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Anapa (Russian: Анапа, Circassian: Iэнапэ) is a town in Krasnodar Krai, Russia, located on the northern coast of the Black Sea near the Sea of Azov. Population: 58,990 (2010 Census);[4] 53,493 (2002 Census);[9] 54,796 (1989 Census).[10]

Anapa

Анапа
A beach in Anapa
A beach in Anapa
Flag of Anapa
Flag
Coat of arms of Anapa
Coat of arms
Location of Anapa
Anapa is located in Russia
Anapa
Anapa
Location of Anapa
Anapa is located in Krasnodar Krai
Anapa
Anapa
Anapa (Krasnodar Krai)
Coordinates: 44°52′N 37°22′E / 44.867°N 37.367°E / 44.867; 37.367Coordinates: 44°52′N 37°22′E / 44.867°N 37.367°E / 44.867; 37.367
CountryRussia
Federal subjectKrasnodar Krai[1]
Founded14th century[2]
Town status since1846[3]
Government
 • MayorSergey Sergeyev
Area
 • Total40 km2 (20 sq mi)
Elevation
20 m (70 ft)
Population
 • Total58,990
 • Rank280th in 2010
 • Density1,500/km2 (3,800/sq mi)
 • Administratively subordinated toTown of Anapa[5]
 • Administrative center ofTown of Anapa[1], Anapsky District[1]
 • Urban okrugAnapa Urban Okrug[6]
 • Administrative center ofAnapa Urban Okrug[5]
Time zoneMSK (UTC+03:00)[7]
Postal code(s)[8]
353440—353458
Dialing code(s)+7 86133
OKATO ID03403000000
Websitewww.anapa-official.ru

Contents

HistoryEdit

 
The archaeological site of Gorgippia

The area around Anapa was settled in antiquity. It was originally a major seaport (Sinda) for the Natkhuay tribe of the Adyghe people[citation needed] and then the capital of Sindica. The colony of Gorgippia was built on the site of Sinda in the 6th century BCE by Pontic Greeks, who named it after a king of the Cimmerian Bosporus. In the 2nd and 3rd centuries BCE, Gorgippia flourished as part of the Bosporan Kingdom, as did its guild of shipowners, which controlled maritime trade in the eastern part of the Black Sea. A fine statue of Neokles (a local potentate, son of Herodoros) was unearthed by Russian archaeologists and is now on exhibit at the Russian Museum. Gorgippia was inhabited until the 3rd century CE, when it was overrun by nomadic tribes. These tribes, of Circassian or Adyghe origin, gave Anapa its modern name.

Later the Black Sea littoral was overrun by successive waves of Asiatic nomads, including the Sarmatians, Ostrogoths, Huns, Avars, Gokturks, Khazars, Circassians, and Tatars. The settlement was renamed Mapa by the Genoese at the turn of the 14th century. Genoese domination lasted until the arrival of an Ottoman fleet in 1475. The Turks later built a fort against the Russian Cossacks. The fortress was repeatedly attacked by the Russian Empire and was all but destroyed during its last siege in 1829. The town was passed to Russia after the Treaty of Adrianople (1829). See Russian conquest of the Caucasus#Black Sea Coast. It was included in Black Sea Okrug of Kuban Oblast and was granted town status in 1846.[3]

It was occupied by Ottomans between 1853-1856 during the Crimean War. It became part of Black Sea Governorate in 1896. Elizabeth Pilenko, later named as a saint in the Ukrainian Orthodox Church, was the mayor during the Russian Revolution. It became part of Kuban-Black Sea Oblast in 1920. During World War II, it was occupied and totally demolished by Nazi Germany with the help of Romanian troops between August 30, 1942 and September 22, 1943.

Administrative and municipal statusEdit

Within the framework of administrative divisions, Anapa serves as the administrative center of Anapsky District, even though it is not a part of it.[1] As an administrative division, it is, together with three rural localities, incorporated separately as the Town of Anapa—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts.[1] As a municipal division, the territories of the Town of Anapa and of Anapsky District are incorporated as Anapa Urban Okrug.[5][6]

 
Commemorative coin of the Bank of Russia with a face of anapa of 10 rubles (2014)

TourismEdit

The town boasts a number of sanatoria and hotels. Anapa, Sochi, and several other cities along the Russian coast of the Black Sea have enjoyed a substantial increase in popularity since the dissolution of the Soviet Union, which left traditional Soviet resort cities in Abkhazia on the other side of the national border. Anapa is served by the Anapa Airport.

Anapa, like the other Black Sea coast resorts, has a superb sunny summer climate. Anapa has beautiful, mostly sandy beaches. However, Anapa seldom attracts tourists from outside Russia due to its modest infrastructure and its inconvenient accessibility from Western Europe via Moscow or Krasnodar. Anapa remains an attractive and inexpensive option for Russians who prefer traditional Russian resorts to more expensive destinations.

