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Larissa (/ləˈrɪsə/; Greek: Λάρισα, romanizedLárisa [ˈlarisa]) is the capital and largest city of the Thessaly region, the fourth-most populous in Greece with a population of 144,651 according to the 2011 census.[1] It is also capital of the Larissa regional unit. It is a principal agricultural centre and a national transport hub, linked by road and rail with the port of Volos, the cities of Thessaloniki and Athens. The municipality of Larissa has 162,591 inhabitants, while the regional unit of Larissa reached a population of 284,325 (in 2011).[1]

Larissa

Λάρισα
Pineios river with the church of St. Achillios in the background
Pineios river with the church of St. Achillios in the background
Official seal of Larissa
Seal
Larissa is located in Greece
Larissa
Larissa
Location within the region
2011 Dimos Larisas.png
Coordinates: 39°38.5′N 22°25′E / 39.6417°N 22.417°E / 39.6417; 22.417Coordinates: 39°38.5′N 22°25′E / 39.6417°N 22.417°E / 39.6417; 22.417
CountryGreece
Administrative regionThessaly
Regional unitLarissa
Districts4+1
Government
 • MayorApostolos Kalogiannis
Area
 • Municipality335.98 km2 (129.72 sq mi)
 • Municipal unit122.59 km2 (47.33 sq mi)
Elevation
67 m (220 ft)
Population
 (2011)[1]
 • Municipality
162,591
 • Municipality density480/km2 (1,300/sq mi)
 • Municipal unit
146,926
 • Municipal unit density1,200/km2 (3,100/sq mi)
Demonym(s)Larissean
Time zoneUTC+2 (EET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+3 (EEST)
Postal code
41x xx
Area code(s)(+30)241
Vehicle registrationΡΙ (Ended), ΡΡ (Current use), PT (For future use)
Websitewww.larissa-dimos.gr

Legend has it that Achilles was born here. Hippocrates, the "Father of Medicine", died here. Today, Larissa is an important commercial, transportation, agricultural and industrial centre of Greece.

GeographyEdit

 
Plain of Larissa
 
Mount Ossa viewed from Pineios bridge in Larissa.

There are a number of highways including E75 and the main railway from Athens to Thessaloniki (Salonika) crossing through Thessaly. The region is directly linked to the rest of Europe through the International Airport of Central Greece located in Nea Anchialos a short distance from Larissa (about 60 km). Larissa lies on the river Pineios.

The municipality Larissa has an area of 335.98 km2 (129.72 sq mi), the municipal unit Larissa has an area of 122.586 km2 (47.331 sq mi), and the community Larissa has an area of 88.167 km2 (34.041 sq mi).[2]

The Larissa Chasma, a deep gash in the surface of Dione, a natural satellite of Saturn, was named after Larissa.

ClimateEdit

The climate of Larissa is semi-arid in the cool version (Köppen: BSk) but it is close to a hot summer Mediterranean climate (Csa).[3] The winter is fairly mild, and some snowstorms may occur. The summer is particularly hot, and temperatures of 40 °C (104 °F) may occur. Thunderstorms or heavy rain may cause agricultural damage. Larissa receives 413 mm (16 in) of rain per year.[4]

Climate data for Larissa, 1981–2010 normals
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 10.2
(50.4)
11.8
(53.2)
15.4
(59.7)
20.0
(68.0)
26.0
(78.8)
31.6
(88.9)
33.4
(92.1)
32.9
(91.2)
28.6
(83.5)
22.5
(72.5)
15.3
(59.5)
10.5
(50.9)
21.6
(70.9)
Daily mean °C (°F) 5.4
(41.7)
6.4
(43.5)
9.5
(49.1)
13.5
(56.3)
18.8
(65.8)
23.9
(75.0)
26.0
(78.8)
25.5
(77.9)
21.5
(70.7)
16.5
(61.7)
10.5
(50.9)
6.4
(43.5)
15.4
(59.7)
Average low °C (°F) 0.7
(33.3)
1.1
(34.0)
3.6
(38.5)
6.9
(44.4)
11.5
(52.7)
16.1
(61.0)
18.5
(65.3)
18.1
(64.6)
14.4
(57.9)
10.5
(50.9)
5.7
(42.3)
2.2
(36.0)
9.1
(48.4)
Average rainfall mm (inches) 29.9
(1.18)
33.5
(1.32)
35.2
(1.39)
39.5
(1.56)
40.9
(1.61)
19.8
(0.78)
18.5
(0.73)
19.6
(0.77)
12.9
(0.51)
44.2
(1.74)
67.4
(2.65)
51.2
(2.02)
412.6
(16.26)
Average rainy days (≥ 1.0 mm) 5 6 6 6 5 3 2 2 2 5 7 7 56
Source: meteo-climat-bzh[5]

