Scarlet Witch is a fictional superhero appearing in American comic books published by Marvel Comics. The character was created by writer Stan Lee and artist Jack Kirby, first appearing in The X-Men #4 (March 1964) in the Silver Age of Comic Books. She is first portrayed as a supervillain along with her twin brother Quicksilver as a founding member of the Brotherhood of Mutants. In most depictions she is portrayed as a mutant, a member of a fictional subspecies of humans born with superhuman abilities. Scarlet Witch possesses abilities to alter reality in unspecified ways and is a powerful sorceress. Scarlet Witch is later depicted as a regular member of the Avengers superhero team. She also becomes the wife of fellow superhero and teammate Vision.
Art by Frank Cho.
|First appearance||The X-Men #4 (March 1964)|
|Created by||Stan Lee (writer)
Jack Kirby (artist)
|Alter ego||Wanda Marya Maximoff|
|Team affiliations||Brotherhood of Mutants
Brides Of Set
West Coast Avengers
Seven Brides Of Set
Depicted as the children of golden age superhero Whizzer earlier on, Scarlet Witch and Quicksilver are later established to be the unknown offspring of supervillain Magneto. Born to Magneto's estranged wife in Transia, Scarlet Witch and her brother are left in the care of their adoptive Romani parents and she is raised as Wanda Maximoff. In a much later retcon it is revealed that Quicksilver and she are not mutants but were kidnapped and used as genetic experimentations by the High Evolutionary then misled to believe Magneto was their father.
Along with starring in two self-titled limited series of her own, the character appears in animated films, television series, arcade and video games as well as other Marvel-related merchandise. Scarlet Witch has been portrayed by Elizabeth Olsen in a number of films from the Marvel Cinematic Universe.
Scarlet Witch debuted, together with her brother, Quicksilver, as a part of the Brotherhood of Evil Mutants in X-Men #4 (March 1964). They were depicted as reluctant villains, uninterested in Magneto's ideologies. Scarlet Witch is depicted as calm and submissive, as with most female comic book characters of the time. Her costume was mainly composed of a bathing suit with straps, opera gloves, short boots, a leotard covering her body, a superhero cape, and a wimple, all of which were colored in shades of red. All those early X-Men characters were created by Stan Lee and Jack Kirby.
Lee also wrote the Avengers comic book, composed by the most prominent heroes of the editorial. He eventually removed all of them, save for Captain America, and replaced them with villains from other comics: the Scarlet Witch and Quicksilver from the X-Men, and Hawkeye from Iron Man's adventures in Tales of Suspense. The team was known as "Cap’s Kooky Quartet". Although common in later years, such a change in the roster of a super hero group was completely unprecedented. Lee and the following Avengers writer, Roy Thomas, hinted to other Avengers being romantically interested in the Scarlet Witch. Those plots were not continued at the time, and the twins were removed from the team after a crossover with the X-Men. Some years later, Thomas started a long-running romantic relation between the Scarlet Witch and the Vision, considering that it would help with the series' character development. He elected those characters for the relation because they were only published in the Avengers comic book, so it would not interfere with other publications. The first kiss took place during the Kree–Skrull War arc. Thomas also added Hawkeye into a love triangle with both characters.
Steve Englehart succeeded Thomas as writer of the Avengers. He gave her a more assertive personality, removed Quicksilver, and expanded her powers by turning her into an apprentice of witchcraft. The Vision and the Scarlet Witch got married in Giant-Size Avengers #4, and the end of the Celestial Madonna arc. The couple starred a limited series of 4 issues, The Vision and the Scarlet Witch, by writer Bill Mantlo and penciller Rick Leonardi. In this limited series Magneto was revealed to be the father of Quicksilver and the Scarlet Witch. Englehart returned to the characters with penciller Richard Howell in a second limited series, were the Scarlet Witch gets pregnant by magical means and delivers two sons. Englehart would eventually introduce the Vision and the Scarlet Witch to the West Coast Avengers, another title he was working with. John Byrne replaced Englehart, and wrote the controversial "Vision Quest" storyline, where the Vision is dismantled and turned into an emotionless machine (thus annulling his marriage with the Scarlet Witch) and the kids are treated as an offshoot of the devil and erased. The website Women in Refrigerators interviewed Englehart about the change, who did not like it. The West Coast Avengers title was closed, and the team was renamed as Force Works in 1994. The new title ran for only a couple of years. By this time the character starred its own comic book, written by Andy Lanning and Dan Abnett, and pencilled by John Higgins, which lasted for only 4 issues. The classic costume was removed, using instead a very revealing one and without the tiara. As it was poorly received, it was soon changed to a red and black one, for The Crossing.
Marvel Comics was nearing bankruptcy in 1996. The Avengers and other titles were relaunched in a new continuity without mutants and outsourced to the studios of Image Comics artists. The project was named Heroes Reborn. Rob Liefeld worked with the relaunched Avengers title, and unexpectedly included the Scarlet Witch in the team. The character is not a mutant in the new continuity, only a sorcerer. Marvel renegotiated the terms of the deal, and Liefeld was replaced with writer Walter Simonson and penciller Michael Ryan. The project was a success, boosting the sales of the titles and bringing Marvel Comics out of bankruptcy. The project ended after a year, and the Avengers were returned to Marvel and relaunched again, by Kurt Busiek and George Pérez. Pérez designed a new costume, with gypsy influences and abundant curly hair. The design was unusually complicated; Pérez commented that he preferred it that way because it was more challenging to draw, but accepted that other artists would find it irksome. Alan Davis stated that when he became the artist on The Avengers, he asked to change the design because it didn't work well with his simpler, less detailed style.
The character played a pivotal role in the Avengers Disassembled storyline and related limited series House of M, and appeared in the Young Avengers follow-up series, Avengers: The Children's Crusade.
Scarlet Witch is a regular character in Uncanny Avengers (2012), beginning with issue #1. The Axis crossover revealed that Magneto was not her father after all, doing away with a relation that has been canon for decades. It also revealed that she was not a mutant, but a common human that received powers with the experiments of the High Evolutionary. This plot twist was published when Marvel and Fox had a legal dispute over the film rights to the character, as Fox has a film license for the X-Men, mutants, and their related characters.
Under the All-New, All-Different Marvel branding, the character received her own ongoing solo series written by James Robinson in late 2015. Robinson explained that he has been influenced by the work of Matt Fraction and David Aja on the Hawkeye title: "... they managed to stay true to the character in the Avengers while also taking it in a fresh direction, so it wasn't just that same Avengers character doing solo things, which I don't think ever really works for any sustained period of time for any of those second-tier characters."
