Aram-Damascus

The Kingdom of Aram-Damascus (/ˈærəm dəˈmæskəs/) was an Aramean polity that existed from the late-12th century BCE until 732 BCE, and was centred around the city of Damascus in the Southern Levant.[1] Alongside various tribal lands, it was bounded in its later years by the polities of Assyria to the north, Ammon to the south, and Israel to the west.

Kingdom of Aram-Damascus
c. 12th century BCE–732 BCE
The region around 830 BCE, with Aram-Damascus in green
The region around 830 BCE, with Aram-Damascus in green
CapitalDamascus
Common languagesOld Aramaic
Religion
Ancient Semitic religion
Demonym(s)Aramean
King 
• 885 BCE–865 BCE
Ben-Hadad I
• 865 BCE–842 BCE
Ben-Hadad II
• 842 BCE–796 BCE
Hazael
• 796 BCE–792 BCE
Ben-Hadad III
• 754 BCE–732 BCE
Rezin (last)
History 
• Established
c. 12th century BCE
732 BCE
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Aramean states
Neo-Assyrian Empire
Today part ofSyria
Jordan
Israel
Lebanon

HistoryEdit

The Hebrew Bible gives accounts of Aram-Damascus' history, mainly in its interaction with Israel and Judah. There are biblical texts referencing battles that took place between the United Kingdom of Israel under David and the Arameans in Southern Syria in the 10th century BCE.[2]

In the 9th century BCE, Hazael fought against the Assyrians, had some influence over the northern Syrian state of Unqi, and conquered Israel.[3][4]

To the southwest, Aram-Damascus reached most of the Golan to the Sea of Galilee.[5]

In the 8th century BCE, Rezin had been a tributary of Tiglath-Pileser III, a king of Assyria.[6] In c. 732 BCE, he formed an alliance with Pekah, a king of Israel, to attack Ahaz, a king of Judah; Ahaz appealed to Tiglath-Pileser III for help, which was provided by the Assyrian king after Judah paid tribute.[7] Subsequently, Tiglath-Pileser III attacked Damascus and annexed Aram.[6] The kingdom's population was deported and Rezin was executed. Tiglath-Pileser III recorded this act in one of his inscriptions.[8]

 
Various Neo-Hittite and Aramean (orange shades) western states in the 8th century BC

KingsEdit

See alsoEdit

  • Aram (region), a historical region in the Levant mentioned in the Bible
  • Aram-Naharaim, biblical term for the ancient land of the Arameans in Upper Mesopotamia
  • Aram Rehob, an early Aramean kingdom

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Pitard, Wayne T. (2000). "Arameans". In David Noel Freedman; Allen C. Myers; Astrid B. Beck (eds.). Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co. p. 86.
  2. ^ "2 Samuel 10:6-19". Bible. Holman. ASIN B000MX2BZM. ISBN 978-0999989265.
  3. ^ James B. Pritchard, ed., Ancient Near Eastern Texts Relating to the Old Testament (3rd ed.; Princeton NJ: Princeton University Press, 1955) 246.
  4. ^ "2 Kings 13:3". Bible (Christian Standard ed.). Holman. ISBN 978-0999989265.
  5. ^ Suzanne Richard (2003). Near Eastern Archaeology: A Reader (Hardcover ed.). Eisenbrauns. p. 377. ISBN 1-57506-083-3.
  6. ^ a b Lester L. Grabbe, Ancient Israel: What Do We Know and How Do We Know It? (New York: T&T Clark, 2007): 134
  7. ^ "2 Kings 16:7-9". Bible (Christian Standard ed.). Holman. ISBN 978-0999989265.
  8. ^ James B. Pritchard, ed., Ancient Near Eastern Texts Relating to the Old Testament (3rd ed.; Princeton NJ: Princeton University Press, 1969) 283.

SourcesEdit

Coordinates: 33°30′47″N 36°17′31″E / 33.5130°N 36.2920°E / 33.5130; 36.2920