MythologyEdit

According to Greek mythology it is said that the city was founded by Acrisius, who was killed accidentally by his grandson, Perseus.[7] There lived Peleus, the hero beloved by the gods, and his son Achilles.

In mythology, the nymph Larissa was a daughter of the primordial man Pelasgus.[8]

The city of Larissa is mentioned in Book II of Iliad by Homer:

Hippothous led the tribes of Pelasgian spearsmen, who dwelt in fertile Larissa- Hippothous, and Pylaeus of the race of Mars, two sons of the Pelasgian Lethus, son of Teutamus.[9] [1]

In this paragraph, Homer shows that the Pelasgians, Trojan allies, used to live in the city of Larissa. It is likely that this city of Larissa was different to the city that was the birthplace of Achilles. The Larissa that features as a Trojan ally in the Iliad was likely to be located in the Troad, on the other side of the Aegean Sea.

HistoryEdit

AntiquityEdit

 
Silver drachma of Larissa (410-405 BC). Head of the nymph Larissa left, wearing pearl earring, her hair bound in sakkos / ΛΑΡΙΣΑ above, [IA] below (retrograde), bridled horse -symbol of the city- galloping right.

Pre-historyEdit

Traces of Paleolithic human settlement have been recovered from the area, but it was peripheral to areas of advanced culture.[10] The area around Larissa was extremely fruitful; it was agriculturally important and in antiquity was known for its horses.

Archaic EraEdit

The name Larissa (Λάρισα Lárīsa) is in origin a Pelasgian word for "fortress". There were many ancient Greek cities with this name.[11] The name of Thessalian Larissa is first recorded in connection with the aristocratic Aleuadai family.[12] It was also a polis (city-state).[13]

Classical EraEdit

Larissa was a polis (city-state) during the Classical Era.[14] Larissa is thought to be where the famous Greek physician Hippocrates and the famous philosopher Gorgias of Leontini died.

 
Coinage of Thessaly, possibly king Hellokrates, with portrait of Aleuas. Obv: Head of Aleuas facing slightly left, wearing conical helmet, ALEU to right; labrys behind. Rev: Eagle standing right, head left, on thunderbolt; ELLA to left, LARISAYA to right. Thessaly, Larissa. Circa 370-360 BC

When Larissa ceased minting the federal coins it shared with other Thessalian towns and adopted its own coinage in the late 5th century BC, it chose local types for its coins. The obverse depicted the nymph of the local spring, Larissa, for whom the town was named; probably the choice was inspired by the famous coins of Kimon depicting the Syracusan nymph Arethusa. The reverse depicted a horse in various poses. The horse was an appropriate symbol of Thessaly, a land of plains, which was well known for its horses. Usually there is a male figure; he should perhaps be seen as the eponymous hero of the Thessalians, Thessalos, who is probably also to be identified on many of the earlier, federal coins of Thessaly.

 
The first ancient theatre of the city. It was constructed inside the ancient city's centre during the reign of Antigonus II Gonatas towards the end of the 3rd century BC. The theatre was in use for six centuries, until the end of the 3rd century AD
 
Street beside the theatre

Larissa, sometimes written Larisa on ancient coins and inscriptions, is near the site of the Homeric Argissa. It appears in early times, when Thessaly was mainly governed by a few aristocratic families, as an important city under the rule of the Aleuadae, whose authority extended over the whole district of Pelasgiotis. This powerful family possessed for many generations before 369 BC the privilege of furnishing the tagus, the local term for the strategos of the combined Thessalian forces. The principal rivals of the Aleuadae were the Scopadae of Crannon, the remains of which are about 14 miles south west.

