List of skeletal muscles of the human body

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This is a table of skeletal muscles of the human anatomy.

There are around 650 skeletal muscles within the typical human body.[1][2][3] Almost every muscle constitutes one part of a pair of identical bilateral muscles, found on both sides, resulting in approximately 320 pairs of muscles, as presented in this article. Nevertheless, the exact number is difficult to define. Different sources group muscles differently, regarding what is defined as different parts of a single muscle or as several muscles. There are also vestigial muscles that are present in some people but absent in others, such as palmaris longus muscle.[4][5]

The muscles of the human body can be categorized into a number of groups which include muscles relating to the head and neck, muscles of the torso or trunk, muscles of the upper limbs, and muscles of the lower limbs.

The action refers to the action of each muscle from the standard anatomical position. In other positions, other actions may be performed.

These muscles are described using anatomical terminology. The term "muscle" is omitted from muscle names (except when a muscle is an origin or insertion), and the term "bone" is omitted from bone names. The terms "artery" and "nerve" are both used when these structures are mentioned.

HeadEdit

Forehead/eyelidEdit

Muscle Origin Insertion Artery Nerve Action Antagonist
occipitofrontalis 2 occipital bellies and 2 frontal bellies epicranial aponeurosis facial nerve [CNVII] raises eyebrows
     occipitalis superior nuchal line of occipital bone, mastoid part of temporal bone occipital artery posterior auricular nerve (facial nerve [CNVII]) retracts scalp
     frontalis skin of eyebrow and glabella ophthalmic artery facial nerve [CNVII] wrinkles eyebrow
orbicularis oculi orbital part: frontal bone

palpebral part: medial palpebral ligament

lacrimal part: posterior crest of lacrimal bone

orbital part: lateral palpebral raphe

palpebral part: lateral palpebral raphelacrimal part: Edges of eyelids

ophthalmic artery, zygomatico-orbital artery, angular artery zygomatic branch of facial nerve [CNVII] closes eyelids levator palpebrae superioris
corrugator supercilii nasal part of frontal bone intermediate third of skin of eyebrow ophthalmic artery zygomatic branch of facial nerve [CNVII] moves skin of forehead medially and inferiorly (towards root of nose)
depressor supercilii nasal part of frontal bone, medial rim of orbit medial third of skin of eyebrow moves skin of eyebrows inferiorly

Extraocular musclesEdit

Muscle Origin Insertion Artery Nerve Action Antagonist
levator palpebrae superioris sphenoid bone tarsal plate, upper eyelid ophthalmic artery oculomotor nerve [CNIII] retracts and elevates eyelid orbicularis oculi
superior tarsal underside of levator palpebrae superioris superior tarsal plate of eyelid sympathetic nervous system raises upper eyelid
Rectus muscles
     superior annulus of Zinn at orbital apex 7.5 mm superior to corneal limbus ophthalmic artery oculomotor nerve [CNIII] elevates, adducts, and medially rotates eye
     inferior 6.5 mm inferior to corneal limbus ophthalmic artery inferior branch of oculomotor nerve [CNIII] depresses and adducts eye
     medial 5.5 mm medial to corneal limbus ophthalmic artery inferior branch of oculomotor nerve [CNIII] adducts eye
     lateral 7 mm temporal to corneal limbus ophthalmic artery abducens nerve [CNVI] abducts eye
Oblique muscles
     superior annulus of Zinn at orbital apex, medial to optic canal outer posterior quadrant of eyeball lateral muscular branch of ophthalmic artery trochlear nerve [CNIV] intorts, abducts, and depress eye
     inferior orbital surface of maxilla, lateral to lacrimal groove laterally onto eyeball, deep to lateral rectus, by a short flat tendon oculomotor nerve [CNIII] extorts, elevates, and abducts eye

EarEdit

Muscle Origin Insertion Artery Nerve Action Antagonist
temporoparietalis auriculares muscles epicranial aponeurosis facial nerve [CNVII]
Auriculares
auricularis anterior temporal fascia front of helix of ear facial nerve [CNVII] pulls auricle forwards
auricularis superior epicranial aponeurosis dorsocranial surface of auricle posterior auricular artery pulls auricle upwards
auricularis posterior mastoid process of temporal bone, tendon of sternocleidomastoid dorsal part of auricle posterior auricular artery pulls auricle backwards
Muscles of inner ear
stapedius tip of pyramid of middle ear neck of stapes stapedial branch of posterior auricular artery facial nerve [CNVII] controls amplitude of sound waves to inner ear
tensor tympani Eustachian tube handle of malleus superior tympanic artery medial pterygoid nerve from mandibular nerve [CNV3] tenses tympanic membrane

NoseEdit

Muscle Origin Insertion Artery Nerve Action Antagonist
procerus muscle fascia over lower part of nasal bone skin of lower part of forehead between eyebrows facial artery buccal branch of facial nerve [CNVII] draws down medial angle of eyebrow (giving expressions of frowning)
depressor septi nasi incisive fossa of maxilla nasal septum and back part of alar part of nasalis superior labial artery depresses nasal septum
levator labii superioris alaeque nasi frontal process of maxilla nostril and upper lip superior labial artery dilates nostril, elevates upper lip, elevates wing of nose
nasalis
     transverse part

     (compressor naris)

alveolar yoke of canine tooth lateral nasal cartilage superior labial artery buccal branch of facial nerve [CNVII] compresses nostrils
     alar part

     (dilator naris)

alveolar yoke of lateral incisor tooth, greater and lesser alar cartilages skin near margin of nostril dilates nostrils

