". The temple was subsequently replaced with the Second Temple in 516 BCE.[additional citation(s) needed]
The exact location of the Temple is unknown: it is believed to have been situated upon the hill which forms the site of the 1st century Second Temple and present-day Temple Mount, where the Dome of the Rock is situated.
Until the reforms of King Josiah, there was also a statue for the goddess Asherah (2 Kings 23:6) and priestesses wove ritual textiles for her. (2 Kings 23:7) Next to the temple was a house for the temple prostitutes (2 Kings 23:7) who performed sacred prostitution at the temple. It is unclear whether the prostitutes included both male and female or just male prostitutes.
According to Francesca Stavrakopoulou, Asherah was Yahweh's consort, and she was worshipped alongside Yahweh. According to Richard H. Lowery, Yahweh and Asherah headed a pantheon of other Judean gods that were worshipped at the temple.
The temple had chariots of the sun (2 Kings 23:11) and temple worshipers would face east and bow to the sun. (Ezekiel 8:16) Some Bible scholars, such as Margaret Barker, say that these solar elements indicate a solar cult. They may reflect an earlier Jebusite worship of Zedek or possibly a solarized Yahwism.
According to the Tanakh, the Temple housed the Ark of the Covenant. It says the Ark contained the Ten Commandments and was moved from Kiriath Jearim to Jerusalem by David before being moved into Solomon's temple. However, many biblical scholars believe the story of the Ark was written independently and then incorporated into the main biblical narrative just before the exile into Babylon. Archaeologists speculate that the Ark may have contained pagan gods and remained in Kiriath Jearim for much longer, possibly until shortly before the Babylonian conquest.
During the Deuteronomic reform of King Josiah, the cult objects of the sun and Asherah were taken out of the temple and the practice of sacred prostitution and the worship of Baal and the hosts of heaven were stopped.
A korban was a kosher animal sacrifice, such as a bull, sheep, goat, or a dove that underwent shechita (Jewish ritual slaughter). Sacrifices could also consist of grain, meal, wine, or incense. Offerings were often cooked and most of it eaten by the offerer, with parts given to the Kohen priests and small parts burned on the altar of the Temple in Jerusalem. Only in special cases was all of the offering given only to God, such as in the case of the scapegoat. Under Josiah, sacrifices were centralized at Solomon's temple and other places of sacrifice were abolished. The temple became a major slaughtering center and a major part of Jerusalem's economy.
This section possibly contains original research. (August 2014)
In the Bible book 2 Samuel, Hiram I, the king of the Phoenician city state Tyre, becomes an ally of David, following his conquest of Jerusalem. The friendship continues after Solomon succeeds David and a literary account of how Hiram helps Solomon build the Temple is given in the Bible books 1 Kings chapter 5 to 9 and 2 Chronicles chapter 2 to 7.
Hiram agrees to Solomon's request to supply him with cedar and cypress tree for the construction of the Temple. He tells Solomon that he will send the trees by sea: "I will make them into rafts to go by the sea to the place that you indicate. I will have them broken up there for you to take away." In return for the lumber, Solomon sends him wheat and oil. Solomon also brings over a skilled craftsman from Tyre, also called Hiram (or Huram-abi), who oversees the construction of the Temple. Stonemasons from Gebal (Byblos) cut stones for the Temple.
According to 1 Kings, the foundation of the Temple is laid in Ziv, the second month of the fourth year of Solomon's reign and construction is completed in Bul, the eighth month of Solomon's eleventh year, thus taking about seven years. According to Flavius Josephus, "Solomon began to build the temple in the fourth year of his reign, on the second month, which the Macedonians call Artemisius, and the Hebrews Jar, five hundred and ninety two years after the exodus out of Egypt, but after one thousand and twenty years from Abraham's coming out of Mesopotamia into Canaan and after the deluge one thousand four hundred and forty years; and from Adam, the first man who was created, until Solomon built the temple, there had past in all three thousand one hundred and two years."
After the Temple and palace (taking an additional 13 years) is completed, Solomon gives Hiram twenty towns in the Galilee as a partial payment for goods delivered. But when Hiram comes to see the towns he isn't pleased: "What are these towns that you have given me, my brother?" he asks. Though he remains on friendly terms with Solomon.
The Bible book 2 Chronicles fills in some details of the construction not given in 1 Kings. It states that the trees sent as rafts were sent to the city of Joppa on the Mediterranean coast, and in return for the lumber supplied, Solomon, in addition to the wheat and oil, sent wine to Hiram.
Transfer of the Ark of the CovenantEdit
1 Kings 8:1-9 and 2 Chronicles 5:2-10 record that in the seventh month of the year, at the feast of Tabernacles, the priests and the Levites brought the Ark of the Covenant from the City of David and placed it inside the Holy of Holies.
