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The Olympic Oath (distinct from the Olympic creed) is a solemn promise made by one athlete, judge or official, and one coach at the Opening Ceremony of each Olympic Games. Each oath taker is from the host nation and takes the oath on behalf of all athletes, officials, or coaches at the Games. The athletes oath was first introduced for the 1920 Summer Olympic Games, with oaths for the officials and coaches added in 1972 and 2010. The oath is usually said in the language of the nation who is hosting the games, however in 1994 both the athletes and officials oaths were said in English. Until the 1984 games the oath takers swore upon their nation's flag, since then all have taken the oath whilst holding the Olympic Flag. All three of the oaths were combined into one beginning at the 2018 Winter Games.

The inspiration for an oath was came from the Ancient Olympic Games where competitors swore on a statue of Zeus. An oath for the athletes was first thought of in 1906, following unsportsmanlike incidences. An athletes oath was introduced for the 1920 games and Victor Boin was the first person to take the oath on behalf of all athletes. Giuliana Minuzzo was the first woman to take the athletes oath at the winter games in 1956, while Heidi Schuller did likewise at the Summer Olympics in 1972. The first Olympic Champion to take the oath was Rudolf Ismayr who took it at the 1936 Games. The only occasion where more than one person has said an oath occurred at the 1988 Summer Olympics when Hur Jae and Shon Mi-Na took the athletes oath together. The oath has changed over the years to remove nationalism and to reflect drugs in sport.

An oath for the officials was first discussed in the 1950s. It was not, however, until 1970 that the International Olympic Committee (IOC) voted to included an oath of the officials as well as athletes at the Olympic Games. The first oath for the officials was taken by Fumio Asaki at the 1972 Winter Olympic Games. When the Youth Olympics were created the IOC decided to have an oath for coaches as they realised that young athletes look to them in particularly. This was introduced into the adult games for the 2012 edition.

Contents

HistoryEdit

An oath was an idea taken from the Ancient Olympic Games where competitors swore an oath beside a statue of Zeus.[1][2] A call for an oath was announced as early as 1906 by International Olympic Committee (IOC) president and founder Pierre de Coubertin in the Revue Olympique (Olympic Review in French).[3] This was done in an effort to ensure fairness and impartiality.[3] The Olympic Oath was first taken at the 1920 Summer Olympics in Antwerp by the fencer Victor Boin. Boin's oath in 1920 was:

We swear. We will take part in the Olympic Games in a spirit of chivalry, for the honour of our country and for the glory of sport.[3]

At a winter sports week in Chamonix in 1924, which were retrospectively call the Olympic Games in 1926,[4] all the competitors took an Olympic style oath and were led by Camille Mandrillon.[5][6] Rudolf Ismayr was the first Olympic Champion to take the oath, doing so at the 1936 Games in Berlin.[2] In 1956 Giuliana Chenal-Minuzzo became the first woman to recite the oath.[7]

In 1961, "swear" was replaced by "promise" and "the honour of our countries" by "the honour of our teams" in an effort to eliminate nationalism at the Olympic Games.[3][5] Therefore the oath was as follows:

In the name of all competitors, I promise that we shall take part in these Olympic Games, respecting and abiding by the rules that govern them, in the true spirit of sportsmanship, for the glory of sport and the honour of our teams.[3]

An oath for the officials had been discussed since the 1950s when the International Amateur Boxing Association asked all its officials to undertake an oath. In 1970 the IOC amended rule 57 of the charter and decreed that a judge from the host nation would also take an oath. The first judge's oath was taken at the 1972 Winter Olympics in Sapporo by Fumio Asaki and Heinz Pollay performed the task at that year's summer games in Munich.[2]

The Munich games saw Heidi Schüller become the first female athlete to take the oath at the Summer Games,[5][8] women had been competing at the games since 1900.[9] At the 1988 Games the athlete's oath for the first time was undertaken by more than one person, when Hur Jae and Shon Mi-Na took the oath in unison.[2]