MouthEdit

Muscle Origin Insertion Artery Nerve Action Antagonist
levator anguli oris
(caninus)
maxilla modiolus of mouth facial artery facial nerve [CNVII] elevates angle of mouth (smile)
depressor anguli oris
(triangularis)
tubercle of mandible mandibular branch of facial nerve [CNVII] depresses angle of mouth (frown)
levator labii superioris medial part of infra-orbital margin of maxilla skin and muscle of upper lip (labii superioris) superior labial artery buccal branch of facial nerve [CNVII] elevates upper lip
depressor labii inferioris oblique line of mandible, between symphysis and mental foramen integument of lower lip, orbicularis oris fibers, its fellow of opposite side inferior labial artery facial nerve [CNVII] depresses lower lip
mentalis alveolar yoke of lower, lateral incisor tooth, found on anterior mandible skin of chin mandibular branch of facial nerve [CNVII] elevates and wrinkles skin of chin, protrudes lower lip
buccinator alveolar processes of maxilla and mandible, pterygomandibular raphe fibres of orbicularis oris buccal artery buccal branch of facial nerve [CNVII] compress cheeks against teeth (blowing), mastication
orbicularis oris maxilla and mandible skin around lips superior labial artery, inferior labial artery puckers lips
risorius parotid fascia modiolus of mouth facial artery draw back angle of mouth
Zygomatic muscles
     major zygomatic bone in region of zygomaticomaxillary suture modiolus of mouth facial artery buccal branch of facial nerve [CNVII] draws angle of mouth upward and laterally
     minor skin of upper lip elevates upper lip

MasticationEdit

Muscle Origin Insertion Artery Nerve Action Antagonist
masseter anterior two-thirds of inferior margin of zygomatic arch and maxilla angle of mandible, masseteric tuberosity of mandible masseteric artery masseteric nerve, from mandibular nerve [CNV3] elevates and retracts mandible (closes of mouth) platysma
temporalis temporal lines on parietal bone of skull coronoid process of mandible deep temporal arteries mandibular nerve [CNV3]
Pterygoid muscles
     lateral greater wing of sphenoid and lateral pterygoid process condyloid process of mandible pterygoid branches of maxillary artery external pterygoid nerve from mandibular nerve [CNV3] depresses mandible
     medial deep head: medial side of lateral pterygoid plate behind upper teeth
superficial head: pyramidal process of palatine bone and maxillary tuberosity
medial angle of mandible medial pterygoid nerve from mandibular nerve [CNV3] elevates mandible, closes jaw, helps lateral pterygoid in moving jaw from side to side

TongueEdit

Extrinsic muscleEdit

Muscle Origin Insertion Artery Nerve Action Antagonist
genioglossus superior part of mental spine of mandible (symphysis menti) dorsum of tongue, body of hyoid lingual artery hypoglossal nerve [CNXII] inferior fibers: protrudes tongue

middle fibers: depresses tongue

superior fibers: draws tip of tongue back and down

hyoglossus hyoid side of tongue depresses tongue
chondroglossus lesser cornu and body of hyoid bone intrinsic muscular fibers of tongue depresses tongue (some consider this muscle to be part of hyoglossus)
styloglossus styloid process of temporal bone tongue sublingual branch of lingual artery elevates and retracts tongue inferior and middle fibers of genioglossus
palatoglossus palatine aponeurosis vagus nerve [CNX], accessory nerve [CNXI] raising back part of tongue

IntrinsicEdit

Muscle Origin Insertion Artery Nerve Action Antagonist
superior longitudinal close to epiglottis, from median fibrous septum edges of tongue hypoglossal nerve [CNXII] shortens, turns tip upward, turns lateral margins upward
transversus median fibrous septum sides of tongue narrows and not elongated
inferior longitudinal root of tongue apex of tongue shortens, retracts, pulls tip downward
verticalis dorsum of tongue inferior surface borders of tongue

Soft palateEdit

Muscle Origin Insertion Artery Nerve Action Antagonist
tensor veli palatini medial pterygoid plate of sphenoid bone palatine aponeurosis medial pterygoid of mandibular nerve medial pterygoid nerve from mandibular nerve [CNV3] tenses soft palate, aids in swallowing
musculus uvulae hard palate pharyngeal plexus pharyngeal branch of vagus nerve [CNX] moves and changes shape of uvula
palatoglossus palatine aponeurosis tongue vagus nerve [CNX], accessory nerve [CNXI] aids in breathing by raising back part of tongue
palatopharyngeus palatine aponeurosis and hard palate upper border of thyroid cartilage (blends with constrictor fibers) facial artery aids in breathing by pulling pharynx and larynx

PharynxEdit

Muscle Origin Insertion Artery Nerve Action Antagonist
stylopharyngeus styloid process of temporal bone thyroid cartilage (pharynx) pharyngeal branches of ascending pharyngeal artery glossopharyngeal nerve [CNIX] elevates larynx, elevates pharynx, swallowing
salpingopharyngeus cartilage of Eustachian tube posterior fasciculus of pharyngopalatinus vagus nerve [CNX], accessory nerve [CNXI] raises nasopharynx
Pharyngeal muscles
     inferior cricoid and thyroid cartilage pharyngeal raphe pharyngeal branches of ascending pharyngeal artery external laryngeal branch of vagus nerve [CNX] swallowing
     middle hyoid bone vagus nerve [CNX]
     superior medial pterygoid plate, pterygomandibular raphé, alveolar process pharyngeal raphe, pharyngeal tubercle

LarynxEdit

Muscle Origin Insertion Artery Nerve Action Antagonist
cricothyroid anterior and lateral cricoid cartilage inferior cornu and lamina of thyroid cartilage cricothyroid branch of superior thyroid artery external laryngeal branch of vagus nerve [CNX] tenses and elongates vocal folds (has minor adductory effect)
arytenoid arytenoid cartilage on one side arytenoid cartilage on opposite side superior laryngeal branch of superior thyroid artery recurrent laryngeal branch of vagus nerve [CNX] approximates arytenoid cartilages (closes rima glottidis)
thyroarytenoid inner surface of thyroid cartilage (anterior surface) anterior surface of arytenoid cartilage thickens vocal folds and decreases length; adducts vocal folds during speech
Cricoarytenoid muscles
     posterior posterior part of cricoid cartilage muscular process of arytenoid cartilage recurrent laryngeal branch of vagus nerve [CNX] abducts and laterally rotates cartilage, pulling vocal ligaments away from midline and forward and so opening rima glottidis lateral cricoarytenoid
     lateral lateral part of arch of cricoid cartilage adducts and medially rotates cartilage, pulling vocal ligaments towards midline and backwards and so closing rima glottidis