1 Kings 8:10–66 and 2 Chronicles 6:1–42 recount the events of the temple's dedication. When the priests emerged from the holy of holies after placing the Ark there, the Temple was filled with an overpowering cloud which interrupted the dedication ceremony, "for the glory of the Lord had filled the house of the Lord [such that] the priests could not stand to minister" (1 Kings 8:10–11; 2 Chronicles 5:13, 14). Solomon interpreted the cloud as "[proof] that his pious work was accepted":
- The Lord has said that he would dwell in thick darkness.
- I have built you an exalted house, a place for you to dwell in forever. (1 Kings 8:12-13)
- The Lord said to Moses:
- Tell your brother Aaron not to come just at any time into the sanctuary inside the curtain before the mercy seat that is upon the ark, or he will die; for I appear in the cloud upon the mercy seat.
Solomon then led the whole assembly of Israel in prayer, noting that the construction on the temple represented a fulfilment of God's promise to David, dedicating the temple as a place of prayer and reconciliation for the people of Israel and for foreigners living in Israel, and highlighting the paradox that God who lives in the heavens cannot really be contained within a single building. The dedication was concluded with musical celebration and sacrifices said to have included "twenty-two thousand bulls and one hundred and twenty thousand sheep". These sacrifices were offered outside the temple, in "the middle of the court that was in front of the house of the Lord", because the altar inside the temple, despite its extensive dimensions, was not big enough for the offerings being made that day. The celebration lasted eight days and was attended by "very great assembly [gathered] from the entrance of Hamath to the Brook of Egypt". The subsequent feast of Tabernacles extended the whole celebration to 14 days, before the people were "sent away to their homes".
After the dedication, Solomon hears in a dream that God has heard his prayer, and God will continue to hear the prayers of the people of Israel if they adopt the four ways in which they could move God to action: humility, prayer, seeking his face, and turning from wicked ways. Conversely, if they turn aside and forsake God's commandments and worship other gods, then God will abandon the temple: "this house which I have sanctified for My name I will cast out of My sight".
2 Kings 12:1–17 and 2 Chronicles 24:1–14 recount that King Joash and the priests of the temple organised a restoration programme funded from popular donations. The temple was restored to its original condition and further reinforced.
Plunder and destructionEdit
According to the Tanakh, the Temple was plundered by the Neo-Babylonian Empire king Nebuchadnezzar II when the Babylonians attacked Jerusalem during the brief reign of Jehoiachin c. 598 BCE (2 Kings 24:13). A decade later, Nebuchadnezzar again besieged Jerusalem and after 30 months finally breached the city walls in 587 BCE, subsequently burning the Temple, along with most of the city (2 Kings 25). According to Jewish tradition, the Temple was destroyed on Tisha B'Av, the 9th day of Av (Hebrew calendar).
Solomon's Temple is considered by Finkelstein to be built according to Phoenician design, and its description is in accordance with the way a Phoenician temple looked like. The detailed descriptions provided in the Tanakh are the sources for reconstructions of its appearance. Technical details are lacking, since the scribes who wrote the books were not architects or engineers. Nevertheless, the descriptions have inspired modern replicas of the temple and influenced later structures around the world.
Archeologists categorize the Biblical description of Solomon's Temple as a langbau building. That is, a rectangular building that is longer than it is wide. It is furthermore classified as a tripartite building, consisting of three units; the ulam (porch), the heikal (sanctuary), and the debir (the Holy of Holies). It is also categorized as being a straight-axis temple, meaning that there is a straight line from the entrance to the innermost shrine.
The ulam, or porch, featured two bronze pillars Jachin and Boaz. It is unclear from the biblical descriptions whether the porch was a closed room, a roofed entranceway, or an open courtyard. Thus, it is not known whether the pillars were freestanding or structural elements built into the porch. If they were built into the porch, it could indicate that the design was influenced by similar temples in Syria or even Turkey, home to the ancient Hittite empire. While most reconstructions of the Temple have the pillars freestanding, Yosef Garfinkel and Madeleine Mumcuoglu finds it likely that the pillars supported a roof over the porch.
Sanctuary (main chamber)Edit
The porch led to the heikal, main chamber, or sanctuary. It measured 40 cubits in length, 20 cubits in width, and 30 cubits in height and contained a candelabrum, a table and a gold-covered altar used for offerings. In the sanctuary, loaves of Showbread were left as an offering to God. At the far end of the sanctuary there was a wooden door, guarded by two cherubim, leading to the Holy of Holies.
The walls of the sanctuary were lined with cedar, on which were carved figures of cherubim, palm trees, and open flowers, which were overlaid with gold (1 Kings 6:29-30). Chains of gold further marked it off from the Holy of Holies. The floor of the Temple was of fir overlaid with gold. The doorposts, of olivewood, supported folding doors of fir. The doors of the Holy of Holies were of olivewood. On both sets of doors were carved cherubim, palm trees, and flowers, all being overlaid with gold (1 Kings 6:15 et seq.) This main building was between the outer altar, where most sacrifices were performed, and inside at the far end was the entry to the Holy of Holies, originally containing the Ark of the Covenant. The main hekhal contained a number of sacred ritual objects including the seven-branched candlestick, a golden Altar of Incense, and the table of the showbread. According to 1 Kings 7:48 these tables were of gold, as were also the five candlesticks on each side of the altar. The candle–tongs, basins, snuffers, fire-pans, and even the hinges of the doors were also gold.
