Olympic Games ceremony

The Olympic Games ceremonies of the Ancient Olympic Games were an integral part of these Games; the modern Olympic games have opening, closing, and medal ceremonies. Some of the elements of the modern ceremonies date back to the Ancient Games from which the Modern Olympics draw their ancestry. An example of this is the prominence of Greece in both the opening and closing ceremonies. During the 2004 Games, the medal winners received a crown of olive branches, which was a direct reference to the Ancient Games, in which the victor's prize was an olive wreath. The various elements of the ceremonies are mandated by the Olympic Charter, and cannot be changed by the host nation. This requirement of seeking the approval of the International Olympic Committee (IOC) includes the artistic portion of opening and closing ceremonies.

The ceremonies have evolved over the centuries. Ancient Games incorporated ceremonies to mark the beginning and ending of each successive game. There are similarities and differences between the ancient Olympic ceremonies and their modern counterparts. While the presentation of the Games has evolved with improvements in technology and the desire of the host nations to showcase their own artistic expression, the basic events of each ceremony have remained unchanged. The presentation of the Opening and Closing Ceremonies continue to increase in scope, scale, and expense with each successive celebration of the Games, but they are still steeped in tradition. The 2028 Los Angeles Olympics organisers propose that the opening and closing ceremonies will each, for the first time, be staged across two stadiums.[1]

Ancient forerunnersEdit

The Ancient Games, held in Greece from ca. 776 BC to ca. 393 AD,[2] provide the first examples of Olympic ceremonies. The victory celebration, elements of which are in evidence in the modern-day medal and closing ceremonies, often involved elaborate feasts, drinking, singing, and the recitation of poetry. The wealthier the victor the more extravagant the celebration.[3] The victors were presented with an olive wreath or crown harvested from a special tree in Olympia by a boy, specially selected for this purpose, using a golden sickle.[3] The festival would conclude with the victors making solemn vows and performing ritual sacrifices to the various gods to which they were beholden.[3]

There is evidence of dramatic changes in the format of the Ancient Games over the nearly 12 centuries that they were celebrated. Eventually, by roughly the 77th Olympiad, a standard 18-event program was established.[4] In order to open a Games in ancient Greece the organizers would hold an Inauguration Festival. This was followed by a ceremony in which athletes took an oath of sportsmanship. The first competition, an artistic competition of trumpeters and heralds, concluded the opening festivities.[4]


As per tradition, the team from Greece leads the Parade of Nations during the opening ceremony of the Vancouver 2010 Winter Olympics.
The lighting of the cauldron during the opening ceremony of the Salt Lake City 2002 Winter Olympics.
The delegations of North and South Korea march as one during the opening ceremony of the PyeongChang 2018 Winter Olympics.

The Olympic opening ceremony represents the official commencement of an Olympic Games. In recent Olympics, some competition has begun prior to the opening ceremony. For example, the football competitions for both men and women at the 2008 Summer Olympics began two days prior to the opening ceremony.[5] The 2014 Winter Olympics then became the first Winter Games to hold competitions before the opening ceremony.[6]

As mandated by the Olympic Charter, various elements frame the Opening Ceremony of a celebration of the Olympic Games.[7][8] Most of these rituals were canonized at the 1920 Summer Olympics in Antwerp, Belgium.[9]

Time of dayEdit

Normally, the opening ceremonies take place on the first Friday or Saturday afternoon/evening on the main stage of the Games. However, some exceptions have already occurred, such as in the 1988 Summer Olympics where, due to pressure from the televisions that were broadcasting, the event ended up being allocated to the morning of September 17th because of the time difference between Seoul and major cities in the West. However, the ceremony ended up starting 10 am the local morning and lasted more than three hours. As the weather conditions in the city at that time did not help, several athletes and spectators who were in the Olympic Stadium ended up feeling sick due to the humidity and excessive heat. People at the stadium and of millions of television viewers all over the world were unable to see on television several scenographic effects of the mega production, such as the fireworks and the Olympic torch, since the ceremony went on until more than one o'clock in the afternoon.[10]

Following these incidents, the International Olympic Committee modified the Olympic charter in 1991 and added an exclusive day to the Games calendar for the opening ceremony. However, this rule did not apply to the 1992 Winter Games ,when the Ice hockey tournament first round was happened in parallel during the opening ceremony.[11] After the change, the ceremony would take place at Friday on 20:00 pm and lasted about hours, depending on the duration of the performances.