Larissa was the birthplace of Meno, who thus became, along with Xenophon and a few others, one of the generals leading several thousands Greeks from various places, in the ill-fated expedition of 401 (retold in Xenophon's Anabasis) meant to help Cyrus the Younger, son of Darius II, king of Persia, overthrow his elder brother Artaxerxes II and take over the throne of Persia (Meno is featured in Plato's dialogue bearing his name, in which Socrates uses the example of "the way to Larissa" to help explain Meno the difference between true opinion and science (Meno, 97a–c); this "way to Larissa" might well be on the part of Socrates an attempt to call to Meno's mind a "way home", understood as the way toward one's true and "eternal" home reached only at death, that each man is supposed to seek in his life).[15]

The constitution of the town was democratic, which explains why it sided with Athens in the Peloponnesian War. In the neighbourhood of Larissa was celebrated a festival which recalled the Roman Saturnalia, and at which the slaves were waited on by their masters. As the chief city of ancient Thessaly, Larissa was taken by the Thebans and later directly annexed by Philip II of Macedon in 344. It remained under Macedonian control afterwards, except for a brief period when Demetrius Poliorcetes captured it in 302 BC.

Hellenistic EraEdit

Roman EraEdit

It was in Larissa that Philip V of Macedon signed in 197 BC a treaty with the Romans after his defeat at the Battle of Cynoscephalae, and it was there also that Antiochus III the Great, won a great victory in 192 BC. In 196 BC Larissa became an ally of Rome and was the headquarters of the Thessalian League.

Larissa is frequently mentioned in connection with the Roman civil wars which preceded the establishment of the Roman Empire and Pompey sought refuge there after the defeat of Pharsalus.

Middle Ages and Ottoman periodEdit

 
Remains of the Basilica of St. Achillios, destroyed during the Ottoman era
 
Gravure of Larissa c.1820
 
The archaological excavations on Frourio Hill, with the Bezesten of Larissa in the background.
 
A street in the Frourio quarter

Larissa was sacked by the Ostrogoths in the late 5th century, and rebuilt under the Byzantine emperor Justinian I.[16]

In the 8th century, the city became the metropolis of the theme of Hellas.[16] The city was captured in 986 by Tsar Samuel of Bulgaria, who carried off the relics of its patron saint, Saint Achilleios, to Prespa.[16] It was again unsuccessfully besieged by the Italo-Normans under Bohemond I in 1082/3.[16]

After the Fourth Crusade, the King of Thessalonica, Boniface of Montferrat, gave the city to Lombard barons, but they launched a rebellion in 1209 that had to be subdued by the Latin Emperor Henry of Flanders himself.[16] The city was recovered by Epirus soon after.[16]

It was conquered by the Ottoman Empire in 1386/87 and again in the 1390s, but only came under permanent Ottoman control in 1423, by Turahan Bey.[17] Under Ottoman rule, the city was known as Yeni-şehir i-Fenari, "new citadel". As the chief town and military base of Ottoman Thessaly, Larissa was a predominantly Muslim city.[17] During Ottoman rule the administration of the Metropolis of Larissa was transferred to nearby Trikala where it remained until 1734, when Metropolitan Iakovos II returned the see from Trikala to Larissa and established the present-day metropolis of Larissa and Tyrnavos.

The town was noted for its trade fair in the 17th and 18th centuries, while the seat of the pasha of Thessaly was also transferred there in 1770.[17] Larissa was the headquarters of Hursid Pasha during the Greek War of Independence. It was also renowned for its mosques (four of which were still in use in the late 19th century) and its muslim cemeteries.[citation needed]

The city remained in Ottoman hands until Thessaly became part of the independent Kingdom of Greece in 1881, except for a period where Ottoman forces re-occupied it during the Greco-Turkish War of 1897.[17] In the late 19th century, there was still a small village in the outskirts of the town inhabited by Africans from Sudan, a curious remnant of the forces collected by Ali Pasha.

In the 19th century, the town produced leather, cotton, silk and tobacco. Fevers and agues were prevalent owing to bad drainage and the overflowing of the river; and the death rate was higher than the birth rate.[dubious ]

Modern Greek eraEdit

 
Old postcard of the city, Alexandras Street, 1910
 
View of Larissa, 1940
 
A German Messerschmitt which was crash-landed on the military airfield at Larissa, shot down by RAF during WWII

In 1881, the city, along with the rest of Thessaly, was incorporated into the Kingdom of Greece during the prime ministry of Alexandros Koumoundouros. On 31 August 1881 a unit of the Greek Army headed by General Skarlatos Soutsos entered the city. A considerable portion of the Turkish population emigrated into the Ottoman Empire at that point. In this new era the city starts gradually to expand and to be rebuilt by the Greek authorities.