Holy of HoliesEdit
The Holy of Holies, also called the "Inner House," was 20 cubits in length, breadth, and height. The usual explanation for the discrepancy between its height and the 30-cubit height of the temple is that its floor was elevated, like the cella of other ancient temples. It was floored and wainscotted with cedar of Lebanon, and its walls and floor were overlaid with gold amounting to 600 talents or roughly 20 metric tons. It contained two cherubim of olive-wood, each 10 cubits high and each having outspread wings of 10 cubits span, so that, since they stood side by side, the wings touched the wall on either side and met in the center of the room. There was a two-leaved door between it and the Holy Place overlaid with gold; also a veil of tekhelet (blue), purple, and crimson and fine linen. It had no windows and was considered the dwelling-place of the "name" of God.
The Holy of Holies was prepared to receive and house the Ark; and when the Temple was dedicated, the Ark, containing the original tablets of the Ten Commandments, was placed beneath the cherubim.
Chambers were built around the Temple on the southern, western and northern sides (1 Kings 6:5–10). These formed a part of the building and were used for storage. They were probably one story high at first; two more may have been added later.
According to the Bible, two courts surrounded the Temple. The Inner Court (1 Kings 6:36), or Court of the Priests (2 Chr. 4:9), was separated from the space beyond by a wall of three courses of hewn stone, surmounted by cedar beams (1 Kings 6:36). It contained the Altar of burnt-offering (2 Chr. 15:8), the Brazen Sea laver (4:2–5, 10) and ten other lavers (1 Kings 7:38, 39). A brazen altar stood before the Temple (2 Kings 16:14), its dimensions 20 cubits square and 10 cubits high (2 Chr. 4:1). The Great Court surrounded the whole Temple (2 Chr. 4:9). It was here that people assembled to worship. (Jeremiah 19:14; 26:2).
According to the Hebrew Bible, the Molten Sea or Brazen Sea (ים מוצק "cast metal sea") was a large basin in the Temple for ablution of the priests. It is described in 1 Kings 7:23–26 and 2 Chronicles 4:2–5. It stood in the south-eastern corner of the inner court. According to the Bible it was five cubits high, ten cubits in diameter from brim to brim, and thirty cubits in circumference. The brim was "like the calyx of a lily" and turned outward "about an hand breadth"; or about four inches. It was placed on the backs of twelve oxen, standing with their faces outward. The Book of Kings states that it contains 2,000 baths (90 cubic meters), while Chronicles (2 Chr. 4:5–6) states it can hold up to 3,000 baths (136 cubic meters) and states that its purpose was to afford opportunity for the purification by immersion of the bodies of the priests.
The fact that it was a wash basin which was too large to enter from above lends to the idea that water would likely have flowed from it down into a subcontainer beneath. The water was originally supplied by the Gibeonites, but was afterwards brought by a conduit from Solomon's Pools. The molten sea was made of brass or bronze, which Solomon had taken from the captured cities of Hadarezer, the king of Zobah (1 Chronicles 18:8). Ahaz later removed this laver from the oxen, and placed it on a stone pavement (2 Kings 16:17). It was destroyed by the Chaldeans (2 Kings 25:13).
Also outside the temple were 10 lavers, each of which held "forty baths" (1 Kings 7:38), resting on portable holders made of bronze, provided with wheels, and ornamented with figures of lions, cherubim, and palm-trees. The author of the books of the Kings describes their minute details with great interest (1 Kings 7:27–37). Josephus reported that the vessels in the Temple were composed of orichalcum covered in gold in Antiquities of the Jews.
Because of the religious and political sensitivities involved, no archaeological excavations and only limited surface surveys of the Temple Mount have been conducted since Charles Warren's expedition of 1867–70. There is no solid archaeological evidence for the existence of Solomon's Temple, and the building is not mentioned in surviving extra-biblical accounts.
Israel Finkelstein and Neil Asher Silberman argue that the first Jewish temple in Jerusalem was not built until the end of the 7th century BCE, around three hundred years after Solomon. They believe the temple should not really be assigned to Solomon (whom they see as little more than a small-time hill country chieftain) and argue that it was most likely built by Josiah, who governed Judah from 639 to 609 BCE.
William G. Dever challenges this position and argues that the biblical description of the Temple itself shows profound similarities with other temples of the time (Phoenician, Assyrian and Philistine), suggesting that this cult structure was actually built by Solomon (whom he sees as an actual king of Israel) in the 10th century BCE, although the biblical description is undoubtedly excessive. These views are shared by the archaeologist Amihai Mazar, who underlines how the description of the Temple in the Bible, albeit exaggerated, is substantially in line with the architectural descriptions already present in the Levant in the second millennium BCE.
