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List of Asian Americans and Pacific Islands Americans in the United States Congress

Map of congressional districts represented by Asian Americans or Pacific Islands Americans in the 114th Congress.
  State currently has an Asian Senator
  State has in the past had an Asian Senator

This is a list of Asian Americans and Pacific Islands Americans in the U.S. Congress.

Asian Americans are Americans of Asian descent. The term refers to a panethnic group that includes diverse populations, which have ancestral origins in East Asia, South Asia, or Southeast Asia, as defined by the U.S. Census Bureau.[1]

Pacific Islands Americans, also known as Oceanian Americans, Pacific Islander Americans or Native Hawaiian and/or other Pacific Islander Americans, are Americans who have ethnic ancestry among the indigenous peoples of Oceania (viz. Polynesians, Melanesians and Micronesians). For its purposes, the U.S. Census also counts Indigenous Australians as part of this group.[2][3]

As of 2019, there are 13 representatives and 3 senators of Asian-American descent who are currently serving in Congress. In addition, there are one representative and three non-voting delegates of Pacific Islander descent who currently are also serving. Since 1900, 19 Pacific Islanders have been elected to the House of Representatives (17 of them as non-voting Resident Commissioners, Delegates or Resident Representatives) and one has been elected to the U.S. Senate. Hawaii was the first territory to send a Pacific Islander to the House of Representatives (in 1900) and was also the first state to send a Pacific Islander to the U.S. Senate (in 1990). Since 1957, 35 Asian Americans have been elected to the House of Representatives and 9 to the U.S. Senate. Hawaii was the first of four states to send an Asian American to the Senate (1959) and Illinois is the most recent state to elect a senator of similar descent for the first time (2016). With respect to the House of Representatives, California was the first of 13 states to elect an Asian American to the House (1956), and New Jersey is the most recent to do so for the first time (2018). Three Asian-American women have been elected to the Senate (all three of whom currently are incumbents and represent California, Hawaii and Illinois, respectively), and ten have been elected to the House (five of whom currently are incumbents) from six separate states.

SenateEdit

Picture Senator
(lifespan)
Asian or Pacific Island Ethnicity Party State Term start Term end Notes
  Hiram Fong
(1906–2004)
[4]
Chinese Republican   Hawaii August 21, 1959 January 3, 1977 Retired
  Daniel Inouye
(1924–2012)
[5]
Japanese Democratic   Hawaii January 3, 1963 December 17, 2012 Died in office
  S. I. Hayakawa
(1906–1992)
Japanese Republican   California January 2, 1977 January 3, 1983 Retired
  Spark Matsunaga
(1916–1990)
Japanese Democratic   Hawaii January 3, 1977 April 15, 1990 Died in office
  Daniel Akaka
(1924–2018)
[6]
Hawaiian,
Chinese
Democratic   Hawaii May 16, 1990 January 3, 2013 Retired
  John Ensign
(born 1958)
Filipino Republican   Nevada January 3, 2001 May 3, 2011 Resigned in disgrace
  Mazie Hirono
(born 1947)
[7]
Japanese Democratic   Hawaii January 3, 2013 present
  Tammy Duckworth
(born 1968)
[8]
Thai,
Chinese
Democratic   Illinois January 3, 2017 present
  Kamala Harris
(born 1964)
[9]
Indian Democratic   California January 3, 2017 present