All persons up until the 1980 Games swore the oath on their country's flag. In an attempt to eliminate nationalism from the oath ceremony all have sworn on the Olympic Flag since the 1984 games.[2][6][10][11] The oaths are usually spoken in the language of the host nation (or athlete's mother tongue - Bojan Krizaj represented the Yugoslavia but spoke Slovenian), but in 1994 both of the oaths were conducted in English rather than Norwegian.[6]

In 1999, the IOC created the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) in an effort to form a more organized battle against doping. Thus, the Athletes Oath was amended to include references to doping and drugs.[5][12][10][13][14] In 2010 the IOC recognised that younger athletes, in particularly, are influenced by their coaches. At the first Youth Olympic Games, coaches were also required to undertake an oath for this reason.[2] With effect from the 2018 Winter Olympics, the three oaths were combined into one, led by an athlete, although representatives of judges and coaches are still involved in the taking of the oath.[15][6]

Athletes' OathEdit

The chosen athlete, a representative of all the participating Olympic competitors, recited the following from 2000 until 2016:

In the name of all competitors, I promise that we shall take part in these Olympic Games, respecting and abiding by the rules that govern them, committing ourselves to a sport without doping and without drugs, in the true spirit of sportsmanship, for the glory of sport and the honor of our teams.[16][14]

The Officials' OathEdit

The judge/official, also from the host nation, likewise held a corner of the flag and said the following:

In the name of all the judges and officials, I promise that we shall officiate in these Olympic Games with complete impartiality, respecting and abiding by the rules which govern them in the true spirit of sportsmanship.[16][3]

The Coaches' OathEdit

At the 2010 Summer Youth Olympics, an additional oath was taken by a coach,[17] this was added to the protocol for the 2012 Games:[18]

In the name of all the coaches and other members of the athletes' entourage, I promise that we shall commit ourselves to ensuring that the spirit of sportsmanship and fair play is fully adhered to and upheld in accordance with the fundamental principles of Olympism.[16]

Unified OathEdit

Beginning in PyeongChang at the 2018 Winter Olympics, there will be just one oath.

A representative for the athletes, judges, and coaches each recites the following lines respectively:

In the name of the athletes.
In the name of all judges.
In the name of all the coaches and officials.

The athletes' representative then completes the oath:

We promise to take part in these Olympic Games, respecting and abiding by the rules and in the spirit of fair play. We all commit ourselves to sport without doping and cheating. We do this, for the glory of sport, for the honour of our teams and in respect for the Fundamental Principles of Olympism.[15][6]

SpeakersEdit

 
Victor Boin taking the first oath in Antwerp.
 
The oath being taken collectively at the first winter games in 1924 at Chamonix
 
Minuzzo was the first woman to take the athletes oath at the winter games.
Jack Shea (l) took the athletes oath in 1932 and his grandson Jimmy Shea (r) did likewise in 2002.
 
Suzanne Morrow-Francis was the first woman to take the offical's oath at the winter games in 1988.

The athletes, judges and coaches that have delivered the Olympic Oath are listed below.