Sources mentioning the First TempleEdit
- An ostracon (excavated prior to 1981), sometimes referred to as the House of Yahweh ostracon, was discovered at Tel Arad, dated to the 6th century BCE which mentions a temple which is probably the Temple in Jerusalem.
- A thumb-sized ivory pomegranate (which came to light in 1979) measuring 44 millimetres (1.7 in) in height, and bearing an ancient Hebrew inscription "Sacred donation for the priests in the House of ---h,]", was believed to have adorned a sceptre used by the high priest in Solomon's Temple. It was considered the most important item of biblical antiquities in the Israel Museum's collection. However, in 2004, experts from the Israel Museum reported the inscription to be a forgery, though the ivory pomegranate itself was dated to the 14th or 13th century BCE. This was based on the report's claim that three incised letters in the inscription stopped short of an ancient break, as they would have if carved after the ancient break was made. Since then, it has been proven that one of the letters was indeed carved prior to the ancient break, and the status of the other two letters are in question. Some paleographers and others have continued to insist that the inscription is ancient, some dispute this so the authenticity of this writing is still the object of discussion.
- Another artifact, the Jehoash Inscription, which first came to notice in 2003, contains a 15-line description of King Jehoash's ninth-century BCE restoration of the Temple. Its authenticity was called into question by a report by the Israel Antiquities Authority, which said that the surface patina contained microfossils of foraminifera. As these fossils do not dissolve in water, they cannot occur in a calcium carbonate patina, leading initial investigators to conclude that the patina must be an artificial chemical mix applied to the stone by forgers. As of late 2012, the academic community is split on whether the tablet is authentic or not. Commenting on a 2012 report by geologists arguing for the authenticity of the inscription, in October 2012, Hershel Shanks (who believes the inscription is genuine) wrote the current situation was that most Hebrew language scholars believe that the inscription is a forgery and geologists that it is genuine, and thus "Because we rely on experts, and because there is an apparently irresolvable conflict of experts in this case, BAR has taken no position with respect to the authenticity of the Jehoash Inscription."
Temple Mount Sifting ProjectEdit
- By 2006, the Temple Mount Sifting Project had recovered numerous artifacts dating from the 8th to 7th centuries BCE from soil removed in 1999 by the Islamic Religious Trust (Waqf) from the Solomon's Stables area of the Temple Mount. These include stone weights for weighing silver and a First Temple period bulla, or seal impression.[dubious ]
Objects found next to the Temple MountEdit
- In 2018 and a few years previously, two First Temple period stone weights used for weighing half-shekel Temple donations were found during excavations under Robinson's Arch at the foot of the Temple Mount. The tiny artifacts, inscribed with the word beka, which is known from related contexts in the Hebrew Bible, were used to weigh silver pieces on a scale, possibly at the very spot where they were unearthed.
- In 2007, artifacts dating to the 8th to 6th centuries BCE were described as being possibly the first physical evidence of human activity at the Temple Mount during the First Temple period. The findings included animal bones; ceramic bowl rims, bases, and body sherds; the base of a juglet used to pour oil; the handle of a small juglet; and the rim of a storage jar.[dubious ]
Other contemporary templesEdit
There is archaeological and written evidence of three Israelite temples, either contemporary or of very close date, dedicated to Yahweh (Elephantine temple, probably Arad too), either in the Land of Israel or in Egypt. Two of them have the same general outline as given by the Bible for the Jerusalem Temple.
- The Israelite temple at Tel Arad in Judah, 10th to 8th/7th century BCE and possibly dedicated to Yahweh and Asherah.
- The Jewish temple at Elephantine in Egypt, already standing in 525 BCE
- The Israelite temple at Tel Motza, c. 750 BCE discovered in 2012 a few kilometres west of Jerusalem.
- Several Iron Age temples have been found in the region that have striking similarities to the Temple of King Solomon. In particular the Ain Dara temple in northern Syria with a similar age, size, plan and decorations.
Rituals in Freemasonry refer to King Solomon and the building of his Temple. Masonic buildings, where lodges and their members meet, are sometimes called "temples"; an allegoric reference to King Solomon's Temple.
The Temple in Jerusalem is mentioned in verse 6 of the surah Al-Isra in the Quran with the words " (We permitted your enemies) to.... enter your dwellings"; commentators of Quran such as Muhammad al-Tahir ibn Ashur postulate that this verse refers specifically to the Temple of Solomon.