Fictional character biographyEdit
Magda, the wife of Magneto, escapes from him while pregnant and takes sanctuary at Mount Wundagore in Transia, the home of the High Evolutionary. She gave birth to twins, Wanda and Pietro. The Elder God Chthon altered Wanda at birth and gave her the ability to use magic in addition to her mutant abilities, planning to use her as a vessel when her powers reached maturity. Fearing that Magnus would discover the children, Magda leaves the sanctuary and supposedly dies of exposure to the elements. The twins are attended by Bova, who soon assists the super-heroine Miss America through labor, but the birth results in a stillborn child and Miss America dies in the process. Bova tells the Whizzer (Robert Frank) that the twins are his children, but he flees because of shock from the death of his wife. The High Evolutionary places them instead in the care of the Romani Django and Marya Maximoff, who raise the twins as their own, naming them Pietro and Wanda. After Django Maximoff steals bread from a neighboring town in order to feed his starving family, the townsfolk set fire to the Roma village, killing Marya. Pietro carried Wanda to safety and the two wandered Europe. The events of their childhood were so traumatic that they did not remember them until well into their adult lives. After Wanda used her powers to save a child, they were chased by a mob. They were saved by Magneto, although neither of them are aware of their connection. He recruits them for the Brotherhood of Evil Mutants, which fought against the X-Men on several occasions. When Magneto is abducted by the cosmic entity Stranger, the Brotherhood dissolves and the twins declare that their debt to Magneto has been paid.
Wanda is accidentally shot on a mission against Magneto. Quicksilver rejoins Magneto and leaves the Avengers with his wounded sister. After a pair of encounters with the X-Men, the twins left Magneto, but did not rejoin the Avengers immediately. Wanda and Pietro are then kidnapped with several other mutants by the Sentinels, but are subsequently freed by the X-Men.
Quicksilver later returns to the Avengers and advises them that Wanda has been kidnapped and taken to another dimension by the warlord Arkon. After her rescue, both of them rejoin the team. Scarlet Witch then falls in love with android teammate the Vision. Before long, the two develop a romantic relationship. Their relationship has a tumultuous start as both Quicksilver and Hawkeye object—Quicksilver cannot accept the idea that his sister loves a robot while Hawkeye loves Wanda himself. Despite this, the pair eventually marry with the blessing of the entire team.
Scarlet Witch begins to be tutored by a true witch, Agatha Harkness, which allows her even greater control over her hexes. Wanda and Pietro also meet Robert Frank, who believes them to be his children. This is later disproved when Wanda and Pietro are abducted by Django Maximoff and taken to Wundagore. Wanda is temporarily possessed by the demon Chthon, and after defeating it is advised by Bova that neither Frank nor Maximoff is their biological father. Soon after, while trying to track down Magda one last time, Magneto learns that he is the father of the twins. He immediately informs them of their relationship, shortly after the birth of Pietro's daughter Luna. Scarlet Witch and the Vision take a leave of absence from the Avengers, and she conceives the twin boys named Thomas and William. As the Vision is an android, she conceived using magic. Wanda gives birth, and, with the Vision, eventually leaves the East Coast to join the West Coast Avengers.
Their relationship is almost ended when the Vision is dismantled, and then recreated as an emotionless android. Wonder Man, who had a crush on Scarlet Witch, refuses to allow a new recording of his brain patterns to restore the Vision's personality. Another personal setback follows when it is revealed that Wanda's children are in fact missing shards of the soul of the demon Mephisto. Absorbed back into Mephisto, Agatha Harkness temporarily erases Wanda's memories of her children from her mind in order to ensure that she can temporarily disrupt Mephisto's physical form. It is ultimately revealed that Immortus masterminded those events, as he sought to tap into the temporal nexus energy she possessed. The Avengers ultimately rescue Wanda, who regains her memories of her children in the process.
Immortus's actions leave Wanda's hex power drained and highly unreliable, which was fixed by Agatha Harkness and Doctor Strange. Wanda is then nominated as leader of the Avengers West Coast team. When the team is dissolved, Wanda leads a new one called Force Works. The team suffers several setbacks, including the death of Wonder Man on the first mission. When the team splinters after the last mission involving Kang the Conqueror, Scarlet Witch and Hawkeye return to the main team.
The Vision and Scarlet Witch reconcile shortly before sacrificing themselves with the other Avengers and the Fantastic Four to stop the mutant villain Onslaught. Due to the intervention of Franklin Richards, Scarlet Witch and her teammates exist in a parallel universe for a year, until returned to the mainstream universe.
Shortly after the heroes return, Scarlet Witch is kidnapped by the sorceress Morgan le Fay, with the intention of using Wanda's powers to warp reality. Wanda temporarily resurrects Wonder Man, and the Vision is damaged in the final battle with Le Fay. Agatha Harkness tells her that she is now able to channel chaos magic, which made her more powerful. Wanda is able to fully resurrect Wonder Man, and the two become lovers. The Vision is eventually repaired and—after Wonder Man breaks-up with Wanda—they resume their relationship. Her ability to channel chaos magic culminates when the villain Scorpio splits the cosmic entity the In-Betweener into his separate order and chaos personas and Wanda has to reassemble the entity.
Wanda hears the Wasp mock her ambitions for motherhood, only to find herself missing her memories of ever having had children. Scarlet Witch then seeks out help from Doctor Doom to see if he can restore her children to life. To do so, they summon a mysterious cosmic entity which merges with her. Wanda, under the influence of the entity, launches a campaign of terror against the Avengers, blaming them for the death of her children. The Vision is destroyed, Hawkeye is killed, and Scott Lang is almost killed—but is saved by Wanda's future self, who teleports him to the future. Doctor Strange defeats Wanda, and Magneto leaves with her.
Realizing that the Avengers and the X-Men are seriously contemplating killing his sister due to her unstable powers, Quicksilver convinces Scarlet Witch to use her powers to create a world where everyone has their heart's desire fulfilled. Although the reality warp succeeds, several heroes (Hawkeye, Wolverine, and Layla Miller) regain their memories and gather Earth's heroes to stop the "House of M". When Magneto discovers what Quicksilver did, he murders him. Wanda resurrects him and, enraged with her father, depowers 90% of the mutant population, including Magneto and Quicksilver. She retires to Wundagore, to live a secluded normal life. Both Beast and a resurrected Hawkeye met her during this time.