During the Greco-Turkish War of 1897, the city was the headquarters of Greek Crown Prince Constantine. The flight of the Greek army from here to Farsala took place on April 23, 1897. Turkish troops entered the city two days later. After a treaty for peace was signed, they withdrew and Larissa remained permanently in Greece. This was followed by a further exodus of Turks in 1898. The Hassan Bey mosque (which was built in early 16th century) was demolished in 1908.

During the Axis Occupation of the country, the Jewish community of the city (dated back to 2nd BC, see Romaniotes) suffered heavy losses. Today in the city there is a Holocaust memorial and a synagogue.

After WWIIEdit

 
A fountain in Tachidromiou Square of Larissa

After WWII the city was expanded rapidly. Today Larissa is the fourth largest Greek city with many squares, taverns and cafes. It has three public hospitals with one being a military hospital. It hosts the Hellenic Air Force Headquarters and NATO Headquarters in Greece. It has a School of Medicine and a School of Biochemistry – Biotechnology and the third largest in the country Institute of Technology. It occupies the first place among Greek cities into green coverage rate per square-metre urban space and the first place with the highest percentance of bars-taverns-restaurants per capita in Greece. It also has two public libraries and five museums.[18]

Ecclesiastical historyEdit

 
St. Achillios, patron saint of the city

Christianity penetrated early to Larissa, though its first bishop is recorded only in 325 at the Council of Nicaea. St. Achillius of the 4th century, is celebrated for his miracles. Le Quien[19] cites twenty-nine bishops from the fourth to the 18th centuries; the most famous is Jeremias II, who occupied the see until 733, when the Emperor Leo III the Isaurian transferred it from the jurisdiction of the Pope of Rome to the Patriarchate of Constantinople. In the first years of the 10th century it had ten suffragan sees;[20] subsequently the number increased and about the year 1175 under the Emperor Manuel I Comnenus, it reached twenty-eight.[21] At the close of the 15th century, under the Turkish domination, there were only ten suffragan sees,[22] which gradually grew less and finally disappeared.

 
Inside the Jewish synagogue of Larissa.

Larissa is an Orthodox Metropolis of the Church of Greece. It was briefly a Latin archbishopric in the early 13th century, and remains a Latin Metropolitan (top-ranking) titular see of the Roman Catholic Church, which must not be confused with the Latin episcopal (low-ranking) titular see Larissa in Syria.

AdministrationEdit

The municipality Larissa was formed at the 2011 local government reform by the merger of the following 3 former municipalities, that became municipal units:[23]

DistrictsEdit

The municipal unit of Larissa is divided into four city-districts or municipal communities (29 city areas) plus 2 suburban communities (Amphithea and Koulourion). The municipality includes also the Community of Terpsithèa (with the suburban community of Argyssa).

1st Municipal District (pop. 26,035)

  1. Papastàvrou
  2. Saint Athanàsios
  3. Alkazàr
  4. Hippocrates-Pèra
  5. Potamòpolis
  6. Philippòpolis
  7. Livadàki
  8. Saint Thomas
  9. Saint Paraskevi-Mezourlo
  10. Neàpolis

2nd Municipal District (pop. 41,816)

  1. Saint Achellios
  2. Saint Nikòlaos
  3. Ambelòkipoi
  4. Saints Sarànta
  5. Saint Konstantinos
  6. Stathmòs

3rd Municipal District (pop. 30,121)

  1. Lachanòkipoi
  2. Nèa Smyrne-Kamynia
  3. Kalyvia-Saint Marina
  4. Saint Geòrgios
  5. Anatoli
  6. Koulouri
  7. Amphithèa

4th Municipal District (pop. 26,814)

  1. Charavgi-Toumba-OKE
  2. Pyrovolikà-Pharos
  3. Avèrof-Sèkfo
  4. Nèa Politia
  5. Epiròtika
  6. Anthoupolis
  7. Neràida
  8. Kàmpos

Community of Terpsithèa (pop. 1,290)

  1. Terpsithèa
  2. Argyssa

From 1 January 2011, in accordance with the Kallikratis Plan (new administrative division of Greece), the new municipality of Larissa includes also the former municipalities of Giannouli and Koilada.

