Levator scapulae muscle

The levator scapulae is a slender[1]: 910  skeletal muscle situated at the back and side of the neck. It originates from the transverse processes of the four uppermost cervical vertebrae; it inserts onto the upper portion of the medial border of the scapula. It is innervated by the cervical nerves C3-C4, and frequently also by the dorsal scapular nerve. As the Latin name suggests, its main function is to lift the scapula.

Levator scapulae muscle
Muscles connecting the upper extremity to the vertebral column. (Levator scapulae visible at upper right, at the neck.)
Muscles of neck. (Levator scapulae visible at center left.)
Pronunciation/lɪˈvtər ˈskæpjʊli/
OriginPosterior tubercles of transverse processes of C1 - C4 vertebrae
InsertionSuperior part of medial border of scapula
Arterydorsal scapular artery
Nervecervical nerve (C3, C4) and dorsal scapular nerve (C5)
ActionsElevates scapula and tilts its glenoid cavity inferiorly by downwardly rotating the scapula
Latinmusculus levator scapulae
Anatomical terms of muscle

Anatomy Edit

Attachments Edit

The muscle descends diagonally from its origin to its insertion.[1]: 910 

Origin Edit

The levator scapulae originates from the posterior tubercles of the transverse processes of cervical vertebrae C1-4.[2] At its origin, it attaches via tendinous slips.[1]: 910 

Insertion Edit

It inserts onto the medial border of the scapula (with its site of insertion extending between the superior angle of the scapula superiorly, and the junction of spine of scapula and medial border of scapula inferiorly).[2]

Relations Edit

One of the muscles within the floor of the posterior triangle of the neck, the superior part of levator scapulae is covered by sternocleidomastoid and its inferior part by the trapezius.[3] It is bounded in front by the scalenus medius and behind by splenius cervicis. The spinal accessory nerve crosses laterally in the middle part of the muscle and the dorsal scapular nerve may lie deep to or pass through it.[4]

The levator scapulae may lie deep to the sternocleidomastoid at its origin, deep or adjacent to the splenius capitis at its origin and mid-portion, and deep to the trapezius in its lower portion.[citation needed]

Variation Edit

The number of attachments varies; a slip may extend to the occipital or mastoid, to the trapezius, scalene or serratus anterior, or to the first or second rib. The muscle may be subdivided into several distinct parts from origin to insertion. Levator claviculæ from the transverse processes of one or two upper cervical vertebræ to the outer end of the clavicle corresponds to a muscle of lower animals. More or less union with the serratus anterior muscle.[5]

Innervation Edit

The levator scapulae is innervated by 2-3 branches of the 3rd and 4th cervical nerves,[2] and frequently by a branch from the dorsal scapular nerve.[5]

Blood supply Edit

The levator scapulae is supplied by the dorsal scapular artery. Normally, this artery has a small branch which passes laterally to the supraspinatus fossa of the scapula, and in a third of cases, this branch supplies the muscle. If the dorsal scapular artery comes off the transverse cervical artery, the parent transverse cervical artery splits, the dorsal scapular artery passes medially, while the transverse cervical artery passes laterally.[4]

Function Edit

When the spine is fixed, levator scapulae elevates the scapula and rotates its inferior angle medially.[2] It often works in combination with other muscles like the rhomboids and pectoralis minor to produce downward rotation of the scapula.

Elevating or rotating one shoulder at a time would require muscles to stabilize the cervical spine and keep it immobile so it does not flex or rotate. Elevating both at once with equal amounts of pull on both side of cervical spinal origins would counteract these forces. Downward rotation would be prevented by co-contraction of other muscles that elevate the spine, the upper fibers of the trapezius, which is an upward rotator.

When the shoulder is fixed, levator scapulae rotates to the same side and flexes the cervical spine laterally. When both shoulders are fixed, a simultaneous co-contraction of both levator scapulae muscles in equal amounts would not produce lateral flexion or rotation, and may produce straight flexion or extension of the cervical spine.

Non-human animals Edit

The muscles of the shoulder can be categorized into three topographic units: the scapulohumeral, axiohumeral, and axioscapular groups. Levator scapulae forms part of the latter group together with rhomboid major, rhomboid minor, serratus anterior, and trapezius. The trapezius evolved separately, but the other three muscles in this group evolved from the first eight or ten ribs and the transverse processes of the cervical vertebrae (homologous to the ribs). The serratus anterior formed the basal unit for these three muscles. In higher primates it has evolved into two separate muscles — serratus anterior and levator scapulae — by concentration of the proximal and distal fibers and progressive reduction of the intermediate fibers. The fibers concerned with the cranial displacement of the scapula became the levator scapulae.[6]

Additional images Edit

See also Edit

References Edit

  This article incorporates text in the public domain from page 435 of the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy (1918)

  1. ^ a b c Gray's anatomy : the anatomical basis of clinical practice. Susan Standring (Forty-second ed.). [New York]. 2021. ISBN 978-0-7020-7707-4. OCLC 1201341621.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: location missing publisher (link) CS1 maint: others (link)
  2. ^ a b c d Platzer 2004, p. 144
  3. ^ "levator scapulae (anatomy)". GPnotebook.
  4. ^ a b Rockwood et al. 2009, p. 55
  5. ^ a b Gray's Anatomy (1918), see infobox
  6. ^ Brand 2008, pp. 540–41

Sources Edit

External links Edit