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Massachusetts (/ˌmæsəˈsɪts/ (About this soundlisten), /-zɪts/), officially the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, is the most populous state in the New England region of the northeastern United States. It borders on the Atlantic Ocean to the east, the states of Connecticut and Rhode Island to the south, New Hampshire and Vermont to the north, and New York to the west. The state is named after the Massachusett tribe, which once inhabited the east side of the area, and is one of the original thirteen states. The capital of Massachusetts is Boston, which is also the most populous city in New England. Over 80% of the population of Massachusetts lives in the Greater Boston metropolitan area, a region influential upon American history, academia, and industry. Originally dependent on agriculture, fishing and trade, Massachusetts was transformed into a manufacturing center during the Industrial Revolution. During the 20th century, Massachusetts's economy shifted from manufacturing to services. Modern Massachusetts is a global leader in biotechnology, engineering, higher education, finance, and maritime trade.

Plymouth was the site of the second colony in New England after Popham Colony in 1607 in what is now Maine. Plymouth was founded in 1620 by the Pilgrims, passengers of the Mayflower. In 1692, the town of Salem and surrounding areas experienced one of America's most infamous cases of mass hysteria, the Salem witch trials. In 1777, General Henry Knox founded the Springfield Armory, which during the Industrial Revolution catalyzed numerous important technological advances, including interchangeable parts. In 1786, Shays' Rebellion, a populist revolt led by disaffected American Revolutionary War veterans, influenced the United States Constitutional Convention. In the 18th century, the Protestant First Great Awakening, which swept the Atlantic World, originated from the pulpit of Northampton preacher Jonathan Edwards. In the late 18th century, Boston became known as the "Cradle of Liberty" for the agitation there that led to the American Revolution.

Selected article

The Boston Red Sox's victory parade
The 2004 World Series was the Major League Baseball (MLB) championship series for the 2004 season. It was the 100th World Series and featured the American League (AL) champions, the Boston Red Sox, against the National League (NL) champions, the St. Louis Cardinals. The Red Sox defeated the Cardinals four games to none in the best-of-seven series, played at Fenway Park and Busch Memorial Stadium. The series was played between October 23 and October 27, 2004, broadcast on Fox, and watched by an average of just under 25 and a half million viewers.

The Red Sox won the American League wild card to earn their berth. They then defeated the Anaheim Angels in the American League Division Series and the New York Yankees in the Championship Series (ALCS), to advance to their first World Series since 1986. The Red Sox won the World Series for the first time since 1918, which ended the "Curse of the Bambino," a curse that was supposed to have been inflicted on the team when Babe Ruth was sold to the Yankees in 1919. With the New England Patriots winning Super Bowl XXXVIII, the event made Boston the first city to have Super Bowl and MLB World Championships in the same year since Pittsburgh in 1979. Manny Ramírez was named the series' Most Valuable Player (MVP).

The day after the Red Sox win, The Boston Globe doubled its daily press run, from 500,000 to 1.2 million copies, with the headline, "YES!!!" right across the front page. The Red Sox held their World Series victory parade on the following Saturday, October 30. The team was transported around on 17 amphibious vehicles equipped with loudspeakers so the players could talk to the spectators. Due to large interest in the parade, it was lengthened by officials the day before to include the Charles River, so that fans could watch from Boston and Cambridge river banks.

Selected biography

Art Ross (sometime between 1907 and 1918)
Arthur Howey "Art" Ross was a Canadian ice hockey defenceman and executive from 1905 until 1954. Regarded as one of the best defenders of his era by his peers, he was one of the first to skate with the puck up the ice rather than pass it to a forward. Like other players of the time, Ross played for several different teams and leagues, and is most notable for his time with the Montreal Wanderers. In 1911 he led one of the first organized player strikes over increased pay. When the Wanderers' home arena burned down in January 1918, the team ceased operations and Ross retired as a player. After several years as an on-ice official, he was named head coach of the Hamilton Tigers for one season. When the Boston Bruins were formed in 1924, Ross was hired as the first coach and general manager of the team. He would go on to coach the team on four separate occasions until 1945 and stayed as general manager until his retirement in 1954. Ross helped the Bruins finish first place in the league ten times and to win the Stanley Cup three times; Ross personally coached the team to one of those victories. After being hired by the Bruins, Ross, along with his wife and two sons, moved to a suburb of Boston, and became an American citizen in 1938. He died near Boston in 1964.

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Lowell on the Merrimack river with Cox Bridge
Lowell is a city in Middlesex County, Massachusetts, and one of its two county seats. It the fourth largest city in the state.

Founded in the 1820s as a planned manufacturing center for textiles, Lowell is located along the rapids of the Merrimack River, 25 miles northwest of Boston in what was once the farming community of East Chelmsford, Massachusetts. The so-called Boston Associates named the new mill town after their leader, Francis Cabot Lowell. As Lowell's population grew, it acquired more land from neighboring towns, and diversified into a full-fledged urban center. In 1860, there were more cotton spindles in Lowell than in all eleven states combined that would form the Confederacy.

The city's manufacturing base declined as many companies began to relocate to the South in the 1920s, causing a period of hard times. The mills were reactivated during World War II to make parachutes, but closed again after the war. In the 1970s, Lowell became part of the Massachusetts Miracle when it became the headquarters of Wang Laboratories.

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1812 political cartoon that led to the term Gerrymandering
Credit: Elkanah Tisdale (1812)

1812 political cartoon that led to the term Gerrymandering; originally appearing in the Boston Centinel

State facts

Location of Massachusetts in the United States
Location of Massachusetts in the United States
Atlas showing the location of the major urban areas and roads in Massachusetts
Atlas of Massachusetts with Greater Boston highlighted

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Babson College's Olin Hall

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State symbols

Colors Blue, Green, and Cranberry
Motto Ense petit placidam sub libertate quietem
Song All Hail to Massachusetts
Bird Black-capped Chickadee
Tree American Elm
Flower Mayflower
Bug Ladybug
Mineral Babingtonite
Fish Cod
Beverage Cranberry Juice
Fossil Dinosaur Tracks
Soil Paxton Soil

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