ProvinceEdit

The province of Larissa (Greek: Επαρχία Λάρισας) was one of the provinces of the Larissa Prefecture. Its territory corresponded with that of the current municipalities Larissa (except the municipal unit Giannouli) and Tempi (except the municipal units Gonnoi and Kato Olympos).[24] It was abolished in 2006.

EconomyEdit

Larissa is a major agricultural center of Greece, due to the plain of Thessaly.

In manufacturing sector, Larissa is among others home to Biokarpet carpet company (whose owners were also major shareholders of AEL FC in the past) and Orient Bikes.

It comes also in first place with the highest percentance of bars-taverns-restaurants per capita in Greece. Mikel Coffee Company chain started and has its base in the city.

CultureEdit

 
A horse statue
 
Alcazar park
 
The Thessalian Theatre

Theatres and OdeonsEdit

  • Municipal Conservatory of Larissa[25]
  • Pappas's Mile Theatre[26]
  • Municipal Theatre OUHL of Larissa[27]
  • Hatzigianeio Cultural Centre
  • Tiritomba Shadows Theatre

Archaeological sitesEdit

CuisineEdit

 
Old Mills of Pappas

Local specialities:

  • Batzina (Μπατζίνα) pie
  • Kelaidi (Κελαηδί)
  • Pita (Πίτα, traditional pies) like Kreatopita, Loukanikopita, Melintzanopita, Tyropita, Spanakopita
  • Plastós (Πλαστός) pie
  • Lahanópsomo (Λαχανόψωμο)
  • Halvas (Χαλβάς)

MuseumsEdit

  • Diachronic Museum of Larissa / Archaeological and Byzantine Myseum of Larissa[28]
  • Municipal Gallery of Larissa – G.I. Katsigras Museum[29]
  • Folklore and Historical Museum of Larissa[30]
  • Military Veterinary Museum of Larissa
  • Museum of the Folklore Society of Larissa
  • Museum of Grain and Flours

MediaEdit

In popular cultureEdit

TransportEdit

Larissa sits in the middle of the plain of Thessaly, with connections to Motorway A1 and national roads EO3 and EO6.

Close destinationsEdit

The city is in close proximity of many interesting destinations in the region (Mount Olympus, Mount Kissavos, Meteora, Lake Plastira, Pilio, etc.) suitable for daily trips.

SportsEdit

 
AEL FC Arena in Neapolis district
 
During a match of AEL FC

The local football club AEL FC currently participates in Superleague Greece. The team won the Greek Championship, in 1988, and won the Greek Cup in 1985 and 2007. These titles place AEL among the five most important football clubs in Greece. AEL has hosted its home games at the AEL FC Arena, a UEFA 3-star-rated football ground, since November 2010.

Other important sport venues are the National Sport Center of Larissa (EAK Larissas), which includes the Alcazar Stadium and the Neapoli Indoor Hall.

The National Sports Center of Larissa can accommodate a number of sports and events (football, basketball, wrestling, swimming, boxing, martial arts, handball, water polo, etc.), while the Sports Hall has hosted important athletic events (the 1995 FIBA Under-19 World Cup, the 1997 Women's EuroLeague Final Four, the 2003 Greek Basketball Cup Final Four, martial arts events, etc.), and it is also used for cultural events, such as dance festivals.

Notable sport clubs based in Larissa
Club Sports Founded Achievements
AEL Larissa Football 1964 Winner of Greek Championship and Greek Cup
Basketball 2006 Earlier presence in Greek Basket League
Apollon Larissa Football 1930 Presence in Super League 2
EA Larissa Volleyball 1968 Earlier presence in Greek Volleyball League
Philathlitikos Larissaikos Syllogos Volleyball 1990 Earlier presence in Greek Women's Volleyball League
Olympia Larissa Basketball 1979 Earlier presence in Greek Basket League
Gymnastikos S. Larissas Basketball 1928 Earlier presence in Greek Basket League
Larissa BC Basketball 1984 Presence in Greek Basket League

Historical populationEdit

Year Municipal Unit Municipality
1991 118,090 129,429
2001 131,095 145,981
2011 144,651 162,591

Notable peopleEdit

 
A statue of Hippocrates in the cenotaph monument (sculptor Georgios Kalakalas)

