|Regions with significant populations|
|Guyana, Suriname, Jamaica, Trinidad and Tobago, Caribbean|
|English, French, Dutch, Caribbean Hindustani|
|Related ethnic groups|
Origins and etymologyEdit
The word originated from doogala (दुगला), which is a Caribbean Hindustani word that may mean "many", "much" or "a mix". Some of the connotations of the word such as bastard, illegitimate and son of a whore are secondary and limited to sections of North India where the term may have originated. Originally, in the West Indies the word was only used for Afro-Indo mixed race, despite its origin as a word used to describe inter-caste mixing.
There are sporadic records of Indo-Euro interracial relationships, both forced and unforced, before any ethnic mixing of the African and Indian variety. Women were a minority among earlier Indian migrants. Many did not take the voyage across the Atlantic for several reasons, among them the fear of exploitation and the assumption that they were unfit for labor.
Socio-religious practice played a part as religious practices are paramount to the Hindu religion and preservation of the religion and culture was of extreme importance to the indentured laborers. Association with those outside the community who engaged in Adharmic practices was considered to compromise the purity of the race, religion and culture, seen as necessary for survival in the foreign land.
The second reason was socio-economic. The arrival of Indians to the British Caribbean was not meant to be permanent. For most of the Indian immigrants, the aim was to gain material wealth under contract, then return to their respective homelands. The Dougla represented the postponement and deferral of that goal if not rendering it completely impossible, being a living symbol of departure from cultural custom jatis.
The third reason was racism. Trinidad, as well as other territories in the Caribbean, had a dynamic of power based on the colour of one's skin. This reinforced the rules by which Indo society functioned in excluding the Dougla. Other Indo-based types of miscegenation (Indo-Chinese (Chindian), Indo-Carib) tended to identify as one of the older, unmixed ethnic strains on the island: Afro, Indo or Euro or passing as one of them.
In Trinidad cultureEdit
If they sending Indians to India
And Africans back to Africa
Well somebody please just tell me
Where they sending poor me?
I am neither one nor the other
Six of one, half a dozen of the other
So if they sending all these people back home for true
They got to split me in two
Throughout the CaribbeanEdit
The biggest population of Dougla peoples, second (and if not on par), with those in Trinidad and Tobago are those in Guyana. Afro-Guyanese and Indo-Guyanese make up half of the Guyanese population, and Douglas number 15% of the country's demographics.
In the French West Indies (Guadeloupe, Martinique), mixed Afro-Indian people used to be called Batazendien or Chapé-Coolie, those who have escaped the disagreeable Indian condition by becoming hybrid.
In the French West Indies they are now treated in a more positive way by other categories of the population and no longer face the cruel existential dilemma of post-slavery times. The uncommon phenomenon of mutual acceptance and cultural exchange now attained, called by some "the Guadeloupe Model", has widely contributed to the rare harmony of the multiracial French West Indian communities.
- Mighty Dougla (Cletus Ali), Calypsonian (Trinidad and Tobago)
- Tatyana Ali, Actress (United States; Trinidadian and Tobagonian background)
- Melissa Bell, Singer (Jamaica)
- Alexandra Burke, Singer (Jamaica)
- Super Cat, Dancehall Artist (Jamaica)
- Mervyn Dymally, Politician (United States; born in Trinidad and Tobago)
- Kamala Harris, Politician (United States; Jamaican and South Indian background)
- Maya Harris, Lawyer, public policy advocate, television commentator, and political analyst (United States; Jamaican and South Indian background)
- Lester Holt, News anchor and journalist (United States; Jamaican background)
- David Jordan, Singer (United Kingdom; Montserratian background)
- Vashtie Kola, Music video director (United States; Trinidadian and Tobagonian background)
- Sonnet L'Abbé, Poet, professor, editor, and critic (Canada; Guyanese background)
- Rajee Narinesingh, LGBT activist (United States; Trinidadian and Tobagonian background)
- Furdjel Narsingh, Footballer (Netherlands; Surinamese background)
- Luciano Narsingh, Footballer (Netherlands; Surinamese background)
- Foxy Brown (Inga DeCarlo Fung Marchand), Rapper (United States; Trinidadian and Tobagonian background)
- Nicki Minaj, Singer, Rapper (United States; born in Trinidad and Tobago)
- Roxanne Persaud, Politician (United States; born in Guyana)
- Yendi Phillips, Model (Jamaica)
- Abrahim Simmonds, Youth Advocate (Jamaica)
- Joyce Vincent, Woman whose death went unnoticed for more than two years as her corpse lay undiscovered in her London bedsit (United Kingdom; Grenadian background)
- Wilk, Richard; Barbosa, Livia (2013-05-09). Rice and Beans: A Unique Dish in a Hundred Places. Berg. ISBN 9781847889058.
- Sanksipt Hindu Shabdasagar
- https://www.uohyd.ernet.in/sss/indian_diaspora/oc2.pdf[permanent dead link]
- Dougla dilemma
- Barrow, Steve & Dalton, Peter (2004) The Rough Guide to Reggae, Rough Guides, ISBN 1-84353-329-4, p. 286
- ": The New Face of Politics… An Interview with Kamala Harris". DesiClub. Archived from the original on December 11, 2010. Retrieved February 2, 2011. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- name=TodayShowRoots>Today Show: "Lester and Jenna trace their Jamaican roots" Aired on September 9, 2012 Archived September 13, 2012, at the Wayback Machine
- Rajee Narinesingh
- Calloway, Sway (2001-05-29). "Foxy Brown – Outspoken (Part 4)". MTV News. Archived from the original on 2006-05-02. Retrieved 2006-05-09. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- "New York's immigrant lawmakers make their mark". Times Union. 2016-01-13. Retrieved 2018-09-30.
- Mendes, John (1976). Cote ce Cote la. Trinidad & Tobago Dictionary. John Menzies, Arima, Trinidad. 200 pages.