Kabbalah views the design of the Temple of Solomon as representative of the metaphysical world and the descending light of the creator through Sefirot of the Tree of Life. The levels of the outer, inner and priest's courts represent three lower worlds of Kabbalah. The Boaz and Jachin pillars at the entrance of the temple represent the active and passive elements of the world of Atziluth. The original menorah and its seven branches represent the seven lower Sephirot of the Tree of Life. The veil of the Holy of Holies and the inner part of the temple represent the Veil of the Abyss on the Tree of Life, behind which the Shekhinah or Divine Presence hovers.
Solomon's Temple appears in Solomon and Sheba (1959) and in the novel King Solomon's Mines (1885). It also appears in the video game Assassin's Creed where the main character Altaïr Ibn-La'Ahad deals with Robert de Sablé. It appears too in Assassin's Creed Unity (2014) where the Knight Templar Jacques de Molay is burned and dies.
The hekhal in synagogue architectureEdit
- Aish tamid, eternal flame on Temple altar
- Solomonic column, spiraling column
- Solomon's shamir, worm or a substance that had the power to cut through or disintegrate stone, iron and diamond
- Temple denial, Palestinian theory
Similar Iron Age temples from the regionEdit
Notes and ReferencesEdit
- Temple of Jerusalem: totally destroyed the building in 587/586
- Temple of Jerusalem.
- Pruitt 2014: King David later took the Ark to Jerusalem
- Jonker 1990, p. 656.
- Stefon 2020.
- Britannica: Holy of Holies.
- Lovett & Hoffman 2017.
- Finkelstein & Silberman 2002, pp. 128–9.
- Finkelstein & Silberman 2002, pp. 128: Moreover, for all their reported wealth and power, neither David nor Solomon is mentioned in a single known Egyptian or Mesopotamian text. And the archaeological evidence in Jerusalem for the famous building projects of Solomon is nonexistent.
- Lundquist 2008, p. 45: The single most important fact regarding the Temple of Solomon is that there are no physical remains of the structure. There is not a single object or artifact that can be indubitably connected with the Temple of Solomon
- Shabi 2005.
- Dever 2001, p. 212: it may refer to the temple in Jerusalem; Boardman, Edwards & Sollberger 1992, p. 400: 'house of Yahweh', probably the Temple at Jerusalem; King & Stager 2001, p. 314: There was a temple at Arad, but it may have been demolished about 700 BCE, well before the Arad Ostraca
- Clifford Mark McCormick (2002). Palace and Temple: A Study of Architectural and Verbal Icons. Walter de Gruyter. pp. 31–. ISBN 978-3-11-017277-5.
- "Temple In Rabbinical Literature". JewishEncyclopedia.com. Retrieved 20 May 2015.
- Yeisen, Yosef (2004), Miraculous journey: a complete history of the Jewish people from creation to the present, Targum Press, p. 56, ISBN 978-1-56871-323-6
- Josephus, Jew. Ant. 10.8.5
- Israel Finkelstein on YouTube Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, New Jersey
- "Josiah", Jewish Encyclopedia (1906).
- Brian Wintle (2015). South Asia Bible Commentary A One-Volume Commentary on the Whole Bible. Open Doors Publications.
- Sweeney, Marvin A. King Josiah of Judah, Oxford University Press, 2001, p.137. ISBN 978-0-19-513324-0
- Erik Eynikel (1996). The Reform of King Josiah and the Composition of the Deuteronomistic History. E.J. Brill.
- Jennifer Viegas. "Did God Have A Wife? Scholar says that he did". NBC News.
- Dever 2005.
- Richard H. Lowery (1991). Richard H.. The Reforming Kings: Cults and Society in First Temple Judah. JSOT Press. p. 119.
- Margaret Baker. The Mother of the Lord. p. 182.
- Karel van der Toorn, Bob Becking, Pieter Willem van der Horst (1999). Dictionary of Deities and Demons in the Bible. p. 932. ISBN 9780802824912.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
- Mark Smith (1990). "The Near Eastern Background of Solar Language for Yahweh". Journal of Biblical Literature. 109 (1): 29–39. doi:10.2307/3267327. JSTOR 3267327.
- G. Johannes Botterweck, Helmer Ringgren, Heinz-Josef Fabry (1974). Theological Dictionary of the Old Testament, Volume 15. ISBN 9780802823397.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
- Achtemeier, Paul J.; Boraas, Roger S. (1996), The HarperCollins Bible Dictionary, San Francisco: HarperOne, p. 1096
- Sparks, K. L. (2005). "Ark of the Covenant". In Bill T. Arnold; H. G. M. Williamson (eds.). Dictionary of the Old Testament: Historical Book. InterVarsity Press. p. 91.
- Ariel David (30 August 2017). "The Real Ark of the Covenant may have Housed Pagan Gods". Haaretz.
- Elon Gilad (26 July 2018). "When the Jews Believed in Other Gods". Haaretz.
- Straight Dope Science Advisory Board (17 April 2003). "Why do Jews no longer sacrifice animals?". The Straight Dope. Retrieved 27 August 2017.