AncientEdit

MedievalEdit

ModernEdit

International relationsEdit

Twin towns — sister citiesEdit

Larissa is twinned with:

GalleryEdit

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d "Απογραφή Πληθυσμού - Κατοικιών 2011. ΜΟΝΙΜΟΣ Πληθυσμός" (in Greek). Hellenic Statistical Authority.
  2. ^ "Population & housing census 2001 (incl. area and average elevation)" (PDF) (in Greek). National Statistical Service of Greece. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-09-21.
  3. ^ "Updated Köppen-Geiger climate map of the world". people.eng.unimelb.edu.au. Retrieved 2019-01-18.
  4. ^ http://www.larissa.climatemps.com/precipitation.php
  5. ^ "moyennes 1981/2010".
  6. ^ "Larissa Climate Normals 1961–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved March 1, 2015.
  7. ^ Stephanus Byzantius, s.v.
  8. ^ Pausanias, 2.24.1
  9. ^ Hippothous led the tribes of Pelasgian spearsmen, who dwelt in fertile Larissa- Hippothous, and Pylaeus of the race of Mars, two sons of the Pelasgian Lethus, son of Teutamus.
  10. ^ Curtis Runnels and Tjeerd H. van Andel. "The Lower and Middle Paleolithic of Thessaly, Greece" Journal of Field Archaeology 20.3 (Autumn 1993:299–317) summarises the survey carried out in June 1991.
  11. ^ "Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon". Perseus.tufts.edu. Retrieved 2009-07-08.
  12. ^ "The city and the plain around it were settled in prehistoric times, and its name must be early, but it is first mentioned in connection with the(Richard Stillwell, William L. MacDonald, Marian Holland McAllister, eds., The Princeton Encyclopedia of Classical Sites (Princeton University Press) 1976, 's.v. "Larissa, or Larisa, or Pelasgis, Thessaly").
  13. ^ Mogens Herman Hansen & Thomas Heine Nielsen (2004). "Thessaly and Adjacent Regions". An inventory of archaic and classical poleis. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 714–715. ISBN 0-19-814099-1.
  14. ^ Mogens Herman Hansen & Thomas Heine Nielsen (2004). "Thessaly and Adjacent Regions". An inventory of archaic and classical poleis. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 695–697. ISBN 0-19-814099-1.
  15. ^ SUZANNE, Bernard F. "Larissa". plato-dialogues.org.
  16. ^ a b c d e f Kazhdan, Alexander (1991). "Larissa". In Kazhdan, Alexander (ed.). The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press. p. 1180. ISBN 0-19-504652-8.
  17. ^ a b c d Savvides, A. (2002). "Yei Shehir". In Bearman, P. J.; Bianquis, Th.; Bosworth, C. E.; van Donzel, E. & Heinrichs, W. P. (eds.). The Encyclopaedia of Islam, New Edition, Volume XI: W–Z. Leiden: E. J. Brill. p. 333. ISBN 90-04-12756-9.
  18. ^ http://www.larissa-dimos.gr/
  19. ^ Oriens Christianus II, 103–112.
  20. ^ Heinrich Gelzer, "Ungedruckte. . .Texte der Notitiae episcopatuum", Munich, 1900, 557.
  21. ^ Parthey, Hieroclis Synecdemus, Berlin, 1866, 120.
  22. ^ Gelzer, op. cit., 635.
  23. ^ Kallikratis law Greece Ministry of Interior (in Greek)
  24. ^ "Detailed census results 1991" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-03-03. (39 MB) (in Greek) (in French)
  25. ^ Municipal Odeon of Larissa
  26. ^ Mylos of Pappa Theatre
  27. ^ Thessalian Theatre – Municipal Theatre of Larissa
  28. ^ Diachronic Museum of Larissa
  29. ^ Municipal Gallery of Larissa
  30. ^ Folklore and Historical Museum of Larissa
  31. ^ a b c d "Twinnings" (PDF). Central Union of Municipalities & Communities of Greece. Retrieved 2013-08-25.
  32. ^ "Rybnik Official Website — Twin Towns". City of Rybnik. Urząd Miasta Rybnika, ul. Bolesława Chrobrego 2, 44–200 Rybnik. Archived from the original on 2009-05-28. Retrieved 2008-11-01.

External linksEdit