The last opening ceremony held during a morning in the host city was the 1998 Winter Olympics in Nagano. Unlike what happened in Seoul, the organizers decided to choose the morning time to adjust to the time zones of the cities chosen for the ending act called Grand Chorus: Unites the World in the Ode to Joy where five corals on five continents were connected by satellite.[12] The 1984 Summer Olympics opening ceremony, which was held in Los Angeles, United States, was first Summer Olympics opening ceremony held at night while the winter was 1992 Winter Olympics opening ceremony in Albertville, France.[11] The 2008 Summer Olympics opening ceremony, held in Beijing, China, was the first Olympic opening ceremony in Asia held at night, on 20:00 pm at 8 August 2008.

Artistic programEdit

The artistic program is what creates the idiosyncratic element of each ceremony.[13] Coubertin's initial vision of the Modern Olympics featured both athletic competitions and artistic achievements.[14] As the modern Olympics have evolved into a celebration of sport, it is in the opening ceremony that one can see the most of Coubertin's ideal. The opening ceremony are an important ritual of the Olympic games that represent a wide variety of features such as similar qualities and messages that link together local and global issues, as well as cultural similarities at the same scopes.[15] The artistic program of the ceremonies allows the host country to showcase its past and future in a comprehensive way.[15] The ceremonies typically start with the authorities presentation, such as the head of state of the host country and the president of the International Olympic Committee. Next, there is the raising of the country's flag to the sound of its national anthem.[7][8] The host nation then presents artistic displays of music, singing, dance, and theater representative of its culture, history, and the current Olympic game motto.[9] Since the 1976 Winter Olympics in Innsbruck, the artistic presentations have continued to grow in scale and complexity. The 2008 Summer Olympics opening ceremony ,for example, reportedly cost US$100 million, with much of the cost incurring in the artistic portion.[16]

Each Opening Ceremony has a theme selected by the host nation and have to be connected with the cultural program of that edition. During all the acts of the ceremonies, the host country's goal is to represent their cultural identity.For example, in the 2008 Summer Olympics held in Beijing, the theme was “unity”. On May 12, 2008, only two months before the 2008 games, a devastating earthquake occurred in Sichuan. Chinese basketball legend Yao Ming was chosen to be the host country flagbearer of Chinese basketball legend, walk hand-in-hand on enter on stadium with Lin Hao, a nine-year-old boy who saved some of his classmates following the earthquake.[15]

Parade of NationsEdit

A traditional part of the opening ceremony starts with a "Parade of Nations", during which most participating athletes march into the stadium, country by country. The number of athletes who paraded at the delayed 2020 Summer Olympics in Tokyo was much smaller than normal due to restrictions because of the COVID-19 pandemic. It is not compulsory for athletes to participate in the opening ceremony. Because some of the first events of the Games may start on the day before, on the day, or the day after the ceremony, athletes competing in these early events may elect not to participate.