Return to The AvengersEdit
The Children's CrusadeEdit
Wiccan and Speed from the Young Avengers thought themselves to be reincarnations of the lost children of Scarlet Witch, and try to locate her. Magneto, Quicksilver (whose powers had been restored) and the Avengers try to locate her as well. They find her in Latveria, amnesic and engaged to Doctor Doom. Iron Lad rescues the team and Wanda, teleporting them into the past, where Wanda regains her memory. When the group returns to the present, Scarlet Witch tries to commit suicide. Wiccan then tells her that her father and brother are alive, and that he is her reincarnated son. She returns with Dr. Doom, seeking his help to undo the spell that erased mutant powers, but Doom manages to steal the reality-warping power for himself. He becomes omnipotent, but Wanda and Wiccan steal his newfound powers. She does not return to the Avengers, and stays in solitude.
Avengers vs. X-MenEdit
Scarlet Witch returns to the Avengers during the events of Avengers vs. X-Men. Ms. Marvel and Spider-Woman offer her a return to the Avengers. Although she is initially reluctant, she accepts and follows them to Avengers Mansion. Despite both heroines pleading her case, the Vision angrily snaps at Wanda, blaming her again for having manipulated and killed him, and telling her to leave. Ms. Marvel and Iron Man rush to Wanda's defense, the Avengers defer their decision to the Vision, who elects to stand by his point, even if obviously pained by the situation. Ms. Marvel carries away a crying Wanda. When the Avengers go to extract Hope Summers from Utopia and are nearly defeated by a Phoenix Force-empowered Cyclops, Scarlet Witch arrives and saves them. Hope agrees to go with Scarlet Witch; when Cyclops tries to stop Wanda from taking Hope and touches her arm, she causes him physical harm.
Though hunted by the Phoenix-powered X-Men, Wanda's return to the team provides the Avengers a much-needed boost as many teammates are captured by the X-Men. Hawkeye is severely injured rescuing Wanda from being teleported away by Magik and White Queen, the former of which sees Wanda as a monster for depowering mutantkind. Wanda's power provides the X-Men with a threat that not even the Phoenix can face down as the Avengers employ magical illusions to trick the X-Men into thinking Wanda is with the various Avengers groups. Further investigation links Wanda's powers to the Phoenix Force. When Cyclops goes Dark Phoenix,[clarification needed] Wanda and Hope Summers, who is mimicking Wanda's powers, defeat him and cause the Phoenix Force to leave him. After Hope inherits the Phoenix Force, she and Wanda combine their powers to apparently destroy the Phoenix by saying "No more Phoenix". This results in the repowering of mutants, undoing Wanda's actions on M-Day.
Following the war, Captain America selects Scarlet Witch to join the Avengers Unity Squad, a new team of Avengers composed of both classic Avengers and X-Men. After that, she asked her close friends Janet Van Dyne and Wonder Man to join and sponsor the new team. In Uncanny Avengers #14, she meets her apparent death at the hands of her teammate Rogue, who had absorbed Wolverine's powers. This death is eventually undone when the surviving Unity Squad are projected back in time, having learned that Rogue was manipulated by the Apocalypse Twins into killing Wanda, allowing the Avengers to band together and defeat an approaching Celestial.[volume & issue needed]
When the Red Skull mounts a new attack,[volume & issue needed] Wanda attempts to work with Doctor Strange to cast a spell of moral inversion to draw out the part of Xavier in the Red Skull and put him in control of the body, but this spell backfires when Doctor Doom is forced to take Strange's place, resulting in the moral inversion of all heroes and villains in the vicinity. When Quicksilver and Magneto try to talk the inverted Wanda down, Wanda attacks them with a curse designed to punish her blood, but only Quicksilver reacts and Wanda realizes that Magneto is not their father. Before she can pursue this further, Doom appears with the resurrected Brother Voodoo and the spirit of his brother Daniel, who possesses Wanda so that she and Doom can undo the spell and restore the heroes' and villains' moralities to normal.
Scarlet Witch and Quicksilver take a trip to Counter-Earth. After being tracked down and defeated by Luminous (a female who was created by the genetic material of Scarlet Witch and Quicksilver), Wanda and Pietro were brought to the High Evolutionary. He revealed to them that Django and Marya Maximoff were their true parents—implying that the twins are actually the lost Ana and Mateo Maximoff—and that they were not mutants but had been experimented on by the High Evolutionary. After escaping from the High Evolutionary's experimentations, Pietro and Wanda located the Avengers Unity Division (who had travelled to Counter-Earth looking for the twins) and helped the inhabitants of Lowtown (a refuge for the High Evolutionary's rejects) from their creator's assault. After the High Evolutionary is defeated and he escapes into a portal with Luminous, Scarlet Witch and Quicksilver return to Earth with the Avengers Unity Division.
All-New, All-Different MarvelEdit
Seeking to find her place after all the revelations of her true past, Wanda finds herself investigating a recent disruption in magic, as well as meeting the spirit of her biological mother, Natalya Maximoff (Django Maximoff's sister), who was apparently the Scarlet Witch before Wanda.
When the second superhero Civil War began, Pietro came to ask Wanda for help, but Wanda refused, because she and Pietro disagreed on which side was right—Pietro not liking the idea of profiling people based on what they might do and Wanda feeling that thinking about the future would have prevented many of their more dangerous mistakes in the past. Past precedent made Wanda feel that introducing her powers to a conflict of this nature could make the situation more dangerous (plus she distrusted Tony Stark), and she resented Pietro for trying to tell her what to do as though she was a child, bluntly informing him that his refusal to learn from his mistakes marked him as a sociopath.
During the "Last Days of Magic" arc, Scarlet Witch later helps Doctor Strange defeat the Empirikul, a science cult focused on destroying magic in every dimension.
When Captain America, as a member of Hydra, made his move to take control over the United States as seen in the Secret Empire storyline, Wanda was seen among the members of Hydra's Avengers. It was eventually revealed that Wanda joined other superheroes in Washington, D.C. in trying to stop Hydra, but they ultimately failed, and Wanda was subjected to a power that caused her to lose control of her powers and her mind and was brainwashed into serving Hydra. During his "dinner" with members of the Underground, Captain America, and Hydra's Avengers, the Ultron/Hank Pym revealed that Scarlet Witch is possessed by Chthon. Madame Hydra later mentioned to Captain America that Chthon's possession of Scarlet Witch has left her unhinged. During the battle in Washington DC, Scarlet Witch is knocked out by Thor enabling Doctor Strange to make preparations to free her from Chthon's control.