House of RepresentativesEdit

Picture Representative
(lifespan)
Asian or Pacific Island Ethnicity Party State Term start Term end Notes
  Dalip Saund
(1899–1973)
[10]
Indian Democratic California January 3, 1957 January 3, 1963 Lost reelection
  Daniel Inouye
(1924–2012)
[5]
Japanese Democratic Hawaii August 21, 1959 January 3, 1963 Retired to run successfully for U.S. Senator from Hawaii
  Spark Matsunaga
(1916–1990)
Japanese Democratic Hawaii January 3, 1963 January 3, 1977 Retired to run successfully for U.S. Senator from Hawaii
  Patsy Mink
(1927–2002)
[11]
Japanese Democratic Hawaii January 3, 1965 January 3, 1977 Retired to run unsuccessfully in the Democratic Party primary for U.S. Senator from Hawaii
September 22, 1990 September 28, 2002 Died in office
  Norman Mineta
(born 1931)
Japanese Democratic California January 3, 1975 October 10, 1995 Resigned
  Daniel Akaka
(1924–2018)
[6]
Hawaiian,
Chinese
Democratic Hawaii January 3, 1977 May 16, 1990 Resigned to accept appointment as U.S. Senator from Hawaii
  Bob Matsui
(1941–2005)
Japanese Democratic California January 3, 1979 January 1, 2005 Died in office
  Mervyn Dymally
(1926–2012)
[12]
Indian Democratic California January 3, 1981 January 3, 1993 Retired
  Pat Saiki
(born 1930)
Japanese Republican Hawaii January 3, 1987 January 3, 1991 Retired to run unsuccessfully for U.S. Senator from Hawaii
  Jay Kim
(born 1939)
[13]
Korean Republican California January 3, 1993 January 3, 1999 Lost renomination
  Bobby Scott
(born 1947)
[14]
Filipino Democratic Virginia January 3, 1993 present
  John Ensign
(born 1958)
Filipino Republican Nevada January 3, 1995 January 3, 1999 Retired to run unsuccessfully for U.S. Senator from Nevada
Later elected as a U.S. Senator from Nevada
  David Wu
(born 1955)
[15]
Taiwanese Democratic Oregon January 3, 1999 August 3, 2011 Resigned
  Mike Honda
(born 1941)
Japanese Democratic California January 3, 2001 January 3, 2017 Lost reelection
  Bobby Jindal
(born 1971)
Indian Republican Louisiana January 3, 2005 January 14, 2008 Resigned to run successfully for Governor of Louisiana
  Doris Matsui
(born 1944)
Japanese Democratic California March 8, 2005 present
  Mazie Hirono
(born 1947)
[16]
Japanese Democratic Hawaii January 3, 2007 January 3, 2013 Retired to run successfully for U.S. Senator from Hawaii
  Steve Austria
(born 1958)
Filipino Republican Ohio January 3, 2009 January 3, 2013 Retired
  Joseph Cao
(born 1967)
[17]
Vietnamese Republican Louisiana January 3, 2009 January 3, 2011 Lost reelection
  Judy Chu
(born 1953)
[18]
Chinese Democratic California July 14, 2009 present
  Charles Djou
(born 1970)
[19]
Thai,
Chinese
Republican Hawaii May 22, 2010 January 3, 2011 Lost reelection
  Hansen Clarke
(born 1957)
[20]
Bangladeshi Democratic Michigan January 3, 2011 January 3, 2013 Lost renomination
  Colleen Hanabusa
(born 1951)
Japanese Democratic Hawaii January 3, 2011 January 3, 2015 Retired to run unsuccessfully in the Democratic Party primary for U.S. Senator from Hawaii
November 14, 2016 January 3, 2019 Retired to run unsuccessfully in the Democratic Party primary for Governor of Hawaii
  Ami Bera
(born 1965)
Indian Democratic California January 3, 2013 present
  Tammy Duckworth
(born 1968)
[8]
Thai,
Chinese
Democratic Illinois January 3, 2013 January 3, 2017 Retired to run successfully for U.S. Senator from Illinois
  Tulsi Gabbard
(born 1981)
[21]
Samoan Democratic Hawaii January 3, 2013 present
  Grace Meng
(born 1975)
[22]
Taiwanese Democratic New York January 3, 2013 present
  Mark Takano
(born 1960)
[23]
Japanese Democratic California January 3, 2013 present
  Ted Lieu
(born 1969)
Taiwanese Democratic California January 3, 2015 present
  Mark Takai
(1967–2016)
Japanese Democratic Hawaii January 3, 2015 July 20, 2016 Died in office
  Pramila Jayapal
(born 1965)
[24]
Indian Democratic Washington January 3, 2017 present
  Ro Khanna
(born 1976)
Indian Democratic California January 3, 2017 present
  Raja Krishnamoorthi
(born 1973)
Indian Democratic Illinois January 3, 2017 present
  Stephanie Murphy
(born 1978)
[25]
Vietnamese Democratic Florida January 3, 2017 present
  TJ Cox
(born 1963)
Filipino,
Chinese
Democratic California January 3, 2019 present
  Andy Kim
(born 1982)
Korean Democratic New Jersey January 3, 2019 present

House Delegates (non-voting members)Edit

(Note: Delegates are organized first in chronological order according to their first term in office, then second in alphabetical order according to their surname.)