TransportationEdit

Transportation facilities include the Anapa Airport, a railway station, an international passenger port for small-tonnage ships, a bus station, and a network of highways.[11]

ClimateEdit

Anapa has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen climate classification Cfa) at the lower elevations.[12] Its average annual temperature is +12.4 °C (54.3 °F): +16.4 °C (61.5 °F) during the day and +9.0 °C (48.2 °F) at night. Average annual precipitation is about 560 millimeters (22 in).

Climate data for Anapa
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 17.7
(63.9)
21.0
(69.8)
24.5
(76.1)
31.0
(87.8)
31.2
(88.2)
34.9
(94.8)
38.0
(100.4)
38.2
(100.8)
32.9
(91.2)
35.6
(96.1)
27.1
(80.8)
21.1
(70)
38.2
(100.8)
Average high °C (°F) 6.0
(42.8)
6.2
(43.2)
9.3
(48.7)
14.7
(58.5)
19.6
(67.3)
24.1
(75.4)
28.1
(82.6)
28.3
(82.9)
23.3
(73.9)
17.6
(63.7)
11.8
(53.2)
7.7
(45.9)
16.4
(61.5)
Daily mean °C (°F) 2.7
(36.9)
2.6
(36.7)
5.6
(42.1)
10.7
(51.3)
15.5
(59.9)
20.3
(68.5)
23.6
(74.5)
23.5
(74.3)
18.8
(65.8)
13.4
(56.1)
8.1
(46.6)
4.4
(39.9)
12.4
(54.3)
Average low °C (°F) 0.2
(32.4)
−0.3
(31.5)
2.7
(36.9)
7.7
(45.9)
12.2
(54)
16.8
(62.2)
19.5
(67.1)
19.1
(66.4)
14.5
(58.1)
9.8
(49.6)
4.9
(40.8)
1.6
(34.9)
9.0
(48.2)
Record low °C (°F) −23.9
(−11)
−19.6
(−3.3)
−13.2
(8.2)
−5.1
(22.8)
0.7
(33.3)
7.0
(44.6)
11.1
(52)
8.5
(47.3)
0.8
(33.4)
−6.3
(20.7)
−12.2
(10)
−18.9
(−2)
−23.9
(−11)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 55
(2.17)
49
(1.93)
49
(1.93)
40
(1.57)
36
(1.42)
43
(1.69)
33
(1.3)
40
(1.57)
46
(1.81)
42
(1.65)
59
(2.32)
68
(2.68)
560
(22.05)
Average rainy days 13 12 13 13 11 9 7 6 9 10 13 14 130
Average snowy days 6 6 4 0.2 0 0 0 0 0 0.2 2 5 23.4
Average relative humidity (%) 81 78 77 77 77 78 71 69 72 75 79 81 76
Mean monthly sunshine hours 72.9 97.1 148.8 191.0 272.3 310.1 339.9 319.1 251.7 191.5 102.9 58.6 2,355.9
Source #1: Pogoda.ru.net[13]
Source #2: Weatherbase (sunshine hours)[14]
Average Sea Temperature (1977-2006).[15]
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Average temperature 6.8 °C 6.1 °C 7.4 °C 10.6 °C 15.1 °C 20.0 °C 23.1 °C 24.1 °C 21.1 °C 16.6 °C 11.9 °C 8.7 °C

CultureEdit

The Town Theater of Anapa is located on Krymskaya Street. It was opened after the reconstruction of the Town Cultural Center.[16] There are twenty nine public libraries including four for children. In 2010 the libraries of Anapa received more than 8,000 books, and magazines and newspapers were ordered costing more than 1,000,000 roubles, in addition, nine hundred CDs were purchased.[17]

 
The only remaining gates of an Ottoman fort
 
Anonymous ruler of the city of Gorgippia (Anapa) in the Bosporan Kingdom, c. 180 AD, during the period of Roman Crimea

There is museum of Local History (Краеведческий музей) on Protapova Street.[18]