NeckEdit

ClavicularEdit

Muscle Origin Insertion Artery Nerve Action Antagonist
platysma base of mandible inferior clavicle and fascia of chest branches of submental artery, branches of suprascapular artery cervical branch of facial nerve [CNVII] tenses skin of neck masseter, temporalis
sternocleidomastoid sternal head: manubrium sterni

clavicular head: medial portion of clavicle

mastoid process of temporal bone, superior nuchal line occipital artery, superior thyroid artery motor: accessory nerve
sensory: cervical plexus
acting alone: tilts head to its own side, rotates head so face is turned towards opposite side

acting together: flexes neck, raises sternum, assists in forced inspiration ||

SuprahyoidEdit

Muscle Origin Insertion Artery Nerve Action Antagonist
digastric anterior belly: digastric fossa (mandible)

posterior belly: mastoid process of temporal bone

intermediate tendon (lesser horn of hyoid bone) anterior belly: submental branch of facial artery

posterior belly: occipital artery

anterior belly: mandibular nerve [CNV3] via mylohyoid nerve

posterior belly: facial nerve [CNVII]

opens jaw when masseter and temporalis are relaxed
stylohyoid styloid process of temporal bone greater horn of hyoid bone occipital artery facial nerve [CNVII] elevates hyoid during swallowing
mylohyoid mylohyoid line of mandible pharyngeal raphe mylohyoid branch of inferior alveolar artery mylohyoid nerve, from inferior alveolar branch of mandibular nerve [CNV3] raises oral cavity floor, elevates hyoid, depresses mandible
geniohyoid mandibular symphysis anterior surface of body of hyoid bone C1 via hypoglossal nerve elevates hyoid and tongue upward during deglutition

InfrahyoidEdit

Muscle Origin Insertion Artery Nerve Action Antagonist
sternohyoid manubrium of sternum hyoid bone superior thyroid artery ansa cervicalis depresses hyoid
sternothyroid thyroid cartilage depresses larynx, may slightly depress hyoid
thyrohyoid thyroid cartilage hyoid bone C1 depress hyoid
omohyoid upper border of scapula inferior thyroid artery ansa cervicalis depresses larynx, depresses and moves to side hyoid

NeckEdit

AnteriorEdit

Muscle Origin Insertion Artery Nerve Action Antagonist
longus colli transverse processes of vertebrae C3, C4, C5, and C6 anterior arch of atlas C2, C3, C4, C5, C6 flexes neck and head
longus capitis anterior tubercles of transverse processes of vertebrae C3, C4, C5, and C6 basilar part of occipital bone C1, C2, C3/C4 flexes neck at atlanto-occipital joint
rectus capitis anterior atlas occipital bone C1
rectus capitis lateralis upper surface of transverse process of atlas under surface of jugular process of occipital bone sidebens at atlanto-occipital joint

LateralEdit

Muscle Origin Insertion Artery Nerve Action Antagonist
scalene cervical vertebrae first and second ribs ascending cervical artery (branch of inferior thyroid artery) cervical nerves (C3, C4, C5, C6, C7) elevates 1st and 2nd rib
     anterior C3-C6 first rib ventral ramus of C5, C6 when neck is fixed, elevates first rib to aid in breathing or when rib is fixed, bends neck forward and sideways and rotates it to opposite side
     medius C2-C6 ventral rami of third to eighth cervical spinal nerves elevates 1st rib, rotate neck to opposite side
     posterior transverse processes of C4C6 second rib ascending cervical artery, superficial cervical artery C6, C7, C8 elevates 2nd rib, tilts neck to same side
levator scapulae posterior tubercles of transverse processes of C1 – C4 superior part of medial border of scapula dorsal scapular artery cervical nerve (C3, C4) and dorsal scapular nerve (C5) elevates scapula, tilts glenoid cavity inferiorly by rotating scapula serratus anterior
rectus capitis lateralis upper surface of transverse process of atlas (C1) under surface of jugular process of occipital bone C1
obliquus capitis superior lateral mass of atlas lateral half of inferior nuchal line suboccipital nerve
obliquus capitis inferior spinous process of axis lateral mass of atlas suboccipital nerve

PosteriorEdit

Muscle Origin Insertion Artery Nerve Action Antagonist
rectus capitis posterior minor tubercle on posterior arch of atlas (C1) medial part of inferior nuchal line of occipital bone and surface between it and foramen magnum a branch of dorsal primary division of suboccipital nerve extends head at neck, but is now considered to be more of a sensory organ than a muscle
rectus capitis posterior major spinous process of axis (C2) inferior nucheal line of occipital bone dorsal ramus of C1 (suboccipital nerve)
semispinalis capitis articular processes of C4-C6; transverse processes of C7 and T1-T7 occipital bone between superior and inferior nuchal lines greater occipital nerve extends head
longissimus capitis articular processes of C4-C7; transverse processes of T1-T5 posterior margin of mastoid process lateral sacral artery posterior branch of spinal nerve laterally: Flexes head and neck to same side.

bilaterally: Extend vertebral column ||

splenius capitis ligamentum nuchae, spinous processes of C7-T6 mastoid process C3, C4 extends, rotates, and laterally flex head
obliquus capitis superior lateral mass of atlas lateral half of inferior nuchal line suboccipital nerve
obliquus capitis inferior spinous process of axis lateral mass of atlas