Powers and abilitiesEdit
When the Scarlet Witch was first created by Lee and Kirby, her powers were not well defined. She had "hex powers", that could cause random unlikely events to take place. This gave creative freedom to the writers, as it actually meant that her powers could be used for any purpose required by the plot. Despite the character's name, she had those powers as a mutant, and not because of actual witchcraft. Later writers gave her an increased control over her power, so that she could cause specific events and not just random ones. Englehart also made the character explore witchcraft under the tutelage of Agatha Harkness, a trait that was kept by later writers. The effects of her powers are varied but almost always detrimental to opponents, such as causing the artifact the Evil Eye to work against the inter-dimensional warlord Dormammu, forcing the robot Ultron to short circuit, or a gas main underneath the Brotherhood of Mutants to explode. Scarlet Witch also has the potential to wield magic and later learned that she was destined to serve the role of Nexus Being, a living focal point for the Earth dimension's mystical energy.
Writer Kurt Busiek redefined Scarlet Witch's powers, and maintained that it was in fact an ability to manipulate chaos magic, activated due to the demon Chthon changing her mutation at birth into an ability to wield and control magical energy. This was offered as an explanation for her various feats that seemed to go beyond probability alteration, as well as why her hexes almost always have an effect that is favorable to her goals. During Busiek's run as well as the subsequent run by Geoff Johns, she was shown to be capable of large-scale spells given enough concentration and time to shape the chaos magic to a specific goal, including the resurrection of Wonder Man.
Her powers were retconned in Avengers Disassembled, removing chaos magic and turning them into reality warping. In House of M, this new power was enough to change the whole universe. Her powers were retconned back to their previous ones in The Children's crusade, and the previous events attributed to an outside force that had temporarily increased them.
She has a degree of resistance to the Phoenix Force and can cause pain to its hosts, such as Cyclops when he tried to stop Hope from going with her. This becomes less effective as the Phoenix Force portions are divided among those who have not yet been defeated.[volume & issue needed] A vs X #12 confirmed that her powers involve chaos magic, and stated that she has "Mutant Magic", and the "primal source of her chaos" magic is cosmic.[volume & issue needed]
In the new Scarlet Witch series (2016), it is confirmed that Wanda was born with the ability to utilize witchcraft and that this has been seen in other women within her family.[volume & issue needed] Wanda believes that The High Evolutionary genetically altered her, making her more receptive to magical energy.[volume & issue needed]
The Scarlet Witch is a female superhero created in the 1960s. As female readers preferred romance comics, the genre had a vast majority of male artists and readers at the time. The Scarlet Witch was thus created as the token female character for its team, with a passive power, and used mainly for interpersonal relation plots. Avengers writer Roy Thomas even created a group of female superheroes, the Lady Liberators, in order to mock the ongoing Second-wave feminism. Steve Englehart preferred strong women and sought to turn the Scarlet Witch into a stronger and more independent character, by increasing her powers and giving her a family. He lamented that those changes did not stick, and the kids were killed shortly after he ended writing the character.
Don Markstein asserted: "The Scarlet Witch is unique among superheroes, and not just because she's the only one who wears a wimple. Her super power is unlike any other—she can alter probability so as to cause mishaps for her foes."
The character was ranked 97th in Wizard's "200 Greatest Comic Book Characters of All Time" list, 12th in IGN's list of "The Top 50 Avengers", and 14th in Comics Buyer's Guide's "100 Sexiest Women in Comics" list.
In other mediaEdit
As part of both the Avengers and X-Men mythos, the Scarlet Witch has been included in several adaptions of both teams for television. Her first animated appearance was in the Captain America segment of The Marvel Super Heroes, voiced by Peg Dixon. This series was based on the original artworks from the comic books, and had very limited animation. She was used as a regular character in the 1994 Iron Man animated series, which adapted the Force Works group as a supporting cast for Iron Man. In this series, she did not use the common outfit, but the short-lived one from the contemporary comics. She was voiced by Katherine Moffat in the first season, and by Jennifer Darling in the second. She was included in the first animated series focused on the Avengers, The Avengers: United They Stand, voiced by Stavroula Logothettis. As with the other characters, the series largely ignored comic book canon, and was poorly received. She also appeared in the episode "Hexed, Vexed, and Perplexed" of The Super Hero Squad Show, voiced by Tara Strong.
The Scarlet Witch was also used in the X-Men episode "Family Ties", voiced by Susan Roman. She was reimagined as a goth for X-Men: Evolution, and voiced by Kelly Sheridan. She is also a recurring character in Wolverine and the X-Men, voiced by Kate Higgins. In this series, she is used as Nightcrawler's love interest.
Marvel licensed the filming rights of the X-Men and related concepts, such as mutants, to Fox. Fox created a film series based on the franchise. Years later, Marvel started their own film franchise, the Marvel Cinematic Universe, focused in the characters that they had not licensed to other studios, such as the Avengers. The main core of this franchise were the Avengers, both in standalone films and the successful The Avengers film. Quicksilver and Scarlet Witch were disputed by both studios. Fox would claim the rights over them because they were both mutants and children of Magneto, the villain of most of their films; and Marvel would claim those rights because the editorial history of the characters in comic books is more associated with the Avengers rather than the X-Men. The studios made an agreement, so that both of them would use the characters. It was made on the condition that the plots do not make reference to the other studio's properties: the Fox films cannot mention them as members of the Avengers, and the Marvel films cannot mention them as mutants or children of Magneto.
The 2014 film X-Men: Days of Future Past, however, did not feature Scarlet Witch. There is a brief image of Quicksilver with a small girl in the film, and a deleted scene of Quicksilver complaining about his sister, but the director Bryan Singer denied that the girl was Scarlet Witch, saying that she was only Quicksilver's little sister, and that it was just a nod for comic book fans. The sequel film X-Men: Apocalypse introduces another daughter of Magneto, Nina, who is also unrelated to the Scarlet Witch.
Elizabeth Olsen plays Wanda Maximoff in the Marvel Cinematic Universe. The comic book costume was ignored, in favor of more everyday clothes. She first appeared, as well as Quicksilver, in a mid-credits scene of the 2014 film Captain America: The Winter Soldier as a prisoner of Baron Strucker (Thomas Kretschmann). Scarlet Witch became a supporting character in the 2015 film Avengers: Age of Ultron, where the siblings initially conspire with Ultron (James Spader) but later defect to the Avengers. Quicksilver dies in the ensuing conflict while Wanda goes on to become a member of Captain America's Avengers. She appears in the 2016 film Captain America: Civil War. Both Olsen and Aaron Taylor-Johnson signed multi-picture deals. Olsen is to reprise her role in both Avengers: Infinity War scheduled to release May 4, 2018  and its untitled sequel scheduled to release May 3, 2019.