Each country's delegation is led by a sign with the name of their country and by their nation's flag.[7][8] Traditionally, since the 1928 Summer Olympics Greece always enters first and leads the parade due to the historical status as the progenitor of the Olympics, and the host nation enters last, except in 2004, when Greece was the host nation, the Greek flag was entered first by weightlifer Pyrros Dimas while the team enters last. In 2008, Greece leads the parade again as the host country at that time was China.[9][17] All other participating teams enter after Greece and before the host nation, in alphabetical order with some exceptions due to political issues, the order is made according to the official language chosen by the Organizing Committee, which it is usually one of the official languages of the host country. It is also up to the Organizing Committee to choose the order of the official languages to be used during the ceremonies, as long as the announcement of the countries is also made in French and English, as these are the two official languages of the International Olympic Committee. For example: At the 2016 Summer Olympics, all countries were announced first in Brazilian Portuguese, then in English, and finally in French. [18] Five years later, at the 2020 Summer Olympics the Japanese organizing committee he chose to use French first, then English and lastly Japanese.[19] This was similar to the 2008 Summer Olympics, where French was first, then English and the last was Chinese. Beginning with the 2020 Summer Olympics, the succeeding hosts of the respective Olympic Games (Summer or Winter) march immediately before the current host in descending order. Therefore, in 2020, the host nation (Japan) followed the United States and France respectively as the final three nations to march. Also in 2020, the IOC Refugee Olympic Team followed Greece as the second team to enter, according to Gojūon traditional order.[20]

This tradition has already caused unusual moments when the Games are held in countries that do not use the Latin alphabet, such as the 1980 Summer Olympic Games and 1984 Winter Olympic Games in which countries organizers uses the Cyrillic script and the 2004 Summer Olympics in which the modern greek script was used. These rules are also observed with greater impact when the Games are held in Asia, notable cases have been recorded in the 1988 Summer Olympics and 2018 Winter Olympics held in the Republic of Korea in which the order of entry of countries followed the hangul which is the grammar of Korean language, based on syllables.[21] and at the 2008 Summer Olympics, when collation method was used and the countries are orderned by the Simplified Chinese characters[22] and is similar to that used in Chinese dictionaries. The names were sorted by the number of strokes in the first character of the name, then by the stroke order of the character (in the order 橫竖撇捺折, c.f. Wubi method), then the number of strokes and stroke order of the second character, then next character and so on.[citation needed] For example, this placed Australia (澳大利亚) in 202nd position, just ahead of Zambia (赞比亚) because the initial character for "Australia" () is written in 15 strokes, while that for "Zambia" () is written in 16 strokes.

Also, when Athens hosted the games in 2004, the Greek flag led the parade of the nations, while the Greek team entered last, as the host nation; Saint Lucia (Αγία Λουκία in Greek) then entered first.1992 Summer Olympics in Barcelona, both Spanish and Catalan were official languages of the games, but due to political sensitivity surrounding the use of Catalan, the nations entered in French alphabetical order and during the Games all official announcements were made in this way, interspersing the order of the four languages. However, always with French first. In the first three games taking place in Japan, due to Japanese pronunciation issues and political motives the local organizing committees opted for the use of the English language with slight variations.At the 1964 Summer Olympics and the 1972 Winter Olympics the English alphabetical order was used.Originally, the Gojūon script would have been used during the 1998 Winter Olympics, but due political tensions between People's Republic of China and Chinese Taipei , the Organizing Committee and the IOC has chose to use the IOC Codes alphabetical order. At 2020 Summer Olympics, due a change on local laws, the Japanese script was used as an official language as teams were ordered in a Gojūon script.

On the three times that the games was held on Canada the dominant language of each hosting province was used: At 1976 Summer Olympics,was held in Montréal, Québec, French was used to grouping the delegations, already at the 1988 Winter Olympics, were held in Calgary in Alberta, where English is the dominant language. This also happened during the 2010 Olympic Winter Games in Vancouver, as the language is also dominant in British Columbia.

Traditional eventsEdit

Queen Elizabeth II officially opens the 2012 London Olympic Games

After all nations have entered, the President of the Organizing Committee makes a speech, followed by the IOC president. At the end of his speech, he introduces the representative or head of state of the host country who officially declares the opening of the Games. Despite the Games having been awarded to a particular city and not to the country in general, the Olympic Charter presently requires the opener to be the host country's head of state.[23] However, there have been many cases where someone other than the host country's head of state opened the Games. The first example was at the Games of the II Olympiad in Paris in 1900, which had no opening ceremony before as part of the 1900 World's Fair. There are five examples from the United States alone in which the Games were not opened by the head of state.[24]

The Olympic Charter provides[23] that the person designated to open the Games should do so by reciting whichever of the following lines is appropriate:

  • If at the Games of the Olympiad (Summer Olympics): I declare open the Games of [name of the host city] celebrating the [ordinal number of the Olympiad] Olympiad of the modern era.
  • If at the Winter Games: I declare open the [ordinal number] Olympic Winter Games of [name of the host city].