TorsoEdit

BackEdit

Muscle Origin Insertion Artery Nerve Action Antagonist
erector spinae spines of last four thoracic vertebrae both spines of most cranial thoracic vertebrae and cervical vertebrae lateral sacral artery posterior branch of spinal nerve extends vertebral column rectus abdominis
     iliocostalis
     longissimus transverse process transverse process
     spinalis spinous process spinous process
latissimus dorsi spinous processes of thoracic T6-T12, thoracolumbar fascia, iliac crest and inferior 3 or 4 ribs floor of intertubercular groove of humerus subscapular artery, dorsal scapular artery thoracodorsal nerve pulls forelimb dorsally and caudally deltoid, trapezius
transversospinales transverse process spinous process posterior branches of spinal nerve
     semispinalis thoracis
(dorsi)
transverse processes of sixth to tenth thoracic vertebrae spinous processes of upper four thoracic vertebrae and lower two cervical vertebrae
     semispinalis cervicis
(colli)
transverse processes of upper five or six thoracic vertebrae cervical spinous processes, from axis to fifth
     semispinalis capitis
(complexus)
transversal process of lower cervical and higher thoracal columna area between superior and inferior nuchal line greater occipital nerve extends head
     multifidus sacrum, erector spinae aponeurosis, PSIS, and iliac crest spinous process posterior branch of spinal nerve stabilizes vertebrae in local movements of vertebral column
     rotatores transverse process posterior branch
interspinales spinous process posterior rami of spinal nerves extends, flexes, and rotates vertebral column
intertransversarii transverse process transverse process above laterally flexes trunk
splenius
     capitis nuchal ligament, spinous process of C7-T6 mastoid process of temporal bone, occipital bone C3, C4 extends, rotates, and laterally flexes head
     cervicis spinous processes of T3-T6 transverse processes of C1, C2, C3 C5, C6

ChestEdit

Muscle Origin Insertion Artery Nerve Action Antagonist
intercostals ribs 1–11 ribs 2–12 intercostal arteries intercostal nerves
     external inhalation internal
     internal rib – inferior border rib – superior border holds ribs steady external
     innermost elevates ribs
subcostales inner surface of one rib inner surface of second or third rib above, near its angle
transversus thoracis costal cartilages of last 3–4 ribs, body of sternum, xiphoid process ribs/costal cartilages 2–6 depresses ribs
levatores costarum transverse processes of C7 to T12 vertebrae superior surfaces of ribs immediately inferior to preceding vertebrae dorsal ramiC8, T1, T2, T3, T4, T5, T6, T7, T8, T9, T10, T11 assists in elevation of thoracic rib cage
Serratus posterior muscles
     inferior vertebrae T11L3 inferior borders of 9th through 12th ribs intercostal arteries intercostal nerves depresses lower ribs, aiding in expiration
     superior nuchal ligament (or ligamentum nuchae) and spinous processes of vertebrae C7 through T3 upper borders of 2nd through 5th ribs 2nd through 5th intercostal nerves elevates ribs, aiding in inspiration
diaphragm pericardiacophrenic artery, musculophrenic artery, inferior phrenic arteries phrenic and lower intercostal nerves breathing

PelvisEdit

Muscle Origin Insertion Artery Nerve Action Antagonist
coccygeus sacrospinous ligament coccyx sacral nerves: S4, S5 or S3-S4 closes back part of pelvic outlet
Levator ani
     iliococcygeus ischial spine, posterior part of tendinous arch of pelvic fascia coccyx and anococcygeal raphe inferior gluteal artery levator ani nerve (S4) supports organs in pelvic cavity
     pubococcygeus back surface of pubis, anterior part of obturator fascia coccyx and sacrum controls urine flow, contracts during orgasm
     puborectalis lower part of pubic symphysis - S3, S4. levator ani nerve inhibits defecation

PerineumEdit

Muscle Origin Insertion Artery Nerve Action Antagonist
Sphincter ani
     externus - - inferior rectal artery S4 and twigs from inferior anal nerves of pudendal nerve keeps anal canal and anus closed, aids in expulsion of feces
     internus - - pudendal nerve
Superficial perineal pouch
     transversus perinei superficialis anterior surface of ischial tuberosity central point of perineum perineal artery pudendal nerve
     bulbospongiosus perineal raphe - empties urethra (men)

clenches vagina (women) ||

     ischiocavernosus ischial tuberosity crus of penis (men)

crus of clitoris (women)

assists bulbospongiosus
Deep perineal pouch
     transversus perinei profundus inferior ramus of ischium its fellow of opposite side pudendal nerve
     sphincter urethrae membranaceae junction of inferior rami of pubis and ischium about 1.25 – 2 cm, and from neighboring fascia perineal branch of pudendal nerve (S2, S3, S4) constricts urethra, maintains urinary continence

Upper limbEdit

Vertebral columnEdit

Muscle Origin Insertion Artery Nerve Action Antagonist
trapezius down midline, external occipital protuberance, nuchal ligament, medial part of superior nuchal line, spinous processes of vertebrae C7-T12 at shoulders, lateral third of clavicle, acromion of scapula, spine of scapula transverse cervical artery motor: accessory nerve [CNXI]

sensory: cervical nerves C3 and C4

retracts and elevates scapula serratus anterior
latissimus dorsi spinous processes of thoracic T6-T12, thoracolumbar fascia, iliac crest and inferior 3 or 4 ribs floor of intertubercular groove of humerus subscapular artery, dorsal scapular artery thoracodorsal nerve pulls forelimb dorsally and caudally deltoid, trapezius
rhomboids nuchal ligaments, spinous processes of C7-T5 vertebrae medial border of scapula dorsal scapular artery dorsal scapular nerve (C4 and C5) retracts scapula and rotates it to depress glenoid cavity, fixes scapula to thoracic wall serratus anterior
     rhomboid major spinous processes of T2 to T5 vertebrae medial border of scapula, inferior to insertion of rhomboid minor
     rhomboid minor nuchal ligaments and spinous processes of C7- to T1 vertebrae medial border of scapula, superior to insertion of rhomboid major
levator scapulae posterior tubercles of transverse processes of C1C4 vertebrae superior part of medial border of scapula cervical nerve (C3, C4) and dorsal scapular nerve (C5) elevates scapula, tilts glenoid cavity inferiorly by rotating scapula