Olympic Oath
Olympics Athlete Judge (Official) Coach Reference
1920 Summer Olympics Victor Boin - - [16]
1924 Winter Olympics Camille Mandrillon - - [19]
1924 Summer Olympics Géo André - - [16]
1928 Winter Olympics Hans Eidenbenz - - [19]
1928 Summer Olympics Harry Dénis - - [16]
1932 Winter Olympics Jack Shea - - [19][20]
1932 Summer Olympics George Calnan - - [16]
1936 Winter Olympics Willy Bogner, Sr. - - [19]
1936 Summer Olympics Rudolf Ismayr - - [16]
1948 Winter Olympics Bibi Torriani - - [19]
1948 Summer Olympics Donald Finlay - - [16]
1952 Winter Olympics Torbjørn Falkanger - - [19]
1952 Summer Olympics Heikki Savolainen - - [16]
1956 Winter Olympics Giuliana Minuzzo - - [19]
1956 Summer Olympics John Landy (Melbourne)
Henri Saint Cyr (Stockholm)
- - [16][3]
1960 Winter Olympics Carol Heiss - - [19]
1960 Summer Olympics Adolfo Consolini - - [16]
1964 Winter Olympics Paul Aste - - [19]
1964 Summer Olympics Takashi Ono - - [16]
1968 Winter Olympics Léo Lacroix - - [19]
1968 Summer Olympics Pablo Garrido - - [16]
1972 Winter Olympics Keiichi Suzuki Fumio Asaki - [19]
1972 Summer Olympics Heidi Schüller Heinz Pollay - [16]
1976 Winter Olympics Werner Delle Karth Willy Köstinger - [19]
1976 Summer Olympics Pierre St.-Jean Maurice Fauget - [16]
1980 Winter Olympics Eric Heiden Terry McDermott - [19]
1980 Summer Olympics Nikolai Andrianov Alexander Medved - [16]
1984 Winter Olympics Bojan Križaj Dragan Perović - [19]
1984 Summer Olympics Edwin Moses Sharon Weber - [16]
1988 Winter Olympics Pierre Harvey Suzanna Morrow-Francis - [19]
1988 Summer Olympics Hur Jae
Shon Mi-Na
Lee Hak-Rae - [16]
1992 Winter Olympics Surya Bonaly Pierre Bornat - [19]
1992 Summer Olympics Luis Doreste Blanco Eugeni Asensio - [16]
1994 Winter Olympics Vegard Ulvang Kari Kåring - [19]
1996 Summer Olympics Teresa Edwards Hobie Billingsley - [16]
1998 Winter Olympics Kenji Ogiwara Junko Hiramatsu - [19]
2000 Summer Olympics Rechelle Hawkes Peter Kerr - [16]
2002 Winter Olympics Jimmy Shea Allen Church - [19]
2004 Summer Olympics Zoi Dimoschaki Lazaros Voreadis - [16]
2006 Winter Olympics Giorgio Rocca Fabio Bianchetti - [19]
2008 Summer Olympics Zhang Yining Huang Liping - [16][21][22]
2010 Winter Olympics Hayley Wickenheiser Michel Verrault - [19]
2010 Summer Youth Olympics Caroline Pei Jia Chew Syed Abdul Kadir David Lim [23]
2012 Winter Youth Olympics Christina Ager Peter Zenz Angelika Neuner [23]
2012 Summer Olympics Sarah Stevenson Mik Basi Eric Farrell [16][24]
2014 Winter Olympics Ruslan Zakharov Vyacheslav Vedenin, Jr. [ru] [25] Anastasia Popkova [19]
2014 Summer Youth Olympics Fan Zhendong Zhou Qiurui Li Rongxiang [23]
2016 Winter Youth Olympics Maria Ramsfjell Stabekk Thomas Pettersen Sandra Alise Lyngstand [23]
2016 Summer Olympics Robert Scheidt Martinho Nobre Adriana Santos [26][27]
2018 Winter Olympics Mo Tae-bum Kim Woo-sik Park Ki-ho [28]
2018 Summer Youth Olympics Teresa Romairone Lorena Mac Coll Carlos Retegui
2020 Winter Youth Olympics
2020 Summer Olympics
2022 Winter Olympics
2024 Summer Olympics
2026 Winter Olympics
2026 Summer Youth Olympics
2028 Summer Olympics