Before 1936, the opening official would often make a short welcoming speech before declaring the Games open. However, since 1936, when Adolf Hitler opened both the Garmisch Partenkirchen Winter Olympics and the Berlin Summer Olympics, the openers have used the standard formula.

There have been ten times the official has modified the wording of the said opening line. Recent editions of the Winter Games have seen a trend of using the first version instead of the second, which happened in the 2002, 2006 and 2010[25] Winter Games. Other modifications include:

  • In 1964, Emperor Hirohito of Japan, and Emperor Naruhito in 2020, opened the Summer Olympics in Tokyo by speaking in Japanese, albeit with slightly different translations:
"Celebrating the 18th/Commemorating the 32nd Modern Olympiad, I will declare the opening of the Olympic Games Tokyo competition here."
  • In 1968, Mexican president Gustavo Díaz Ordaz declared the opening of the Games of Mexico City by speaking in Spanish:
"Today, 12 October 1968," and then the standard formula followed.
  • In 1976, Elizabeth II, as Queen of Canada, opened the Montreal Olympics (first in French then in English) with:
"I declare open the Olympic Games of 1976, celebrating the XXI Olympiad of the modern era."
  • In 1980, Soviet leader Leonid Brezhnev opened the Moscow Summer Olympics by speaking in Russian:
"Mr. President of International Olympic Committee! Comrades! I declare open the Olympic Games of 1980, celebrating the XXII Olympiad of the modern era."
  • In 1984, U.S. President Ronald Reagan opened the Los Angeles Summer Olympics with:
"Celebrating the XXIII Olympiad of the modern era, I declare open the Olympic Games of Los Angeles."
  • In 1992, King Juan Carlos I of Spain opened the Barcelona Summer Olympics with:
"(In Catalan) Welcome all to Barcelona. (In Spanish) Today, 25 July of the Year 1992," and then the standard formula followed.
  • In 2002, U.S. President George W. Bush opened the Winter Olympics in Salt Lake City (which took place five months after the September 11 attacks) using the format of the Summer Games declaration with:
"On behalf of a proud, determined and grateful nation," and then the standard formula followed.
  • In 2004, Konstantinos Stephanopoulos, the President of the Hellenic Republic, opened the 2004 Athens Summer Olympics by speaking in Greek:
"I declare the opening of the Olympic Games of Athens and the celebration of the XXVIII Olympiad of the modern era."
  • In 2008, Hu Jintao, the President of the People's Republic of China, opened the Beijing Summer Olympics by speaking in Mandarin:
"I declare, the XXIX Olympic Games of Beijing, open!"
  • In 2016, Brazilian Vice President Michel Temer, as acting president during the suspension of President Dilma Rousseff, and unusually without an introduction, opened the Summer Olympics in Rio de Janeiro by speaking in Brazilian Portuguese:
"After this wonderful spectacle," and then the standard formula followed.

Next, the Olympic flag is carried horizontally (since the 1960 Summer Olympics) into the stadium and hoisted as the Olympic Hymn is played. The Olympic Charter states that the Olympic flag must "fly for the entire duration of the Olympic Games from a flagpole placed in a prominent position in the main stadium".[23] At most games, the flag has been carried into the stadium by prominent athletes of the host nation, but in 2012, it was carried by an international group of athletes and non-athletes famous for promoting Olympic values, including Muhammad Ali as a symbolic flag-bearer.