Thoracic wallsEdit

Muscle Origin Insertion Artery Nerve Action Antagonist
pectoralis major clavicular head: anterior surface of medial half of clavicle sternocostal head: anterior surface of sternum, superior six costal cartilages intertubercular groove of humerus pectoral branch of thoracoacromial artery lateral pectoral nerve, medial pectoral nerve clavicular head: C5 and C6 sternocostal head: C7, C8 and T1 adducts and medially rotates humerus, draws scapula anteriorly and inferiorly clavicular head: flexes humerus sternocostal head: extends humerus
pectoralis minor 3rd to 5th ribs, near their costal cartilages medial border and superior surface of coracoid process of scapula medial pectoral nerve (C8, T1) stabilizes scapula by drawing it inferiorly and anteriorly against thoracic wall
subclavius first rib subclavian groove of clavicle thoracoacromial artery, clavicular branch subclavian nerve depresses clavicle
serratus anterior fleshy slips from outer surface of upper 8 or 9 ribs costal surface of medial margin of scapula upper part: lateral thoracic artery

lower part:thoracodorsal artery

long thoracic nerve (from roots of brachial plexus C5, C6, C7) protracts and stabilises scapula, assists in upward rotation rhomboid major, rhomboid minor, trapezius

ShoulderEdit

Muscle Origin Insertion Artery Nerve Action Antagonist
deltoid clavicle, acromion, spine of scapula deltoid tuberosity of humerus primarily posterior circumflex humeral artery axillary nerve abducts, flexes, and extends shoulder latissimus dorsi
teres major posterior surface of inferior angle of scapula medial lip of intertubercular sulcus of humerus subscapular artery, circumflex scapular artery lower subscapular nerve (segmental levels C5 and C6) internally rotates humerus
Rotator cuff
supraspinatus supraspinous fossa of scapula superior facet of greater tubercle of humerus suprascapular artery suprascapular nerve abducts and stabilises humerus infraspinatus, teres minor, pectoralis major, latissimus dorsi
infraspinatus infraspinous fossa of scapula middle facet of greater tubercle of humerus suprascapular artery, circumflex scapular artery laterally rotates, adducts, and stabilises humerus subscapularis, pectoralis major, latissimus dorsi
teres minor lateral border of scapula inferior facet of greater tubercle of humerus posterior circumflex humeral artery, circumflex scapular artery axillary nerve laterally rotates and adducts humerus subscapularis, pectoralis major, latissimus dorsi
subscapularis subscapular fossa of scapula lesser tubercle of humerus subscapular artery upper subscapular nerve, lower subscapular nerve (C5, C6) medially rotates humerus, stabilizes shoulder infraspinatus, teres minor

ArmEdit

Anterior compartmentEdit

Muscle Origin Insertion Artery Nerve Action Antagonist
coracobrachialis coracoid process of scapula medial surface of humerus brachial artery musculocutaneous nerve flexes and adducts shoulder
biceps brachii short head: coracoid process of scapula
long head: supraglenoid tubercle
radial tuberosity, bicipital aponeurosis musculocutaneous nerve (lateral cord: C5, C6, C7) flexes elbow, supinates forearm triceps brachii
brachialis anterior surface of humerus (mainly distal half) coronoid process of ulna, tuberosity of ulna radial recurrent artery musculocutaneous nerve flexes elbow

Posterior compartmentEdit

Muscle Origin Insertion Artery Nerve Action Antagonist
triceps brachii long head: infraglenoid tubercle of scapula
lateral head: posterior humerus (above radial sulcus)
medial head: posterior humerus - (below radial sulcus)
olecranon of ulna deep artery of arm radial nerve extends forearm

long head: adducts shoulder medial head: does not function at shoulder

biceps brachii, brachialis
anconeus lateral epicondyle of humerus lateral surface of olecranon, superior part of posterior ulna deep artery of arm, interosseous recurrent artery radial nerve (C7, C8, and T1) partly blended with triceps, extendsforearm, stabilises elbow, abducts ulna during pronation

ForearmEdit

Anterior compartmentEdit

SuperficialEdit
Muscle Origin Insertion Artery Nerve Action Antagonist
pronator teres humeral head: medial epicondyle of humerus (common flexor tendon)
ulnar head: coronoid process of ulna
pronator tuberosity of radius ulnar artery, radial artery median nerve pronates forearm, flexes elbow supinator
flexor carpi radialis medial epicondyle of humerus (common flexor tendon) bases of second metacarpal, base of third metacarpal radial artery flexes and abducts wrist extensor carpi radialis brevis, extensor carpi radialis longus
palmaris longus palmar aponeurosis ulnar artery flexes wrist extensor carpi radialis brevis, extensor carpi radialis longus, extensor carpi ulnaris
flexor carpi ulnaris pisiform, hook of hamate, base of fifth metacarpal muscular branches of ulnar nerve flexes and adducts wrist extensor carpi ulnaris
flexor digitorum superficialis medial epicondyle of humerus (common flexor tendon), parts of radius and ulna bases of middle phalanges 2, 3, 4, and 5 median nerve flexes fingers (primarily at proximal interphalangeal joints) extensor digitorum
DeepEdit
Muscle Origin Insertion Artery Nerve Action Antagonist
pronator quadratus medial anterior surface of ulna lateral anterior surface of radius anterior interosseous artery anterior interosseous nerve (median nerve) weakly pronates forearm supinator
flexor digitorum profundus ulna distal phalanges lateral belly: anterior interosseous nerve (median nerve)

medial belly: muscular branches of ulna nerve

flexes wrist, flexes interphalangeal joints extensor digitorum
flexor pollicis longus middle half of volar surface of radius, interosseus membrane base of distal phalanx of thumb anterior interosseous nerve (median nerve) (C8, T1) flexes thumb extensor pollicis longus, extensor pollicis brevis