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Crowther, Nigel (2008). "Olympic Rules and Regulations:Some Observations on the Swearing of Olympic Oaths in Ancient and Modern Times". Antike Lebenswelten : Konstanz, Wandel, Wirkungsmacht : Festschrift für Ingomar Weiler zum 70. Geburtstag. Harrassowitz. pp. 43–51. ISBN 978-3-447-05761-5.
  2. ^ a b c d e f Barker, Philip (2012). "26: For the glory of sport". The Story of the Olympic Torch (1st ed.). Amberley Publishing. ISBN 978-1-4456-1028-3.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g "Wendl, Karel. "The Olympic Oath - A Brief History" ''Citius, Altius, Fortius'' (''Journal of Olympic History'' since 1997). Winter 1995. pp. 4,5" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 7 September 2008. Retrieved 2011-10-24.
  4. ^ "The Olympic Movement, the IOC and the Olympic Games". IOC studies centre. 21 January 2018.
  5. ^ a b c d Mallon, Bill; Heijmans, Jeroen (1974). Historical Dictionary of the Olympic Movement (4th ed.). Scarecrow Press (published 2011). pp. 277–278. ISBN 978-0-8108-7522-7.
  6. ^ a b c d e Barker, Philip (16 February 2018). "Philip Barker:The Olympic Oath at Games through the ages". Inside the Games.
  7. ^ "Opening Ceremony gets Games off to flying start". Olympics. 20 January 1956.
  8. ^ Owen, Paul (2017). "These Girls Can". For the Love of running: A Companion. Summersdale Publishing. ISBN 978-1-78685-163-5.
  9. ^ Mallon, Bill; Heijmans, Jeroen (1974). Historical Dictionary of the Olympic Movement (4th ed.). Scarecrow Press (published 2011). p. 382. ISBN 978-0-8108-7522-7.
  10. ^ a b Barker, Philip (27 July 2012). "Philip Barker: Uncovering the history of the Olympic Oath". Inside the Games.
  11. ^ http://www.olympic-museum.de/oath/theoath.htm
  12. ^ "Key Olympic reforms approved by the IOC". The Independent. Associated Press. 12 December 1999.
  13. ^ https://www.olympic.org/news/eight-days-to-go-swimmer-to-take-olympic-oath
  14. ^ a b Foster, Peter (16 September 2000). "Olympic oath against drugs". The Telegraph.
  15. ^ a b "Athletes to take the lead as oaths at future Olympic Games openings are unified". Olympics. 12 September 2017.
  16. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y "Factsheet - Opening Ceremony of the Games of the Olympiad" (PDF) (Press release). International Olympic Committee. 9 October 2014. Archived (PDF) from the original on 14 August 2016. Retrieved 22 December 2018.
  17. ^ "Opening Ceremony lights up Singapore's skies". Olympics. 14 August 2010.
  18. ^ "Olympism and the Olympic Movement" (PDF). The Olympic Museum. p. 6.
  19. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v "Factsheet - Opening Ceremony of the Winter Olympic Games" (PDF) (Press release). International Olympic Committee. 9 October 2014. Archived (PDF) from the original on 21 August 2016. Retrieved 22 December 2018.
  20. ^ https://www.olympic.org/news/welcoming-the-world-at-the-opening-ceremony
  21. ^ "Star Paddler Zhang Yining Takes Athletes' Oath". 2008-08-08. Retrieved 2014-02-09.
  22. ^ "Referee Huang Liping takes oath at opening ceremony". Xinhua News Agency. 2008-08-08. Retrieved 2014-02-09.
  23. ^ a b c d "Factsheet: The Youth Olympic Games facts and figures" (PDF). IOC.
  24. ^ "Dazzling opening ceremony launches 30th Olympic Games". The Times of India. 2012-07-28. Retrieved 2012-07-31.
  25. ^ "News". Archived from the original on 31 March 2014. Retrieved 4 March 2014.
  26. ^ https://stillmed.olympic.org/media/Document%20Library/OlympicOrg/Factsheets-Reference-Documents/Games/Ceremonies/Factsheet-Opening-Ceremony-of-the-Games-of-the-Olympiad.pdf#_ga=2.238140416.1219111772.1545348118-1292983301.1545348118
  27. ^ https://stillmed.olympic.org/media/Document%20Library/OlympicOrg/Factsheets-Reference-Documents/Games/OG/Factsheet-The-Games-of-the-Olympiad.pdf
  28. ^ https://stillmed.olympic.org/media/Document%20Library/OlympicOrg/Factsheets-Reference-Documents/Games/OWG/Factsheet-The-Olympic-Winter-Games.pdf#_ga=2.10138293.1219111772.1545348118-1292983301.1545348118

External LinksEdit