The flag bearers of all countries then circle a rostrum, where one athlete of the host nation (since the 1920 Summer Olympics), and one judge of the host nation (since the 1972 Summer Olympics) speak the Olympic Oath, declaring they will compete and judge according to the rules of their respective sport.[23] Since the 2012 Summer Olympics in London, continuing with the tradition started at the 2010 Summer Youth Olympics a coach from the host nation speaks out the Olympic Oath. For the 2018 Winter Olympics in PyeongChang, the three oaths are merged into one as the Unified Oath where one athlete, judge, and coach recite one line of the oath respectively before the athlete finishes it.

Olympic flameEdit

Brazilian marathoner Vanderlei de Lima lights the Olympic cauldron during the opening ceremony of the Rio 2016 Summer Olympics

Finally, the Torch is brought into the stadium, passed from athlete to athlete during the torch relay, until it reaches the last carrier; often a well-known athlete from the host nation, who lights the fire in the stadium's cauldron.[7][8] Under IOC rules, the lighting of the Olympic cauldron must be witnessed by those attending the opening ceremony, implying that it must be lit at the location where the ceremony is taking place. Another IOC rule states that the cauldron should be witnessed outside by the entire residents of the entire host city. This was made evident during the opening ceremony for the 2010 Games in Vancouver. The venue chosen as the Olympic Stadium was BC Place, which at the time was an air-supported domed stadium. Since there was no way the cauldron could be displayed outside and also be seen at the stadium, two cauldrons were used. For the first torch lighting inside the stadium the organizers chose three-time speed skating medalist Catriona Le May Doan, Canadian Senator Nancy Greene, who won two medals for Canada at the 1968 Games, NBA star Steve Nash, a native of nearby Victoria, and hockey legend Wayne Gretzky, to each light one of four arms of the torch. Notably, Le May Doan's arm failed to rise; this was later rectified during the closing ceremony when she got a second chance to light her part of the torch and succeeded.

After the official conclusion of the Opening Ceremony, Gretzky was whisked away to a waiting car which took him to the secondary cauldron. Once there, he lit it to correspond with the tradition of Olympics past.

During the 2012 Summer Olympics in London, the cauldron located inside the Olympic Stadium was not visible from outside of the stadium. The image of the lit cauldron was projected on the stadium's rooftop screens during the first week of competition,[26] and live footage was available to all broadcast right holders.[26] See List of 2012 Summer Olympics broadcasters.


Dove performance from the Sochi 2014 ceremony

Beginning at the post–World War I 1920 Summer Olympics, the lighting of the Olympic flame was followed by the release of doves, symbolizing peace.[27] (Experienced athletes brought newspapers to cover themselves because of the birds' droppings.)[28] The release was discontinued after several doves perched themselves at the cauldron's rim and were burned alive by the Olympic flame during the opening ceremony of the 1988 Summer Olympics in Seoul.[27] It was later replaced with a symbolic release of doves after the flame has been lit.[7][8]

In the 2000 ceremony, a dove image was projected on an enormous white cloth held by the athletes on the stadium floor. In 2004, an LED screen was used. In 2006, acrobats formed the shape of a dove. The 2008 ceremony had yellow fireworks representing doves. In 2010, dove figures were projected on the stage floor. The 2012 ceremony had bicyclists with dove-wings, lit by LEDs. In the 2014 ceremony several dancers, holding strands of blue LED lights, danced on the shape of a dove projected on the stadium floor. In the 2016 ceremony, children with dove shaped kites were seen running with the first Olympic Laurel winner, Kipchoge Keino. In the 2020 ceremony, the doves were made of paper and were flown by the performers.