Posterior compartmentEdit

SuperficialEdit
Muscle Origin Insertion Artery Nerve Action Antagonist
extensor digitorum lateral epicondyle of humerus (common extensor tendon) 2nd–5th phalanges posterior interosseous artery posterior interosseous nerve (C7, C8) extends hand, extends fingers flexor digitorum superficialis, flexor digitorum profundus
extensor digiti minimi anterior surface of lateral epicondyle of humerus (common extensor tendon) extensor expansion, located at base of proximal phalanx on dorsal side extends little finger at all joints flexor digiti minimi brevis
extensor carpi ulnaris lateral epicondyle of humerus (common extensor tendon), ulna 5th metacarpal ulnar artery extends and adducts wrist flexor carpi ulnaris
Mobile wad
     brachioradialis lateral supracondylar ridge of humerus radial styloid process (distal radius) radial recurrent artery radial nerve flexes forearm, pronates forearm when supine, supinates forearm when prone
     extensor carpi radialis longus 2nd metacarpal radial artery extends wrist joint, abducts hand at wrist flexor carpi radialis
     extensor carpi radialis brevis anterior surface of lateral epicondyle of humerus (common extensor tendon) base of 3rd metacarpal posterior interosseus nerve
DeepEdit
Muscle Origin Insertion Artery Nerve Action Antagonist
supinator lateral epicondyle of humerus, supinator crest of ulna, radial collateral ligament, annular ligament lateral proximal shaft of radius radial recurrent artery posterior interosseus nerve (C7, C8) supinates forearm pronator teres, pronator quadratus
extensor indicis ulna index finger (extensor hood) extends index finger, wrist
Anatomical snuff box
abductor pollicis longus ulna first metacarpal posterior interosseous artery posterior interosseous nerve (C7, C8) abducts and extends thumb adductor pollicis
extensor pollicis brevis radius, interosseous membrane of forearm proximal phalanx of thumb extends thumb at metacarpophalangeal joint flexor pollicis longus, flexor pollicis brevis
     extensor pollicis longus ulna, interosseous membrane of forearm distal phalanx of thumb extends thumb (metacarpophalangeal and interphalangeal)

HandEdit

Lateral volarEdit

ThenarEdit
Muscle Origin Insertion Artery Nerve Action Antagonist
opponens pollicis trapezium, transverse carpal ligament metacarpal bone of thumb on its radial side superficial palmar arch median nerve opposes thumb
flexor pollicis brevis trapezoid, flexor retinaculum thumb, proximal phalanx median nerve, deep branch of ulnar nerve (medial head) flexes thumb extensor pollicis longus, extensor pollicis brevis
abductor pollicis brevis flexor retinaculum of hand, scaphoid and trapezium radial base of proximal phalanx of thumb and thumb extensors median nerve abducts thumb adductor pollicis
adductor pollicis transverse head: anterior body of third metacarpal
oblique head: bases of second and third metacarpals and adjacent trapezoid and capitate bones
medial side of base of proximal phalanx of thumb and ulnar sesamoid deep palmar arch deep branch of ulnar nerve (T1) adducts thumb at carpometacarpal joint abductor pollicis longus, abductor pollicis brevis

Medial volarEdit

Muscle Origin Insertion Artery Nerve Action Antagonist
palmaris brevis flexor retinaculum (medial), palmar aponeurosis palm palmar metacarpal artery superficial branch of ulnar nerve wrinkle skin of palm
hypothenar
     abductor digiti minimi pisiform base of proximal phalanx of 5th digit on ulnar or medial side ulnar artery deep branch of ulnar nerve abducts little finger
     flexor digiti minimi brevis hamate bone little finger deep branch of ulnar nerve flexes little finger extensor digiti minimi
     opponens digiti minimi hook of hamate, flexor retinaculum medial border of 5th metacarpal deep branch of ulnar nerve (C8 and T1) draws 5th metacarpal anteriorly and rotates it, bringing little finger (5th digit) into opposition with thumb

IntermediateEdit

Muscle Origin Insertion Artery Nerve Action Antagonist
lumbrical flexor digitorum profundus extensor expansion superficial palmar arch, common palmar digital arteries, deep palmar arch, dorsal digital artery deep branch of ulnar nerve, median nerve flex metacarpophalangeal joints, extend interphalangeal joints
dorsal interossei metacarpals proximal phalanges dorsal metacarpal artery, palmar metacarpal artery deep branch of ulnar nerve abduct fingers palmar interossei
palmar interossei palmar metacarpal artery adduct fingers dorsal interossei

Lower limbEdit

Iliac regionEdit

Muscle Origin Insertion Artery Nerve Action Antagonist
iliopsoas iliac fossa (iliacus), sacrum (iliacus), spine (T12, L1, lumbar vertebra, psoas major, psoas minor)[6] lesser trochanter of femur (psoas major), shaft below lesser trochanter (iliacus), tendon of psoas major & femur (iliacus)[6] medial femoral circumflex artery, iliolumbar artery femoral nerve, lumbar nerves L1, L2 flexes hip (psoas major/minor, iliacus), spine rotation (psoas major/minor) gluteus maximus, posterior compartment of thigh
     psoas major transverse processes, bodies and intervertebral discs of T12-L5 vertebrae lesser trochanter of femur iliolumbar artery lumbar plexus via anterior branches of L1, L2, L3[7] flexes and rotates laterally thigh gluteus maximus
     psoas minor side of T11+L1 and IV intervertebral disc Pectineal line and iliopectineal eminence iliolumbar artery, lumbar arteries L1 weakly flexes trunk flexor
     iliacus iliac fossa lesser trochanter of femur medial femoral circumflex artery, Iliolumbar artery femoral nerve (L2, L3[7]) flexes hip[8]

GlutealEdit

Muscle Origin Insertion Artery Nerve Action Antagonist
tensor fasciae latae iliac crest iliotibial tract primarily lateral circumflex femoral artery, superior gluteal artery superior gluteal nerve (L4, L5) flexes thigh, medially rotates thigh, stabilises torso
gluteal
     gluteus maximus gluteal surface of ilium, lumbar fascia, sacrum, sacrotuberous ligament gluteal tuberosity of femur, iliotibial tract superior gluteal artery, inferior gluteal artery inferior gluteal nerve (L5, S1, S2 nerve roots) externally rotates and extends hip joint, supports extended knee through iliotibial tract, chief antigravity muscle in sitting Iliacus, psoas major, psoas minor
     gluteus medius gluteal surface of ilium, under gluteus maximus greater trochanter of femur superior gluteal artery superior gluteal nerve (L4, L5, S1 nerve roots) abduction of hip; preventing adduction of hip Medial rotation of thigh lateral rotator group
     gluteus minimus gluteal surface of ilium, under gluteus medius
lateral rotator group at or below acetabulum of ilium on or near greater trochanter of femur inferior gluteal artery, lateral sacral artery, superior gluteal artery obturator nerve, piriformis nerve, nerve to quadratus femoris laterally rotates hip gluteus minimus, gluteus medius
     piriformis sacrum greater trochanter piriformis nerve (S1 and S2 nerve roots)[9] laterally rotates (outward) thigh
     obturator externus obturator foramen and obturatory membrane medial surface of greater trochanter of femur obturator artery posterior branch of obturator nerve (L3, L4) adduct thigh, rotate laterally thigh
superior gemellus ischial spine nerve to obturator internus (L5, S1, S2)
     obturator internus ischiopubic ramus, obturator membrane medial surface of greater trochanter of femur abducts & rotates laterally thigh, stabilises hip during walking
     inferior gemellus ischial tuberosity obturator internus tendon nerve to quadratus femoris (L4, L5, S1) laterally rotates thigh
     quadratus femoris intertrochanteric crest inferior gluteal artery