- Scarlet Witch appears as a frozen statue in Thanos's stage in the 1995 game Marvel Super Heroes.
- Scarlet Witch is a playable character in the 2005 game X-Men Legends II: Rise of Apocalypse voiced by Jennifer Hale. She and Quicksilver appear as members of the Brotherhood of Mutants. When the players ask Scarlet Witch about her involvement with the Brotherhood of Mutants, Scarlet Witch states that she and Quicksilver are there to make sure their father doesn't go too far into his goals.
- Scarlet Witch is a playable character in the 2010 game Marvel Super Hero Squad: The Infinity Gauntlet, voiced by Tara Strong.
- Scarlet Witch is a playable character in Marvel Super Hero Squad Online.
- Scarlet Witch is a playable character in the 2011 game Marvel Super Hero Squad: Comic Combat, reprised by Tara Strong.
- Scarlet Witch appears as a cameo appearance alongside Wiccan in Doctor Strange's ending in Ultimate Marvel vs. Capcom 3.
- Scarlet Witch is a playable character in the Facebook game Marvel: Avengers Alliance.
- Scarlet Witch is a playable character in the 2012 fighting game Marvel Avengers: Battle for Earth.
- Scarlet Witch is a playable character in the MMORPG Marvel Heroes, reprised by Kate Higgins.
- Scarlet Witch is a playable character in Marvel Avengers Alliance Tactics.
- Scarlet Witch is a playable character in Marvel: Contest of Champions.
- Scarlet Witch appears as a playable character in Lego Marvel's Avengers, voiced by Elizabeth Olsen.
- Scarlet Witch is playable in the mobile game Marvel: Future Fight.
Scarlet Witch's solo appearances have been collected in a number of trade paperbacks:
|Title||Material collected||Publication date||Creative Team||ISBN|
|Vol 1: Witches' Road||Scarlet Witch #1–5||July 2016||James Robinson (writer)||978-0785196822|
|Vol 2: World of Witchcraft||Scarlet Witch #6-10||January 2017||978-0785196839|
|Vol 3: The Final Hex||Scarlet Witch #11-15||May 2017||978-1302902667|
- DeFalco, Tom; Gilbert, Laura, ed. (2008). "1960s". Marvel Chronicle A Year by Year History. London, United Kingdom: Dorling Kindersley. p. 99. ISBN 978-0756641238.
Stan Lee and Jack Kirby decided to try their hands at a pair of reluctant super villains when they created Scarlet Witch and Quicksilver in The X-Men #4.
- Abad-Santos, Alex (April 28, 2015). "The tragic history of Scarlet Witch, who will make her film debut in Avengers: Age of Ultron". Vox. Archived from the original on July 1, 2016. Retrieved April 27, 2016.
- "Scarlet Witch Costume History". Letterpile. December 7, 2017. Retrieved May 31, 2017.
- Graeme McMillan (April 30, 2015). "'Avengers: Age of Ultron': Scarlet Witch's Tragic Comic Book Career". Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved May 18, 2017.
- DeFalco "1960s" in Gilbert (2008), p. 108: "[Stan Lee] replaced Thor, Iron Man, Giant-Man, and Wasp with Hawkeye, Quicksilver, and Scarlet Witch."
- Mark Ginocchio (March 31, 2015). "All-Different Avengers: 10 Most Questionable Roster Moves". Comic Book. Retrieved May 18, 2017.
- Brian Cronin (October 15, 2016). "When Scarlet Witch and Quicksilver Became Evil Mutants…Again!". CBR. Retrieved May 18, 2017.
- Walker, Karen (December 2010). "Shattered Dreams: Vision and the Scarlet Witch". Back Issue!. Raleigh, North Carolina: TwoMorrows Publishing (45): 59–65.
- Brian Cronin (April 29, 2015). "Drawing Crazy Patterns – Avengers Falling for the Scarlet Witch". CBR. Retrieved May 18, 2017.
- Sanderson, Peter "1970s" in Gilbert (2008), p. 169: "Writer Steve Englehart and veteran Avengers artist Don Heck presented the grand finale of the long-running 'Celestial Madonna' saga… Immortus presided over the double wedding of Mantis to the resurrected Swordsman, and the android Vision to the Scarlet Witch."
- The Vision and the Scarlet Witch (1982 series)' at the Grand Comics Database
- The Vision and the Scarlet Witch (1985 series)' at the Grand Comics Database
- Chris Arrant (May 24, 2013). "WEST COAST AVENGERS: Looking Back at the First Expansion Team". Newsarama. Retrieved May 31, 2017.
- Steve Englehart. "STEVE ENGLEHART responds". Women in refrigerators. Retrieved May 18, 2017.
- Colin Fredericson (April 2, 2015). "'Force Works': Iron Man's Alternate Avengers Were So Cool". Vision Times. Retrieved May 31, 2017.
- "SCARLET WITCH (1994) #1". Marvel Comics. Retrieved May 31, 2017.
- Adrian Watts. "Avengers: Heroes Reborn". White Rocket Entertainment. Retrieved June 16, 2017.
- Nolen-Weathington, Eric (2003). Modern Masters Volume 2: George Pérez. Raleigh, North Carolina: TwoMorrows Publishing. p. 95. ISBN 1-893905-25-X.
- Nolen-Weathington, Eric (2003). Modern Masters Volume 1: Alan Davis. Raleigh, North Carolina: TwoMorrows Publishing. p. 92. ISBN 1-893905-19-5.
- Arrant, Chris (December 10, 2014). "Did Marvel Comics Just 'Solve' the MCU's Scarlet Witch, Quicksilver Father Problem?". Newsarama. Archived from the original on October 19, 2016. Retrieved April 18, 2016.
- Helvie, Forrest C. (July 1, 2015). "The X-Men Become Extraordinary To Survive". Marvel Comics. Archived from the original on November 2, 2016.
- Parkin, JK (August 25, 2015). "Fall Under the Spell of the Scarlet Witch". Marvel Comics. Archived from the original on November 2, 2016.