Medal presentationEdit

The medal ceremony for the women's uneven bars at the London 2012 Summer Olympics

After each Olympic event is completed, a medal ceremony is held. The Summer Games would usually conduct the ceremony immediately after the event at the respective venues, whereas the Winter editions would present the medals at a nightly victory ceremony held at a medal plaza, excluding the indoor events. A three–tiered rostrum is used for the three medal winners, with the gold medal winner ascending to the highest platform, in the centre, with the silver and bronze medalists flanking. The medals are awarded by a member of the IOC.[29] The IOC member is usually accompanied by a person from the sports federation governing the sport (such as IAAF in athletics or FINA in swimming), who presents each athlete with a small bouquet of flowers. When the Games were held in Athens in 2004, the medal winners also received olive wreaths in honor of the tradition at the Ancient Olympics. At the 2016 Summer Olympics, for the first time in history, the flowers were replaced by a small 3D model of the Games' logo. At the 2018 Winter Olympic Games, the flowers were replaced by a special version of the plush toy of the mascot dressed in historical Korean clothing. After medals are distributed, the flags of the nations of the three medalists are raised. The flag of the gold medalist's country is in the centre and raised the highest while the flag of the silver medalist's country is on the left facing the flags and the flag of the bronze medalist's country is on the right, both at lower elevations than the gold medalist's country's flag.

The flags are raised while the national anthem of the gold medalist's country plays.[30] Citizens of the host country also act as hosts during the medal ceremonies. They aid the officials who present the medals and act as flag bearers.[31]

Strict rules govern the conduct of athletes during the medal ceremony. For example, they are required to wear only pre-approved outfits that are standard for the athlete's national Olympic team. They are not allowed to display any political affiliation or make a political statement while on the medal stand.[23] The most famous violation of this rule was the Black Power salute of Tommie Smith and John Carlos at the 1968 Summer Olympics in Mexico City.

For their actions, IOC president Avery Brundage demanded their expulsion from the Olympics.[32] After the United States Olympic Committee (USOC) refused to do so, Brundage threatened to remove the entire United States track and field team from the Olympics. Following this, the USOC complied, and Smith and Carlos were expelled.[33]

As is customary, since the 2020 Summer Olympics men's and women's marathon medals (at the Summer Olympics) and since the 2014 Winter Olympics, men's 50km and women's 30km cross-country skiing medals (at the Winter Olympics) are awarded as part of the Closing Ceremony, which take place on the penultimate and the last days, in the Olympic Stadium, and are thus the last medal presentation of the Games.


Athletes gather in the stadium during the closing ceremony of the Beijing 2008 Summer Olympics
The Parade of Flags during the closing ceremony of the Rio 2016 Summer Olympics
The Olympic Flame slowly going out during the London 2012 Summer Olympics

In contrast to the opening ceremony, many elements of the Olympic closing ceremony gradually developed more by tradition than official mandate.[34]

Like the opening ceremony, the closing ceremony begins with the raising of the host country's flag and a performance of its national anthem.[34] Then the host country presents an artistic program similar to the opening ceremony though usually it is shorter than the opening. Then after the flame is extinguished, there would be a party for the athletes featuring some of the host country's music culture and is common to see local musical scene big names performing.

The traditional part of the closing ceremony starts with the "Parade of Flags",[34] where flag bearers from each participating country enter the stadium in single file, with the Greek flag in the lead and the host nation's flag bringing up the rear. Behind them march all of the athletes without any distinction or grouping by nationality. This "Parade of Athletes,"[34] the blending of all the athletes, is a tradition that began during the 1956 Summer Olympics at the suggestion of Melbourne schoolboy John Ian Wing, who thought it would be a way of bringing the athletes of the world together as "one nation." Prior to the 1956 Games, no Olympic Team had ever marched in the closing ceremony of the Modern or the Ancient Games. It was the very first International Peace March ever to be staged.[35]

After all the athletes enter the stadium, the final medals ceremony of the Games is held. The organizing committee of the respective host city, after consulting with the IOC, determines which event will have its medals presented.[34] During the Summer Olympics, this is usually the men's marathon and starting in 2020 games, the woman's event medals was presented.[34] Traditionally, the men's marathon is held in the last day of competition on the last day of the Olympics, and the race is finished some hours before the start of the closing ceremony. However, recent Summer Olympiads in Atlanta, Beijing, Rio and Tokyo (although 2020's marathons were held in Sapporo, 500 miles away) staged the men's marathon in the early morning hours due the climate conditions in the host city. Since the 2006 Winter Olympics, the medals for the men's 50 km cross-country skiing event and starting on 2014 the woman's 30 km cross-country skiing event were presented at the closing ceremony. The medallists national flags are then hoisted and the national anthem of the gold medallist's country is played.

