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Maine (/mn/ MAYN) is a state in the New England region of the United States, and the northeasternmost state in the Lower 48. It borders New Hampshire to the west, the Gulf of Maine to the southeast, and the Canadian provinces of New Brunswick and Quebec to the northeast and northwest, respectively. Maine is the largest state in New England by total area, nearly larger than the combined area of the remaining five states. Of the 50 U.S. states, it is the 12th-smallest by area, the 9th-least populous, the 13th-least densely populated, and the most rural. Maine's capital is Augusta, and its most populous city is Portland, with a total population of 68,408, as of the 2020 census.

The territory of Maine has been inhabited by Indigenous populations for thousands of years after the glaciers retreated during the last ice age. At the time of European arrival, several Algonquian-speaking nations governed the area and these nations are now known as the Wabanaki Confederacy. The first European settlement in the area was by the French in 1604 on Saint Croix Island, founded by Pierre Dugua, Sieur de Mons. The first English settlement was the short-lived Popham Colony, established by the Plymouth Company in 1607. A number of English settlements were established along the coast of Maine in the 1620s, although the rugged climate and conflict with the local Indigenous people caused many to fail. As Maine entered the 18th century, only a half dozen European settlements had survived. Loyalist and Patriot forces contended for Maine's territory during the American Revolution. During the War of 1812, the largely undefended eastern region of Maine was occupied by British forces with the goal of annexing it to Canada via the Colony of New Ireland, but returned to the United States following failed British offensives on the northern border, mid-Atlantic and south which produced a peace treaty that restored the pre-war boundaries. Maine was part of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts until 1820 when it voted to secede from Massachusetts to become a separate state. On March 15, 1820, under the Missouri Compromise, Maine was admitted to the Union as the 23rd state.

Today, Maine is known for its jagged, rocky Atlantic Ocean and bayshore coastlines, mountains, heavily forested interior, and its cuisine, particularly wild lowbush blueberries and seafood such as lobster and clams. Coastal and Down East Maine have emerged as important centers for the creative economy, especially in the vicinity of Portland, which has also brought gentrification to the city and its metropolitan area. (Full article...)

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Portland Pipeline marine terminal in South Portland, ME
The Portland Montreal Pipeline is a series of underground crude oil pipelines connecting South Portland, Maine, in the United States with Montreal, Quebec, in Canada. As of early 2016, the pipeline transports limited volumes, sufficient to keep the pipeline wet. The pipeline also supplied crude oil to the Suncor Montreal-Est refinery during supply interruptions due to the 2016 Fort McMurray wildfires. (Full article...)

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Largest cities

The list below, for each city, shows the population in 2010, the population estimate of 2019, the growth/shrinking percentage between the three, and the date of incorporation as a city.

2019 Rank City 2019 Estimate 2010 Census Change County Incorporation
[citation needed]
[citation needed]
Land area
(sq mi)
1 Portland † 66,215 66,194 +0.03% Cumberland 1786 1833 69.4
2 Lewiston 36,225 36,592 −1.00% Androscoggin 1795 1862 34.2
3 Bangor † 32,262 33,039 −2.35% Penobscot 1791 1834 34.3
4 South Portland 25,532 25,002 +2.12% Cumberland 1895 1898 12.1
5 Auburn † 23,414 23,055 +1.56% Androscoggin 1842 1868 59.3
6 Biddeford 21,504 21,277 +1.07% York 1653 1855 30.1
7 Sanford 21,223 20,798 +2.04% York 1768 2013 47.8
8 Saco 19,964 18,482 +8.02% York 1775 1867 38.6
9 Westbrook 19,074 17,494 +9.03% Cumberland 1814 1891 17.2
10 Augusta †† 18,697 19,136 −2.29% Kennebec 1797 1849 55.2

 †  County seat
 ††  State capital and county seat

See List of municipalities in Maine for a full list.


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