- Damore, Meagan (August 25, 2015). "James Robinson Promises Unique Adventures for Wanda in New Scarlet Witch Series". Comic Book Resources. Archived from the original on September 5, 2015. Archive requires scrolldown
- Gruenwald, Mark, Grant, Steven, and Michelinie, David (w), Byrne, John (p), Green, Dan (i). "The Yesterday Quest!" The Avengers 185 (July 1979)
Gruenwald, Mark, Grant, Steven, and Michelinie, David (w), Byrne, John (p), Green, Dan (i). "Nights of Wundagore!" The Avengers 186 (August 1979)
Gruenwald, Mark, Grant, Steven, and Michelinie, David (w), Byrne, John (p), Green, Dan (i). "The Call of the Mountain Thing!" The Avengers 187 (September 1979)
- Recounted in Englehart, Steve; Howell, Richard (2010). Avengers: Vision & The Scarlet Witch - A Year in the Life. New York, New York: Marvel Comics. p. 344. ISBN 978-0785145080.
Collects Vision and the Scarlet Witch vol. 2 #1–12 (Oct. 1985–Sept. 1986)
- Lee, Stan (w), Kirby, Jack (p), Reinman, Paul (i). "The Brotherhood of Evil Mutants!" X-Men 4 (March 1964)
Lee, Stan (w), Kirby, Jack (p), Reinman, Paul (i). "Trapped: One X-Man!" X-Men 5 (May 1964)
Lee, Stan (w), Kirby, Jack (p), Stone, Chic (i). "Sub-Mariner Joins the Evil Mutants" X-Men 6 (July 1964)
Lee, Stan (w), Kirby, Jack (p), Stone, Chic (i). "The Return of the Blob" X-Men 7 (September 1964)
- Lee, Stan (w), Kirby, Jack (p), Stone, Chic (i). "The Triumph of Magneto!" X-Men 11 (May 1965)
- Lee, Stan (w), Kirby, Jack (p), Ayers, Dick (i). "The Old Order Changeth" The Avengers 16 (May 1965)
- Thomas, Roy (w), Buscema, John (p), Buscema, John (i). "Mine is the Power" The Avengers 49 (February 1968)
- Thomas, Roy (w), Adams, Neal (p), Palmer, Tom (i). "Do Or Die, Baby!" X-Men 59 (August 1969)
- Thomas, Roy (w), Adams, Neal (p), Palmer, Tom (i). "In the Shadow of...Sauron!" X-Men 60 (September 1969)
- Thomas, Roy (w), Buscema, John (p), Palmer, Tom (i). "The Warlord and the Witch!" The Avengers 75 (April 1970)
- Thomas, Roy (w), Buscema, John (p), Palmer, Tom (i). "The Blaze of Battle... the Flames of Love" The Avengers 76 (May 1970)
- Englehart, Steve (w), Heck, Don (p), McLaughlin, Frank (i). "The Measure of a Man!" The Avengers 109 (March 1973)
- Englehart, Steve (w), Heck, Don (p), Tartaglione, John (i). "...Let All Men Bring Together" Giant-Size Avengers 4 (June 1975)
- Englehart, Steve; Buscema, Sal; Cockrum, Dave; Tuska, George; Heck, Don (2002). Avengers: Celestial Madonna. New York, New York: Marvel Comics. p. 224. ISBN 978-0785108269.
Collects Avengers #128–135 (Oct. 1974–May 1975) and Giant-Size Avengers #2–4 (Nov. 1974–June 1975).
- Thomas, Roy (w), Buckler, Rich (p), Adkins, Dan (i). "Nuklo--the Invader That Time Forgot!" Giant-Size Avengers 1 (August 1974)
- Sanderson "1970s" in Gilbert (2008), p. 190: "The origins of mutant Avengers Quicksilver and Scarlet Witch were finally revealed in August ."
- Mantlo, Bill (w), Leonardi, Rick (p), Akin, Ian and Garvey, Brian (i). "Please Allow Me To Introduce Myself...!" The Vision and the Scarlet Witch 4 (February 1983)
- Shooter, Jim (w), Colan, Gene (p), Green, Dan (i). "...By Force of Mind!" The Avengers 211 (September 1981)
- Englehart, Steve (w), Howell, Richard (p), Mooney, Jim (i). "Ancestors" The Vision and the Scarlet Witch v2, 3 (December 1985)
- Englehart, Steve (w), Howell, Richard (p), Springer, Frank (i). "Double Sized Climax!" The Vision and the Scarlet Witch v2, 12 (September 1986)
- Englehart, Steve (w), Milgrom, Al (p), Machlan, Mike (i). "Tales to Astonish Part Two: Prisoners of the Slave World" West Coast Avengers v2, 35 (July 1988)
- DeFalco "1980s" in Gilbert (2008), p. 240: "Writer/artist John Byrne produced the story arc that came to be known as 'Vision Quest' that ran through The West Coast Avengers #42-45."
- Byrne, John (w), Byrne, John (p), Machlan, Mike (i). "One of Our Androids is Missing!" West Coast Avengers v2, 42 (March 1989)
Byrne, John (w), Byrne, John (p), Machlan, Mike (i). "VisionQuest" West Coast Avengers v2, 43 (April 1989)
Byrne, John (w), Byrne, John (p), Machlan, Mike (i). "Better a Widow..." West Coast Avengers v2, 44 (May 1989)
Byrne, John (w), Byrne, John (p), Machlan, Mike (i). "New Faces" West Coast Avengers v2, 45 (June 1989)
- Byrne, John (w), Byrne, John (p), Ordway, Jerry (i). "Back from Beyond" Fantastic Four 277 (April 1985)
- Byrne, John (w), Byrne, John (p), Machlan, Mike (i). "I Sing of Arms and Heroes..." Avengers West Coast 51 (Mid-November 1989)
Byrne, John (w), Byrne, John (p), Machlan, Mike (i). "Fragments of a Greater Darkness" Avengers West Coast 52 (December 1989)
- Thomas, Roy; Thomas, Dann (w), Ryan, Paul (p), Bulanadi, Danny (i). "The Immortus Imperative" Avengers West Coast 61 (August 1990)
Thomas, Roy; Thomas, Dann (w), Ryan, Paul (p), Bulanadi, Danny (i). "The Witching Hour!" Avengers West Coast 62 (September 1990)
- Avengers West Coast #65–68, 89–90
- Cooper, Christian (w), Case, Richard (p), McKenna, Mark (i). "The Living Dead" Darkhold 5 (February 1993)
Cooper, Christian (w), Case, Richard (p), Woch, Stan (i). "The Living Dead" Darkhold 6 (March 1993)
- Thomas, Roy (w), Ross, David (p), Dzon, Tim (i). "Dying To Get Out" Avengers West Coast 98 (September 1993)
- Abnett, Dan; Lanning, Andy (w), Ross, David (p), Dzon, Tim (i). "The Avengers West Coast Are Finished!" Avengers West Coast 102 (January 1994)
- Manning, Matthew K. "1990s" in Gilbert (2008), p. 269: "When the West Coast Avengers disbanded, some of its members...went on to form a new team, Force Works."