The newly elected members of the IOC Athletes' Commission then present a bouquet of flowers to a representative of the volunteers, as a thank you to them for their work during the Games.[34]

Next, two other national flags are hoisted on flagpoles one at a time while the corresponding national anthems are played: the flag of Greece to again honor the birthplace of the Olympic Games is played first, and the flag of the country hosting the next Summer or Winter Olympic Games.[34] "Hymn to Liberty", the national anthem of Greece, has been performed at every closing ceremony of the Olympic Games.[36] In Moscow, Soviet Union, during the 1980 Summer Olympics boycott in protest of the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, the flag raised to represent the next games host was that of the City of Los Angeles instead of the flag of the United States to the sound of Ode to Joy, a break from the tradition that was initiated by the host nation.[37] In Sydney and Athens, two Greek flags were raised because Greece was hosting the 2004 games. Then, while the Olympic Hymn is played, the Olympic flag that was hoisted during the opening ceremony is lowered from the flagpole and carried from the stadium.[34]

In what is known as the Antwerp Ceremony (because the tradition began at the Antwerp Games), the current mayor of the city that organized the Games transfers the official Olympic flag to the president of the IOC, who then passes it on to the current mayor of the city hosting the next Olympic Games.[23] The receiving mayor then waves the flag eight times. There are five such flags:

  • The Antwerp flag was presented to the IOC at the 1920 Summer Olympics by the city of Antwerp, Belgium, and was passed on to the next organizing city of the Summer Olympics through the 1984 Games in Los Angeles, United States.
  • The Oslo flag was presented to the IOC at the 1952 Winter Olympics by the city of Oslo, Norway, and is passed on to the next organizing city of the Winter Olympics. This flag was used until the 2014 Games in Sochi, Russia when this flag wore out over time and ended up tearing.
  • The Seoul flag was presented to the IOC at the 1988 Summer Olympics by the city of Seoul, South Korea as a replacement for the Antwerp flag. This flag was used until the 2012 Games in London, Great Britain.
  • The Rio flag was presented to the IOC at the 2016 Summer Olympics by the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil as a replacement for the Seoul flag. It is currently passed on to the next organizing city of the Summer Olympics. In 2020, as a result of the postponement of the 2020 Summer Olympics in Tokyo, Japan to 2021, it was renamed as the Tokyo flag.
  • The PyeongChang flag was presented to the IOC at the 2018 Winter Olympics by the city of PyeongChang, South Korea as a replacement for the Oslo flag. It is currently passed on to the next organizing city of the Winter Olympics.

This portion of the ceremony actually took place at the opening ceremony until the 1984 Summer Games and the 1988 Winter Games.

The next host nation then introduces itself with artistic displays of dance and theater representative of that country or city. This tradition began with the 1976 Summer Olympics.

Afterwards, the President of the Organizing Committee makes a speech. The IOC President then makes a speech before closing the Olympics by saying:

And now, I declare the Games of the [ordinal number of Summer Olympics] Olympiad/[ordinal number of Winter Olympics] Olympic Winter Games closed; and in accordance with our tradition, I call upon the youth of the world to assemble, four[a] years from now, in [name of next host city] to celebrate with us; the Games of the [subsequent ordinal number of Summer Olympics] Olympiad/[subsequent ordinal number of Winter Olympics] Olympic Winter Games.[38][39][40][41]

Finally, the Olympic flame is extinguished, marking the end of the Games.[34]


  1. ^ This part of the declaration may vary if the next Olympic Games is not scheduled for four years time, as happened with the 1992 Winter Olympics, which were two years before the 1994 Winter Olympics in Lillehammer, and the 2020 Summer Olympics, which were postponed to 2021, three years before the 2024 Summer Olympics in Paris. On both occasions, the IOC President at the time referenced the revised timeframe.


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