- Rabbi Michael Skobac. "Leviticus 17:11". Jews for Judaism. Retrieved 27 August 2017.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 29 January 2015. Retrieved 29 January 2015.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- "Judaism 101: Qorbanot: Sacrifices and Offerings". www.jewfaq.org.
- Morris Jastrow; et al. (1906). "Azazel". Jewish Encyclopedia. Retrieved 28 December 2018.
- Tia Ghose (4 September 2013). "Animal sacrifice at temple powered ancient Jerusalem's economy".
- Mendels 1987, p. 131.
- Dever 2005, p. 97; Mendels 1987, p. 131; Brand & Mitchell 2015, p. 1538
- Kalimi 2018, p. 285.
- Brand & Mitchell 2015, p. 1538.
- Brand & Mitchell 2015, p. 622.
- Tetley 2005, p. 105.
- The Complete Works of Flavius Josephus, page 199-200
- Van Keulen 2005, p. 182.
- Alter 2018, p. 1087.
- Kalimi 2018, p. 286.
- Barnes, W. E. (1899), Cambridge Bible for Schools and Colleges on 2 Chronicles 5, accessed 17 April 2020
- Pulpit Commentary on 1 Kings 8, accessed 2 October 2017
- Lumby, J. R. (1886), Cambridge Bible for Schools and Colleges on 1 Kings 8, accessed 18 April 2020, although the reference quoted here is Leviticus 16:3
- 1 Kings 8:63;2 Chronicles 7:5
- 2 Chronicles 7:7: dimensions are not stated in 1 Kings
- 1 Kings 8:64;2 Chronicles 7:7
- Pulpit Commentary on 2 Chronicles 4, accessed 19 April 2020
- 1 Kings 8:65;2 Chronicles 7:8
- Barnes, A., Barnes' Notes on 2 Chronicles 7, accessed 19 April 2020
- 2 Chronicles 7:8
- Mathys, H. P., 1 and 2 Chronicles in Barton, J. and Muddiman, J. (2001), The Oxford Bible Commentary, p. 287
- 1 Kings 9:7;2 Chronicles 7:20
- 2 Chronicles 24:13
- Singer, Isidore; et al., eds. (1901–1906). "Ab, Ninth Day of". The Jewish Encyclopedia. New York: Funk & Wagnalls. Retrieved 15 July 2013.
- According to Finkelstein in The Bible Unearthed, the description of the temple is remarkably similar to that of surviving remains of Phoenician temples of the time, and it is certainly plausible, from the point of view of archaeology, that the temple was constructed to the design of Phoenicians.
- De Vaux 1961.
- Lundquist 2008, p. 48.
- Garfinkel & Mumcuoglu 2019, p. 10.
- Lundquist 2008, p. 49.
- Schwarzer 2001, p. 485.
- Warren, Charles (1876). Underground Jerusalem: An Account of Some of the Principal Difficulties Encountered in Its Exploration and the Results Obtained. With a Narrative of an Expedition through the Jordan Valley and a Visit to the Samaritans. London: Richard Bentley.
- Langmead, Donald; Garnaut, Christine (2001). Encyclopedia of Architectural and Engineering Feats (3rd, illustrated ed.). ABC-CLIO. p. 314. ISBN 9781576071120.
- Handy, Lowell (1997). The Age of Solomon: Scholarship at the Turn of the Millennium. Brill. pp. 493–94. ISBN 978-90-04-10476-1.
- Dever 2001.
- Dever, William G. (3 November 2017). Beyond the Texts: An Archaeological Portrait of Ancient Israel and Judah. SBL Press. ISBN 978-0-88414-217-1.
- Dever, William G. (18 August 2020). Has Archaeology Buried the Bible?. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. ISBN 978-1-4674-5949-5.
- "The plan of Solomon’s temple in Jerusalem asdescribed in 1 Kgs 8 recalls principles of temple architectural traditions alreadyknown in the Levant in the second millennium, that continue into the Iron Age in northern Syria. Of course, archaeology cannot determine whether Solomon was the builder of the temple, but we should recall that the Bible does not hint at any other king who may have founded such a temple. Though the description of the temple is much exaggerated, its initial foundation during the Solomonic era remains a conceivable historical memory" Amihai Mazar, "Archaeology and the Bible: Reflections on Historical Memory in the Deuteronomistic History", 2014
- Mazar, Amihai. "Archaeology and the Bible: Reflections on Historical Memory in the Deuteronomistic History". Congress Volume Munich 2013: 347–369.
- T. C. Mitchell (1992). "Judah Until the Fall of Jerusalem". In John Boardman; I. E. S. Edwards; E. Sollberger; N. G. L. Hammond (eds.). The Cambridge Ancient History, Volume 3, Part 2: The Assyrian and Babylonian Empires and Other States of the Near East, from the Eighth to the Sixth Centuries BC. Cambridge University Press. p. 397. ISBN 978-0521227179.