- Abnett, Dan and Lanning, Andy (w), Tenney, Tom (p), Garcia, Rey (i). "Daybreak" Force Works 1 (July 1994)
- Abnett, Dan and Lanning, Andy (w), Tenney, Tom (p), Garcia, Rey (i). "Aftermath" Force Works 2 (August 1994)
- Abnett, Dan and Lanning, Andy (w), Wildman, Andrew (p), Garcia, Rey (i). "Pain Threshold" Force Works 22 (April 1996)
- Kavanagh, Terry and Mackie, Howard (w), Deodato, Mike (p), Palmer, Tom (i). "Crawling From the Wreckage" The Avengers 397 (April 1996)
- Lobdell, Scott; Waid, Mark (w), Kubert, Adam; Joe Bennett (p), Green, Dan; Thibert, Art; Townsend, Tim; Delperdang, Jesse (i). "With Great Power ..." Onslaught: Marvel Universe 1 (October 1996)
- Liefeld, Rob; Loeb, Jeph; Yaep, Chap; Churchill, Ian (2006). Heroes Reborn: Avengers. New York, NY: Marvel Comics. p. 328. ISBN 978-0785123378.
Collects Avengers vol. 2 #1-13 (Nov. 1996-Nov. 1997)
- David, Peter (w), Larroca, Salvador (p), Thibert, Art (i). "The Judgment (The Return part 1)" Heroes Reborn: The Return 1 (December 1997)
David, Peter (w), Larroca, Salvador (p), Thibert, Art (i). "Second Coming (The Return part 2)" Heroes Reborn: The Return 2 (December 1997)
David, Peter (w), Larroca, Salvador (p), Thibert, Art (i). "Third Dimension (The Return Part 3)" Heroes Reborn: The Return 3 (December 1997)
David, Peter (w), Larroca, Salvador (p), Thibert, Art (i). "Fourth & Goal (The Return part 4)" Heroes Reborn: The Return 4 (December 1997)
- Manning "1990s" in Gilbert (2008), p. 289
- Busiek, Kurt (w), Pérez, George (p), Vey, Al (i). "Once an Avenger..." The Avengers v3, 1 (February 1998)
- Busiek, Kurt (w), Pérez, George (p), Vey, Al (i). "The Call" The Avengers v3, 2 (March 1998)
- Busiek, Kurt (w), Pérez, George (p), Vey, Al (i). "Fata Morgana" The Avengers v3, 3 (April 1998)
- Busiek, Kurt (w), Pérez, George (p), Vey, Al (i). "Fata Morgana" Too Many Avengers v3, 4 (May 1998)
- Busiek, Kurt (w), Pérez, George (p), Vey, Al (i). "Pomp & Pageantry" The Avengers v3, 10 (November 1998)
- Busiek, Kurt (w), Anderson, Brent (p), Palmer, Tom (i). "Prisoners A Love Story" The Avengers v3, 51 (April 2002)
- Johns, Geoff (w), Dwyer, Kieron (p), Remender, Rick (i). "New Alliances" The Avengers v3, 57 (October 2002)
- Johns, Geoff (w), Dwyer, Kieron (p), Remender, Rick (i). "Assembled" The Avengers v3, 58 (November 2002)
- Johns, Geoff (w), Dwyer, Kieron (p), Remender, Rick (i). "Friends & Enemies" The Avengers v3, 59 (December 2002)
- Johns, Geoff (w), Dwyer, Kieron (p), Remender, Rick (i). "Chaos & Order" The Avengers v3, 60 (January 2003)
- Manning "2000s" in Gilbert (2008), p. 323: "Writer Brian Michael Bendis would turn the Avengers' world on its end with this shocking new crossover event drawn by artist David Finch."
- Bendis, Brian Michael (w), Finch, David (p), Miki, Danny (i). "Chaos Part One of Four" The Avengers 500 (September 2004)
Bendis, Brian Michael (w), Finch, David (p), Miki, Danny (i). "Chaos Part Two of Four" The Avengers 501 (October 2004)
Bendis, Brian Michael (w), Finch, David (p), Miki, Danny (i). "Chaos Part Three of Four" The Avengers 502 (November 2004)
Bendis, Brian Michael (w), Finch, David (p), Miki, Danny (i). "Chaos Part Four of Four" The Avengers 503 (December 2004)
- Heinberg, Allan (w), Cheung, Jim (p), Morales, Mark; Livesay, John; Vines, Dexter; Cheung, Jim (i). Avengers: The Children's Crusade 7 (November 2011)
- Manning "2000s" in Gilbert (2008), p. 326: "After successfully disassembling the Avengers, the tormented Scarlet Witch still wasn't finished tampering with the lives of the men and women she'd fought beside for so many years."
- House of M #7
- House of M #1-5
- House of M #7-8
- House of M #8, X-Men Decimation
- New Avengers #26 (Jan. 2007)
- X-Men: Endangered Species (Oct. 2007)
- Heinberg, Allan (w), Cheung, Jim (p), Morales, Mark (i). Avengers: The Children's Crusade 3 (January 2011)
- Heinberg, Allan (w), Cheung, Jim (p), Morales, Mark; Livesay, John; Meikis, Dave (i). Avengers: The Children's Crusade 5 (July 2011)
- Heinberg, Allan (w), Cheung, Jim (p), Morales, Mark; Livesay, John; Cheung, Jim (i). "Doctor Doom is dead." Avengers: The Children's Crusade 8 (January 2012)
- Heinberg, Allan (w), Cheung, Jim (p), Morales, Mark (i). "How did this happen?" Avengers: The Children's Crusade 9 (May 2012)
- Truitt, Brian (December 6, 2011). "Marvel event reaches 'critical mass' on social media". USA Today. Archived from the original on December 6, 2014.