Resident Commissioners were representatives from the Philippines, then an American territory.[26][27][28] Two were elected at-large from 1907 to 1937, and a single Resident Commissioner from 1937 to 1946.

From 1978 to 2009, the Northern Mariana Islands elected a Resident Representative who had no actual privileges in the House.

Picture Delegate
(lifespan)
Asian or Pacific Island Ethnicity Party Territory Term start Term end Notes
  Robert Wilcox
(1855–1903)
Hawaiian Home Rule Hawaii November 6, 1900 March 4, 1903 Lost reelection
  Jonah Kalanianaʻole
(1871–1922)
Hawaiian Republican Hawaii March 4, 1903 January 7, 1922 Died in office
  Benito Legarda
(1853–1915)
Filipino Federalist Philippine Islands November 22, 1907 March 4, 1912 Retired
  Pablo Ocampo
(1853–1925)
Filipino Democrat Philippine Islands November 22, 1907 November 22, 1909 Retired
  Manuel L. Quezón
(1878–1944)
Filipino Nacionalista Philippine Islands November 23, 1909 October 15, 1916 Retired
  Manuel Earnshaw
(1862–1936)
Filipino Independent Philippine Islands March 4, 1913 March 4, 1917 Retired
  Jaime C. de Veyra
(1873–1963)
Filipino Nacionalista Philippine Islands March 4, 1917 March 4, 1923 Retired
  Teodoro R. Yangco
(1861–1939)
Filipino,
Chinese
Independent Philippine Islands March 4, 1917 March 4, 1920 Retired
  Isauro Gabaldon
(1875–1942)
Filipino Nacionalista Philippine Islands March 4, 1920 July 16, 1928 Resigned
  Pedro Guevara
(1879–1938)
Filipino Nacionalista Philippine Islands March 4, 1923 February 14, 1936 Retired
  William Jarrett
(1877–1929)
Hawaiian Democrat Hawaii March 4, 1923 March 4, 1927 Lost reelection
  Victor Houston
(1876–1959)
Hawaiian Republican Hawaii March 4, 1927 March 4, 1933 Lost reelection
  Camilo Osías
(1889–1976)
Filipino Nacionalista Philippine Islands March 4, 1929 January 3, 1935 Retired
  Francisco Afan Delgado
(1886–1964)
Filipino Nacionalista Philippine Islands January 3, 1935 February 14, 1936 Retired
  Samuel King
(1886–1959)
Hawaiian Republican Hawaii January 3, 1935 January 3, 1943 Resigned
  Quintín Paredes
(1884–1973)
Filipino Nacionalista Philippines February 14, 1936 September 29, 1938 Resigned
  Carlos P. Romulo
(1899–1985)
Filipino Liberal Philippines August 10, 1944 July 4, 1946 Resigned; final Philippine representative
  Antonio Won Pat
(1908–1987)
Chamorro,
Chinese
Democratic Guam January 3, 1973 January 3, 1985 Lost reelection
  Eddie Pangelinan
(born 1945)
Chamorro Democratic (1978–1983) Northern Mariana Islands January 1978 January 1984 Lost reelection
Republican (1983–1984)
  Fofó Sunia
(born 1937)
Samoan Democratic American Samoa January 3, 1981 September 6, 1988 Resigned
  Froilan Tenorio
(born 1939)
Chamorro Democratic Northern Mariana Islands January 1984 January 8, 1990 Retired to run unsuccessfully for Governor of the Northern Mariana Islands
Later served as Governor of the Northern Mariana Islands
  Ben Blaz
(1928–2014)
Chamorro Republican Guam January 3, 1985 January 3, 1993 Lost reelection
  Eni Faleomavaega
(1943–2017)
Samoan Democratic American Samoa January 3, 1989 January 3, 2015 Lost reelection
  Juan Babauta
(born 1953)
Chamorro,
Carolinian
Republican Northern Mariana Islands January 8, 1990 January 14, 2002 Retired to run successfully for Governor of the Northern Mariana Islands
  Robert Underwood
(born 1948)
Chamorro Democratic Guam January 3, 1993 January 3, 2003 Retired to run unsuccessfully for Governor of Guam
  Pete Tenorio
(born 1941)
Chamorro Republican Northern Mariana Islands January 14, 2002 January 3, 2009 Office replaced by Delegate
Lost election to new office
  Gregorio Sablan
(born 1955)
Chamorro Independent
(2009)
Northern Mariana Islands January 3, 2009 present
Democratic
(2009–2014)
Independent
(2014–present)
  Amata Radewagen
(born 1947)
Samoan Republican American Samoa January 3, 2015 present
  Mike San Nicolas
(born 1981)
Chamorro Democratic Guam January 3, 2019 present