- Myre, Greg (30 December 2004). "Israel Indicts 4 in 'Brother of Jesus' Hoax and Other Forgeries". The New York Times.
- "Ivory pomegranate 'not Solomon's'". BBC News. 24 December 2004.
- Shanks, Hershel (November–December 2011). "Fudging with Forgeries". Biblical Archaeology Review. 37 (6): 56–58. ISSN 0098-9444.
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- Shragai, Nadav (19 October 2006). "Temple Mount dirt uncovers First Temple artifacts". Haaretz. Retrieved 11 February 2019.
- Ruth Schuster, Another First Temple Weight, This One With Mirror Writing, Found in Jerusalem Sifting Project, Haaretz, 21 November 2018, accessed 11 February 2019
- "Straight from the Bible: Tiny First Temple stone weight unearthed in Jerusalem". The Times of Israel. 21 November 2018.
- "Temple Mount First Temple Period Discoveries". The Friends of the Israel Antiquities Authority. Archived from the original on 25 September 2013. Retrieved 5 October 2009.
- Milstein, Mati (23 October 2007). "Solomon's Temple Artifacts Found by Muslim Workers". National Geographic News. Archived from the original on 25 October 2007.
- Negev, Avraham; Gibson, Shimon, eds. (2001). Arad (Tel). Archaeological Encyclopedia of the Holy Land. New York and London: Continuum. p. 43. ISBN 0-8264-1316-1. Retrieved 26 July 2021.
- "Extremely Rare Pottery Shard Hid an Even Rarer Surprise". Haaretz. 15 June 2017.
- Mazar, Amihai. “The Divided Monarchy: Comments on Some Archaeological Issues.” pp. 159–80 in The Quest for the Historical Israel: Debating Archaeology and the History of Early Israel (Archaeology and Biblical Studies) Society of Biblical Literature (Sep 2007) ISBN 978-1-58983-277-0 p. 176
- "Ancient Sudan~ Nubia: Investigating the Origin of the Ancient Jewish Community at Elephantine: A Review". www.ancientsudan.org. Retrieved 27 December 2019.
- "Searching for the Temple of King Solomon". Biblical Archaeology Society. 6 January 2017.
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- Ibn Ashur, Muhammad al-Tahir. "al-Tahrir wa'l-tanwir". Al-Dar Al-Tunasia Publication. Tunisia. 1984. vol. 15, p. 13
- The Way of Kabbalah, Warren Kenton, Z'ev ben Shimon Halevi, Weiser Books, 1976, p. 24.
- Bowden, Oliver (23 June 2011). Assassin's Creed: The Secret Crusade. Penguin UK. p. 464. ISBN 9780141966717.
- Dansereau, François; Lowe, Ivan; Nadiger, James; Podar, Nitai; Sutton, Megan; Whelton-Pane, Johathan; Wright, William (November 2011). Assassin's Creed Encyclopedia. UbiWorkshop. p. 256. ISBN 978-2-924006-03-0.
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- Meir Ben-Dov, The Golden Age: Synagogues of Spain in History and Architecture, 2009: "Among Ashkenazic Jewry, even though these two were the main foci of the synagogue, the terms used for them were different. The hekhal (literally, "the Temple") was known as the aron ha-kodesh (literally, ..."
- Monson, John M. "The Temple of Solomon: Heart of Jerusalem", C. The Ain Dara Temple: A New Parallel from Syria, pp. 12–16. In "Zion, city of our God", Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing (1999), editors: Hess, Richard S. & Wenham, Gordon J. ISBN 978-0-8028-4426-2. Retrieved 15 February 2011.
- Boardman, John; Edwards, I. E. S.; Sollberger, E. (16 January 1992). The Cambridge Ancient History. Cambridge University Press. pp. 400–. ISBN 978-0-521-22717-9.
- De Vaux, Roland (1961). John McHugh (ed.). Ancient Israel: Its Life and Institutions. NY: McGraw-Hill.
- Lundquist, John M. (2008). The Temple of Jerusalem: Past, Present, and Future. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 45–. ISBN 978-0-275-98339-0.
- Dever, William G. (2005). Did God Have a Wife?: Archaeology and Folk Religion in Ancient Israel. Wm. B. Eerdmans. ISBN 978-0-8028-2852-1. Retrieved 7 February 2016.
- Dever, William G. (10 May 2001). What Did the Biblical Writers Know and When Did They Know It?: What Archeology Can Tell Us About the Reality of Ancient Israel. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. ISBN 978-0-8028-2126-3.
- King, Philip J.; Stager, Lawrence E. (2001). Life in Biblical Israel. Westminster John Knox Press. ISBN 978-0-664-22148-5.
- Finkelstein, Israel; Silberman, Neil Asher (6 March 2002). The Bible Unearthed: Archaeology's New Vision of Ancient Israel and the Origin of Sacred Texts. Simon and Schuster. ISBN 978-0-7432-2338-6.