- Avengers vs. X-Men #0
- Avengers vs. X-Men #6
- Avengers vs. X-Men #7
- Remender, Rick (w), Cassaday, John (p), Cassaday, John (i). "New Union" Uncanny Avengers 1 (December 2012)
- Uncanny Avengers #5
- Uncanny Avengers #14
- Avengers & X-Men: AXIS #2
- Avengers & X-Men: AXIS #3
- Avengers & X-Men: AXIS #4
- Avengers & X-Men: AXIS #7
- Avengers & X-Men: AXIS #8
- Avengers & X-Men: AXIS #9
- Uncanny Avengers Vol. 2 #1-2
- Whitbrook, James (May 8, 2015). "Marvel Confirms Scarlet Witch And Quicksilver Are No Longer Mutants". io9. Archived from the original on December 31, 2015.
- Uncanny Avengers Vol. 2 #4
- Uncanny Avengers Vol. 2 #5
- Scarlet Witch vol. 2 #3
- Scarlet Witch vol. 2 #9
- Dr. Strange: Last Days of Magic #1
- Secret Empire #1
- FCBD 2017 #Secret Empire
- Secret Empire #4
- Secret Empire #5
- Secret Empire #9
- Englehart, Steve (w), Brown, Bob (p), Esposito, Mike and Giacoia, Frank (i). "To the Death!" The Avengers 118 (December 1973)
- Shooter, Jim (w), Pérez, George (p), Marcos, Pablo (i). "Beware the Ant-Man!" The Avengers 161 (July 1977)
- Claremont, Chris (w), Golden, Michael (p), Gil, Armando (i). "By Friends--Betrayed!" The Avengers Annual 10 (1981)
- Scarlet Witch #1-4 (1994)
- House of M #1 - 8 (2005)
- A vs X #6
- Zimmerman, pp. 69-71
- Wright, p. 250
- Markstein, Don. "The Scarlet Witch". Don Markstein's Toonopedia. Archived from the original on January 1, 2012. Retrieved January 1, 2012.
- "The List: Famous Witches Going on a Witch Hunt". Washington, D.C.: The Washington Times. September 23, 2010. Archived from the original on January 1, 2012. Retrieved January 1, 2012.
- "The Top 50 Avengers". IGN. April 30, 2012. Archived from the original on March 9, 2015. Retrieved July 28, 2015.
- Frankenhoff, Brent (2011). Comics Buyer's Guide Presents: 100 Sexiest Women in Comics. Iola, Wisconsin: Krause Publications. p. 18. ISBN 1-4402-2988-0.
- "Peg Dixon". Behind the voice actors. Retrieved May 8, 2017.
- Eury 2017, p. 240.
- Rob Bricken (March 21, 2013). "There was a time when Iron Man sucked so bad he couldn't get a credit in his own cartoon". Gizmodo. Retrieved May 18, 2017.
- "Katherine Moffat". Behind the voice actors. Retrieved May 18, 2017.
- "Jennifer Darling". Behind the voice actors. Retrieved May 18, 2017.
- "Stavroula Logothettis". Behind the voice actors. Retrieved May 18, 2017.
- Lan Pitts (February 4, 2015). "Throwback Thursday: Avengers: United They Stand". Comic Book. Retrieved May 18, 2017.
- "Tara Strong". Behind the voice actors. Retrieved May 18, 2017.
- "Susan Roman". Celebrity Talent Booking. Retrieved May 18, 2017.
- "Kelly Sheridan". Voice Chasers. Retrieved May 18, 2017.
- "Kate Higgins". Behind the voice actors. Retrieved May 18, 2017.
- Acuna, Kirsten (April 30, 2015). "Why these two characters are allowed to appear in both the X-Men and Avengers movies". Business Insider. Archived from the original on August 17, 2016. Retrieved April 27, 2016.
- Toro, Gabe (April 28, 2014). "X-Men: Days Of Future Past Cuts All Mentions Of Scarlet Witch". Cinema Blend. Archived from the original on December 22, 2015. Retrieved October 25, 2015.
- Sidney Fussell (June 1, 2016). "The most tragic scene in 'X-Men: Apocalypse' has an even sadder comic history". Business Insider. Retrieved June 16, 2017.
- Milly, Jenna (March 14, 2014). "Captain America: The Winter Soldier premiere: Crossover is the word". Entertainment Weekly. Archived from the original on March 17, 2014. Retrieved March 17, 2014.
- "Official: Elizabeth Olsen & Aaron Taylor-Johnson Join Avengers: Age of Ultron". Marvel. November 25, 2013. Archived from the original on March 17, 2014. Retrieved November 25, 2013.
- Goldberg, Matt (May 5, 2014). "Avengers 2: Aaron Taylor Johnson & Elizabeth Olsen Talk Quicksilver & Scarlet Witch". IGN. Archived from the original on November 26, 2014. Retrieved July 27, 2014.
- Johnson, Zach (April 23, 2015). "Elizabeth Olsen Will Star in Captain America: Civil War!". E! Online. Archived from the original on September 27, 2016.
- Goldberg, Matt (May 5, 2014). "Elizabeth Olsen and Aaron Taylor-Johnson Talk Avengers: Age of Ultron, Working on the Accents, Thoughts on the Set Photos, and More". Collider. Archived from the original on September 18, 2014. Retrieved May 5, 2014.
- Mueller, Matthew (April 20, 2016). "Scarlet Witch Confirmed For Avengers: Infinity War". Comicbook.com. Archived from the original on April 20, 2016. Retrieved April 20, 2016.
- Lincoln, Ross A. (July 29, 2016). "Marvel's Avengers 3 Gets Official Title With Temp Name Hung On Avengers 4". Deadline.com. Archived from the original on July 31, 2016. Retrieved July 30, 2016.
- "Scarlet Witch joins Marvel Heroes". Marvel Heroes. June 14, 2012. Archived from the original on June 17, 2012. Retrieved July 19, 2012.
- "Avengers Assemble! Live-Action TV Footage!". Ain't It Cool News. May 20, 2001. Archived from the original on December 6, 2014.
- Eury, Michael (2017). Hero-A-Go-Go: Campy Comic Books, Crimefighters, & Culture of the Swinging Sixties. United States: TwoMorrows Publishing. ISBN 978-1-60549-073-1.
- W. Wright, Bradford (2001). Comic Book Nation: The Transformation of Youth Culture in America. United States: The Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 0-8018-6514-X. Retrieved December 29, 2014.
- Zimmerman, David (2004). Comic Book Character: Unleashing the Hero in Us All. United States: Inter Varsity Press. ISBN 0-8308-3260-2.