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Maine (/mn/ ) is the easternmost state in the New England region of the Northeastern United States. It borders New Hampshire to the west, the Gulf of Maine to the southeast, and the Canadian provinces of New Brunswick and Quebec to the northeast and northwest, respectively. Although Maine is the largest state in New England by total area, it is also the 12th-smallest by area, the 9th-least populous, the 13th-least densely populated, and the most rural of the 50 U.S. states. Maine's capital is Augusta, and its most populous city is Portland.

Maine has traditionally been known for its jagged, rocky Atlantic Ocean and bayshore coastlines; smoothly contoured mountains; heavily forested interior; picturesque waterways; and its wild lowbush blueberries and seafood cuisine, especially lobster and clams. Coastal and Down East Maine have emerged as important centers for the creative economy, especially in the vicinity of Portland, which is also bringing gentrification.

The territory of Maine has been inhabited by aboriginal populations for thousands of years after the glaciers retreated during the last ice age. At the time of European arrival, several Algonquian-speaking nations governed the area and these nations are now known as the Wabanaki Confederacy. The first European settlement in the area was by the French in 1604 on Saint Croix Island, founded by Pierre Dugua, Sieur de Mons. The first English settlement was the short-lived Popham Colony, established by the Plymouth Company in 1607. A number of English settlements were established along the coast of Maine in the 1620s, although the rugged climate and conflict with the local Indigenous people caused many to fail. (Full article...)

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Joint Tribal Council of the Passamaquoddy Tribe v. Morton, 528 F.2d 370 (1st Cir. 1975), was a landmark decision regarding aboriginal title in the United States. The United States Court of Appeals for the First Circuit held that the Nonintercourse Act applied to the Passamaquoddy and Penobscot, non-federally-recognized Indian tribes, and established a trust relationship between those tribes and the federal government that the State of Maine could not terminate.

By upholding a declaratory judgement of the United States District Court for the District of Maine, the First Circuit cleared the way for the Passamaquoddy and Penobscot to oblige the federal government to bring a land claim on their behalf for approximately 60% of Maine, an area populated by 350,000 non-Indians. According to the Department of Justice, the suit was "potentially the most complex litigation ever brought in the federal courts with social and economic impacts without precedent and incredible potential litigation costs to all parties." The decision led to the passage of the Maine Indian Claims Settlement Act in 1980, allocating $81.5 million for the benefit of the tribes, in part to allow them to purchase lands in Maine, and extinguishing all aboriginal title in Maine. The settlement was reached "after more than a decade of enormously complex litigation and negotiation." (Full article...)

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The Desert of Maine is a natural curiosity and privately owned tourist attraction whose main feature is a 40-acre (16 ha) expanse of barren glacial sand in the town of Freeport, Maine, United States. The area was de‑vegetated by poor farming practices in the 19th century. (Full article...)

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Largest cities

The list below, for each city, shows the population in 2010, the population estimate of 2019, the growth/shrinking percentage between the three, and the date of incorporation as a city.

2019 Rank City 2019 Estimate 2010 Census Change County Incorporation
[citation needed]
[citation needed]
Land area
(sq mi)
1 Portland † 66,215 66,194 +0.03% Cumberland 1786 1833 69.4
2 Lewiston 36,225 36,592 −1.00% Androscoggin 1795 1862 34.2
3 Bangor † 32,262 33,039 −2.35% Penobscot 1791 1834 34.3
4 South Portland 25,532 25,002 +2.12% Cumberland 1895 1898 12.1
5 Auburn † 23,414 23,055 +1.56% Androscoggin 1842 1868 59.3
6 Biddeford 21,504 21,277 +1.07% York 1653 1855 30.1
7 Sanford 21,223 20,798 +2.04% York 1768 2013 47.8
8 Saco 19,964 18,482 +8.02% York 1775 1867 38.6
9 Westbrook 19,074 17,494 +9.03% Cumberland 1814 1891 17.2
10 Augusta †† 18,697 19,136 −2.29% Kennebec 1797 1849 55.2

 †  County seat
 ††  State capital and county seat

See List of municipalities in Maine for a full list.


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