- Tetley, M. Christine (2005). The Reconstructed Chronology of the Divided Kingdom. Eisenbrauns. pp. 105–. ISBN 978-1-57506-072-9.
- Kalimi, I. (2018). Writing and Rewriting the Story of Solomon in Ancient Israel. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-1-108-47126-8. Retrieved 7 December 2020.
- Mendels, D. (1987). The Land of Israel as a Political Concept in Hasmonean Literature: Recourse to History in Second Century B.C. Claims to the Holy Land. Texte und Studien zum antiken Judentum. J.C.B. Mohr. ISBN 978-3-16-145147-8. Retrieved 7 December 2020.
- Brand, Chad; Mitchell, Eric (November 2015). Holman Illustrated Bible Dictionary. B&H Publishing Group. pp. 622–. ISBN 978-0-8054-9935-3.
- Van Keulen, P. S. F. (2005). Two Versions Of The Solomon Narrative: An Inquiry Into The Relationship Between MT 1kgs. 2-11 And LXX 3 Reg. 2-11. BRILL. pp. 183–. ISBN 90-04-13895-1.
- Alter, Robert (18 December 2018). The Hebrew Bible: A Translation with Commentary (Vol. Three-Volume Set). W. W. Norton. pp. 1087–. ISBN 978-0-393-29250-3.
- Garfinkel, Yosef; Mumcuoglu, Madeleine (2019). "The Temple of Solomon in Iron Age Context". Religions. 10 (3): 198. doi:10.3390/rel10030198. ISSN 2077-1444.
- Schwarzer, Mitchell (1 December 2001). "The Architecture of Talmud". Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians. 60 (4): 474–487. doi:10.2307/991731. ISSN 0037-9808. JSTOR 991731. Retrieved 29 November 2020.
- Jonker, Louis (6 January 1990). "The Chronicler's portrayal of Solomon as the King of Peace within the context of the international peace discourses of the Persian era". Old Testament Essays. 21 (3): 653–669. ISSN 1010-9919. Retrieved 29 November 2020.
- Draper, Robert (December 2010). "Kings of Controversy". National Geographic: 66–91. ISSN 0027-9358. Retrieved 18 December 2010.
- Finkelstein, Israel; Neil Asher Silberman (2006). David and Solomon: In Search of the Bible's Sacred Kings and the Roots of the Western Tradition. Free Press. ISBN 978-0-7432-4362-9.
- Finkelstein, Israel; Neil Asher Silberman (2001). The Bible Unearthed: Archaeology's New Vision. Free Press.
- Glueck, Nelson (February 1944). "On the Trail of King Solomon's Mines". National Geographic. 85 (2): 233–56. ISSN 0027-9358.
- Goldman, Bernard (1966). The Sacred Portal: a primary symbol in ancient Judaic art. Detroit: Wayne State University Press.
It has a detailed account and treatment of Solomon's Temple and its significance.
- Hamblin, William; David Seely (2007). Solomon's Temple: Myth and History. Thames and Hudson. ISBN 978-0-500-25133-1.
- Mazar, Benjamin (1975). The Mountain of the Lord. NY: Doubleday. ISBN 978-0-385-04843-9.
- Young, Mike. "Temple Measurements and Photo recreations".
- Stefon, Matt (30 April 2020). "Solomon". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 29 November 2020.
- "Holy of Holies". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 29 November 2020.
- "Temple of Jerusalem". Encyclopedia Britannica. 17 September 2020. Retrieved 29 November 2020.
- Pruitt, Sarah (10 January 2014). "Fate of the Lost Ark Revealed?". HISTORY. Retrieved 29 November 2020.
- Lovett, Richard A.; Hoffman, Scot (21 January 2017). "Ark of the Covenant". National Geographic. Retrieved 29 November 2020.
- Shabi, Rachel (20 January 2005). "Faking it". the Guardian. Retrieved 29 November 2020.
- This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Easton, Matthew George (1897). "Temple, Solomon's". Easton's Bible Dictionary (New and revised ed.). T. Nelson and Sons.
- This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Singer, Isidore; et al., eds. (1901–1906). "Temple of Solomon". The Jewish Encyclopedia. New York: Funk & Wagnalls.
- 21st century resources
- Barker, Margaret (2004), Temple Theology, an introduction, London: The Society For Promoting Christian Knowledge, ISBN 978-0281056347.
- Vaughn, Andrew G.; Killebrew, Ann E., eds. (2003), Jerusalem in Bible and Archaeology: The First Temple Period, Society of Biblical Literature, ISBN 9781589830660.
- Stevens, Marty E. (2006), Temples, tithes, and taxes: the temple and the economic life of ancient Israel, Hendrickson Publishers, ISBN 978-1-56563-934-8.
- Jones, Floyd Nolen (1993–2004), The Chronology Of The Old Testament, New Leaf Publishing Group, ISBN 9780890514160.
- Media related to Temple of Solomon at Wikimedia Commons