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The facial artery (external maxillary artery in older texts) is a branch of the external carotid artery that supplies structures of the superficial face.
The arteries of the face and scalp. (External maxillary visible at bottom center.)
Outline of side of face, showing chief surface markings. (Label for "Ext. Max. Art." at bottom left.)
|Source||external carotid artery|
|Branches||Ascending palatine artery |
Inferior labial artery
Superior labial artery
Lateral nasal branch
Angular artery (terminal branch)
|Vein||anterior facial vein, posterior facial vein|
arteria maxillaris externa
The facial artery arises in the carotid triangle from the external carotid artery, a little above the lingual artery and, sheltered by the ramus of the mandible. It passes obliquely up beneath the digastric and stylohyoid muscles, over which it arches to enter a groove on the posterior surface of the submandibular gland.
It then curves upward over the body of the mandible at the antero-inferior angle of the masseter; passes forward and upward across the cheek to the angle of the mouth, then ascends along the side of the nose, and ends at the medial commissure of the eye, under the name of the angular artery.
The facial artery is remarkably tortuous. This is to accommodate itself to neck movements such as those of the pharynx in deglutition; and facial movements such as those of the mandible, lips, and cheeks.
In the neck, its origin is superficial, being covered by the integument, platysma, and fascia; it then passes beneath the digastric and stylohyoid muscles and part of the submandibular gland, but superficial to the hypoglossal nerve.
On the face, where it passes over the body of the mandible, it is comparatively superficial, lying immediately beneath the dilators of the mouth. In its course over the face, it is covered by the integument, the fat of the cheek, and, near the angle of the mouth, by the platysma, risorius, and zygomaticus major. It rests on the buccinator and levator anguli oris, and passes either over or under the infraorbital head of the levator labii superioris.
The anterior facial vein lies lateral/posterior to the artery, and takes a more direct course across the face, where it is separated from the artery by a considerable interval. In the neck it lies superficial to the artery.
The branches of the facial nerve cross the artery from behind forward.
The branches of the facial artery are:
Muscles supplied by the facial artery include:
This gallery of anatomic features needs cleanup to abide by the medical manual of style.
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- Sykes, Jonathan M.; Suárez, Gustavo A.; Trevidic, Patrick; Cotofana, Sebastian; Moon, Hyoung Jin (2018-01-01), Azizzadeh, Babak; Murphy, Mark R.; Johnson, Calvin M.; Massry, Guy G. (eds.), "Chapter 2 - Applied Facial Anatomy", Master Techniques in Facial Rejuvenation (Second Edition), Elsevier, pp. 6–14, doi:10.1016/b978-0-323-35876-7.00002-9, ISBN 978-0-323-35876-7, retrieved 2020-11-14
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- Barral, Jean-Pierre; Croibier, Alain (2011-01-01), Barral, Jean-Pierre; Croibier, Alain (eds.), "16 - The facial artery", Visceral Vascular Manipulations, Oxford: Churchill Livingstone, pp. 143–146, doi:10.1016/b978-0-7020-4351-2.00016-8, ISBN 978-0-7020-4351-2, retrieved 2020-11-14
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|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Facial artery.|
- "Facial artery". Medcyclopaedia. GE. Archived from the original on 2012-02-05.
- Anatomy photo:23:09-0101 at the SUNY Downstate Medical Center - "The Facial Artery and Vein"
- Anatomy figure: 25:04-04 at Human Anatomy Online, SUNY Downstate Medical Center - "Branches of the external carotid artery."
- Anatomy photo:31:09-0106 at the SUNY Downstate Medical Center - "Common Carotid Artery and Branches of the External Carotid Artery"