ThighEdit

Anterior compartmentEdit

Muscle Origin Insertion Artery Nerve Action Antagonist
articularis genus femur suprapatellar bursa femoral artery femoral nerve pulls suprapatellar bursa during extension of knee
sartorius superior to anterior superior iliac spine medial side of upper tibia in pes anserinus flexes, laterally rotates, and abducts thigh, flexes and medially rotates leg
quadriceps femoris combined rectus femoris and vastus muscles patella and tibial tuberosity via patellar tendon extends knee, flexes hip (rectus femoris only) hamstring
     rectus femoris anterior inferior iliac spine and exterior surface of bony ridge which forms iliac portion of acetabulum knee extension; hip flexion
     vastus lateralis greater trochanter, intertrochanteric line, and linea aspera of femur extends knee
     vastus intermedius anterior surface of femur
     vastus medialis anteromedial surface of femur

Posterior compartment/hamstringEdit

Muscle Origin Insertion Artery Nerve Action Antagonist
hamstring quadriceps femoris
biceps femoris long head: ischial tuberosity

short head: linea aspera of femur[10]

head of fibula[10] articulating with back of lateral tibial condyle inferior gluteal artery, perforating arteries, popliteal artery long head: medial (tibial) part of sciatic nerve

short head: lateral (common fibular) part of sciatic nerve[10]

flexes knee joint, laterally rotates leg at knee (when knee is flexed), extends hip joint (long head only)[10]
semitendinosus ischial tuberosity[10] pes anserinus inferior gluteal artery, perforating arteries sciatic nerve[10] (tibial, L5, S1, S2) flexes knee, extends hip, medially rotates leg at knee[10]
semimembranosus medial surface of tibia[10] profunda femoris, gluteal artery sciatic nerve[10]

Medial compartmentEdit

Muscle Origin Insertion Artery Nerve Action Antagonist
adductor muscles of the hip pubis femur, tibia obturator artery obturator nerve adducts hip gluteus medius, gluteus minimus
     gracilis inferior pubic ramus[11] tibia (pes anserinus) anterior branch of obturator nerve[11] adducts hip, flexes hip, medially rotates knee[11]
     pectineus superior pubic ramus[11] lesser trochanter, linea aspera femoral nerve and obturator nerve (medial compartment)[11] flexes and adducts hip[11]
     adductor brevis anterior surface of inferior pubic ramus[11] lesser trochanter and linea aspera of femur anterior branch of obturator nerve[11] adducts hip[11]
     adductor longus pubic body just below pubic crest middle third of linea aspera adducts and medially rotates hip[11]
     adductor magnus [11] femur, adductor tubercle of femur posterior branch of obturator nerve (adductor) and tibial part of sciatic nerve (vertical head)[11][12] adducts hip[11]

LegEdit

Anterior compartmentEdit

Muscle Origin Insertion Artery Nerve Action Antagonist
tibialis anterior body of tibia medial cuneiform and first metatarsal bones of foot anterior tibial artery deep fibular nerve dorsiflexes and inverts foot fibularis longus, gastrocnemius, soleus, plantaris, tibialis posterior
extensor hallucis longus middle portion of anterior surface of fibula, anterior surface of interosseous membrane dorsal side of base of distal phalanx of hallux extends big toe, assists in dorsiflexion of foot at ankle, weakly inverts foot flexor hallucis longus, flexor hallucis brevis
extensor digitorum longus lateral condyle of tibia, superior ¾ of interosseous membrane middle and distal phalanges of lateral four digits extension of toes and ankle flexor digitorum longus, flexor digitorum brevis
Fibularis tertius distal anterior surface of fibula dorsal surface of metatarsal 5 dorsi flexes and everts foot

Posterior compartmentEdit

SuperficialEdit
Muscle Origin Insertion Artery Nerve Action Antagonist
triceps surae achilles tendon, calcaneus posterior tibial artery tibial nerve plantarflexes ankle
     gastrocnemius medial condyle and lateral condyle of femur calcaneus sural arteries tibial nerve from sciatic nerve, specifically, nerve roots S1, S2 plantarflexes ankle, flexes knee (minor) tibialis anterior
     soleus fibula, medial border of tibia (soleal line) tendo calcaneus tibial nerve, specifically, nerve roots L5–S2 plantarflexes ankle
plantaris lateral supracondylar ridge of femur above lateral head of gastrocnemius calcaneal tendon (medial side, deep to gastrocnemius tendon) tibial nerve plantarflexes ankle, flexes knee
DeepEdit
Muscle Origin Insertion Artery Nerve Action Antagonist
popliteus middle facet of lateral surface of lateral femoral condyle posterior tibia under tibial condyles popliteal artery tibial nerve medially rotates and flexes knee
tarsal tunnel
     flexor hallucis longus posterior surface of upper 1/3 of fibula base of distal phalanx of hallux fibular artery (peroneal branch of posterior tibial artery tibial nerve, S1, S2 nerve roots flexes all joints of big toe, plantarflexes ankle extensor hallucis longus
     flexor digitorum longus medial tibia distal phalanges of lateral four digits posterior tibial artery tibial nerve flexes toes extensor digitorum longus, extensor digitorum brevis
     tibialis posterior tibia, fibula navicular, medial cuneiform inverts foot, plantarflexes foot at ankle tibialis anterior