See alsoEdit

Notes and referencesEdit

  1. ^ Karen R. Humes; Nicholas A. Jones; Roberto R. Ramirez (March 2011). "Overview of Race and Hispanic Origin: 2010" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. U.S. Department of Commerce. Retrieved January 5, 2012.
  2. ^ University of Virginia. Geospatial and Statistical Data Center. "1990 PUMS Ancestry Codes." 2003. August 30, 2007."Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2007-08-25. Retrieved 2007-08-31.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  3. ^ University of Michigan. Census 1990: Ancestry Codes. August 27, 2007
  4. ^ First Asian Pacific American elected to the Senate and first American of Chinese ancestry elected to Congress, for the predecessors and successors of each Asian Pacific American Representative's/Delegate's district or Senator with their date of birth and death, click on the U.S. representative/delegate or senator, for the number of congresses, click on the congress.
  5. ^ a b First Japanese American elected to Congress.
  6. ^ a b First Native Hawaiian elected to Congress.
  7. ^ First Asian-American woman and first Buddhist elected to the Senate.
  8. ^ a b First disabled woman and first Thai-American woman elected to Congress.
  9. ^ Together with Pramila Jayapal, first Indian-American woman elected to Congress. Also is a member of the Congressional Black Caucus.
  10. ^ First person of Indian ancestry elected to Congress.
  11. ^ First Asian-American woman elected to Congress.
  12. ^ First Dougla elected to Congress. Also was a member of the Congressional Black Caucus.
  13. ^ First person of Korean ancestry elected to Congress.
  14. ^ First American-born Filipino elected to Congress. Also is a member of the Congressional Black Caucus.
  15. ^ First Taiwanese American elected to Congress.
  16. ^ One of the first two Buddhists elected to Congress.
  17. ^ First person of Vietnamese ancestry elected to Congress.
  18. ^ First Chinese-American woman elected to Congress.
  19. ^ First Thai American elected to Congress.
  20. ^ First person of Bangladeshi ancestry elected to Congress. Also was a member of the Congressional Black Caucus.
  21. ^ First Hindu and first woman of Pacific Islander ancestry elected to Congress.
  22. ^ First Taiwanese-American woman elected to Congress.
  23. ^ First openly gay person of color elected to Congress.
  24. ^ Together with Kamala Harris, first Indian-American woman elected to Congress.
  25. ^ First Vietnamese-American woman elected to Congress.
  26. ^ "Map Layer Info". National Atlas of the United States. United States Department of the Interior. July 23, 2012. Retrieved December 10, 2012. The Philippines became a territory of the United States after the Spanish–American War.
  27. ^ Berhow, Mark (2012). American Defenses of Corregidor and Manila Bay 1898-1945. Osprey Publishing. p. 6. ISBN 9781782004356. Retrieved December 10, 2012.
  28. ^ Pyong Gap, Min, ed. (2005). Asian Americans: Contemporary Trends and Issues. Pine Forge Press. p. 183. ISBN 9781412905565. Retrieved 10 December 2012.

Further readingEdit