Lateral compartmentEdit

Muscle Origin Insertion Artery Nerve Action Antagonist
fibularis muscles fibula first metatarsal, medial cuneiform fibular artery superficial fibular nerve plantarflexes ankle, everts ankle each other
fibularis longus fibula first metatarsal, medial cuneiform tibialis anterior
fibularis brevis fibula fifth metatarsal tibialis posterior

FootEdit

DorsalEdit

Muscle Origin Insertion Artery Nerve Action Antagonist
extensor digitorum brevis calcaneus toes deep fibular nerve extends digits 2, 3, and 4 flexor digitorum longus, flexor digitorum brevis
extensor hallucis brevis base of proximal phalanx of big toe deep fibular nerve extends big toe flexor hallucis brevis
dorsal interossei of foot metatarsals proximal phalanges lateral plantar nerve(fourth interosseous space: superficial branch others: deep branch), first and second interossei: lateral branch of deep fibular nerve abducts toes plantar interossei

PlantarEdit

First layerEdit
Muscle Origin Insertion Artery Nerve Action Antagonist
abductor hallucis medial process of calcaneus, flexor retinaculum, plantar aponeurosis medial side of base of proximal phalanx of first digit medial plantar nerve abducts hallux adductor hallucis
flexor digitorum brevis medial process of calcaneus, plantar aponeurosis, intermuscular septa middle phalanges of digits 2–5 flexes lateral four toes extensor digitorum longus, extensor digitorum brevis
abductor digiti minimi plantar aponeurosis phalanges of fifth toe lateral plantar artery lateral plantar nerve (S1, S2) flexes and abducts fifth toe flexor digiti minimi brevis
Second layerEdit
Muscle Origin Insertion Artery Nerve Action Antagonist
quadratus plantae calcaneus tendons of flexor digitorum longus lateral plantar nerve (S1, S2) flexes distal interphalangeal joints (assists flexor digitorum longus)
lumbricals tendons of flexor digitorum longus medial surface of extensor expansion of proximal phalanges of lateral four toes lateral plantar artery, plantar arch, four plantar metatarsal arteries lateral plantar nerve (lateral three lumbricals) and medial plantar nerve (first lumbrical) maintain extension of digits at interphalangeal joints
Third layerEdit
Muscle Origin Insertion Artery Nerve Action Antagonist
flexor hallucis brevis plantar surface of cuneiforms, plantar calcaneocuboid ligament, long plantar ligament medial head: medial sesamoid bone of metatarsophalangeal joint, proximal phalanx of great toe

lateral head: lateral sesamoid bone of metatarsophalangeal joint, proximal phalanx of great toe

medial plantar nerve flexes big toe extensor hallucis longus
adductor hallucis oblique head: proximal ends of middle 3 metatarsals

transverse head: metatarsophalangeal joints, ligaments of lateral 3 toes

lateral side of base of proximal phalanx of big toe, sesamoid lateral plantar nerve adducts big toe abductor hallucis
flexor digiti minimi brevis fifth metatarsal bone phalanx of fifth toe lateral plantar nerve (superficial branch) extends and adducts fifth toe abductor digiti minimi
Fourth layerEdit
Muscle Origin Insertion Artery Nerve Action Antagonist
plantar interossei tendons of plantar Interossei proximal phalanges III-V - muscles cross the metatarsophalangeal joint of toes III-V so the insertions correspond with the origin and there is no crossing between toes plantar arch, dorsal metatarsal artery lateral plantar nerve adducts toes 3 - 5, strengthens transverse arch dorsal interossei
dorsal interossei metatarsals proximal phalanges lateral plantar nerve abducts toes plantar interossei

Innervation overviewEdit

Mind Map showing a summary of Upper Limb Muscle Innervation
Mind Map Showing a summary of Lower Limb Muscle innervation

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Science Reference Section (19 November 2019). "What is the strongest muscle in the human body?". Library of Congress, Washington, D.C. 20540 USA. Library of Congress. Retrieved 2021-05-01.
  2. ^ Brooks, Susan V. (2003-12-01). "Current topics for teaching skeletal muscle physiology". Advances in Physiology Education. 27 (1–4): 171–182. doi:10.1152/advan.00025.2003. ISSN 1043-4046. PMID 14627615.
  3. ^ John., Stewart, Gregory (2009). "Chapter 8: Skeletal muscles". The skeletal and muscular systems. New York: Chelsea House. ISBN 9781604133653. OCLC 277118444.
  4. ^ de las Peñas, César Fernández; Ge, Hong-You; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Dommerholt, Jan; Simons, David G. (2011). "Chapter 32 - Referred pain from muscle/myofascial trigger points". Neck and Arm Pain Syndromes. Churchill Livingstone. pp. 404–418. doi:10.1016/B978-0-7020-3528-9.00032-7. ISBN 978-0-7020-3528-9.
  5. ^ Sarnat, Harvey B.; Carpenter, Stirling (2015). "Chapter 4 - Muscle Biopsy for Diagnosis of Neuromuscular and Metabolic Diseases". Neuromuscular Disorders of Infancy, Childhood, and Adolescence (2nd ed.). Academic Press. pp. 46–65. ISBN 978-0-12-417044-5.
  6. ^ a b exrx.net
  7. ^ a b Essential Clinical Anatomy. K.L. Moore & A.M. Agur. Lippincott, 2 ed. 2002. Page 193
  8. ^ Gosling, J. A., Harris, P. F., Humpherson, J. R., Whitmore I., & Willan P. L. T. 2008. Human Anatomy Color Atlas and Text Book. Philadelphia: Mosby Elsevier. page 200
  9. ^ Essential Clinical Anatomy. K.L. Moore & A.M. Agur. Lippincott, 2 ed. 2002. Page 217
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i Gosling 2008, p. 273
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Gosling et al. 2008, p. 266
  12. ^ MedicalMnemonics.com: 255

External linksEdit