Architecture and sightsEdit

List of mayorsEdit

Activities carried out in the townEdit

Twin towns and sister citiesEdit

GalleryEdit

ReferencesEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d e f Reference Information #34.01-707/13-03
  2. ^ Энциклопедия Города России. Moscow: Большая Российская Энциклопедия. 2003. p. 20. ISBN 5-7107-7399-9.
  3. ^ a b "General Information" (in Russian). Retrieved February 24, 2018.
  4. ^ a b Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года [2010 All-Russia Population Census] (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service.
  5. ^ a b c Charter of Anapa Urban Okrug
  6. ^ a b Law #676-KZ
  7. ^ Правительство Российской Федерации. Федеральный закон №107-ФЗ от 3 июня 2011 г. «Об исчислении времени», в ред. Федерального закона №271-ФЗ от 03 июля 2016 г. «О внесении изменений в Федеральный закон "Об исчислении времени"». Вступил в силу по истечении шестидесяти дней после дня официального опубликования (6 августа 2011 г.). Опубликован: "Российская газета", №120, 6 июня 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Federal Law #107-FZ of June 31, 2011 On Calculating Time, as amended by the Federal Law #271-FZ of July 03, 2016 On Amending Federal Law "On Calculating Time". Effective as of after sixty days following the day of the official publication.).
  8. ^ Почта России. Информационно-вычислительный центр ОАСУ РПО. (Russian Post). Поиск объектов почтовой связи (Postal Objects Search) (in Russian)
  9. ^ Russian Federal State Statistics Service (21 May 2004). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000] (XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian).
  10. ^ "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров" [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года [All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. 1989 – via Demoscope Weekly.
  11. ^ Вокзал Анапа: жд вокзал Анапа, авто вокзал в Анапе, морской вокзал. Anapa.yuginform.ru (in Russian). Retrieved March 10, 2011.
  12. ^ "Using the Köppen classification to quantify climate variation and change". Environmental Development, volume 6, 2013. Retrieved November 22, 2017.
  13. ^ "Pogoda.ru.net" (in Russian). Retrieved September 8, 2007.
  14. ^ "Weatherbase: Historical Weather for Anapa, Russia". Weatherbase. Retrieved April 1, 2013.
  15. ^ Anapa Water temperature 1977-2006 (in Russian), Retrieved August 9, 2012.
  16. ^ Городской театр [Town theatre]. gorodanapa.com (in Russian).
  17. ^ Сологуб, В. "Некриминальное чтиво". Анапа. Anapa, Russia.
  18. ^ Анапский краеведческий музей, Анапа. ЮГА.ру (in Russian). ООО "ЮГА.ру". Retrieved 10 March 2011.
  19. ^ "Анапский археологический музей — филиал Краснодарского государственного историко-археологического музея-заповедника имени Е.Д. Фелицына". Museum.ru. Archived from the original on January 3, 2011. Retrieved 10 March 2011.
  20. ^ Остатки турецкой крепости Анапа и памятник А.д. безкровному [Remnants of the Turkish fortress of Anapa and the monument to Bezkrovny]. Anapafuture.ru (in Russian). Retrieved 10 March 2011.
  21. ^ Храм Святого Онуфрия Великого. Anapahome.ru (in Russian). Retrieved 10 March 2011.
  22. ^ Анапский Маяк. Turspeak.ru (in Russian).
  23. ^ Заказник "Большой Утриш". Справка. Eco.rian.ru (in Russian).
  24. ^ Мать Мария, бывшая в 1917 г. главой Анапы, причислена к лику святых [Mother Maria who was a mayor of Anapa in 1917 is canonised.]. Юга.Ру (in Russian). Krasnodar, Russia: ООО "ЮГА.ру". February 13, 2004. Retrieved March 14, 2011.
  25. ^ Ольга Лихина; Наталья Орлова (September 11, 1993). Канарские острова стали лучшим курортом в мире, не считая Анапы [Canary islands became a best resort in a world, to say nothing about Anapa.]. Коммерсантъ (in Russian). Russia. Retrieved March 14, 2011.
  26. ^ Павлючик, Леонид (September 21, 2000). "От шока — к шику" [From shock to chic]. Труд (in Russian). Russia. Retrieved March 14, 2011.
  27. ^ Анапа официально открыла курортный сезон [Anapa officially opened the holiday season]. RATA-news (in Russian). Russia. June 23, 2004. Archived from the original on February 26, 2011. Retrieved March 14, 2011.
  28. ^ Краснодарский край. Мэрию Анапы ждут реформы, в том числе кадровые. [Krasnodar Krai. Reforms, Including Staffing, Planned in Town Hall of Anapa]. Regions.ru (in Russian). Russia. December 16, 2004. Retrieved March 14, 2011.
  29. ^ А. Пахомов вступил в должность мэра Анапы [A. Pakhomov assumed the position of Mayor of Anapa]. Юга.Ру (in Russian). Russia. March 22, 2006. Retrieved March 14, 2011.
  30. ^ Кузнецова, Татьяна (April 3, 2009). Вступит в должность новый мэр Анапы [The new mayor of Anapa will assume post.] (in Russian). Russia. RIA Novosti. Retrieved March 14, 2011.
  31. ^ www.kinoshock.ru
  32. ^ Жданович, Николай (September 15, 2010). "Archived copy" Знаковый момент [Moment of significance]. Рэспубліка (in Russian). Belarus. Archived from the original on August 23, 2011. Retrieved March 14, 2011.
  33. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on September 4, 2011. Retrieved 2009-11-29.

SourcesEdit

  • Управление по взаимодействию с органами местного самоуправления Администрации Краснодарского края. Справочная информация №34.01-707/13-03 от 23 мая 2013 г. «Реестр административно-территориальных единиц Краснодарского края». (Department of Cooperation with the Organs of the Local Self-Government of the Administration of Krasnodar Krai. Reference Information #34.01-707/13-03 of May 23, 2013 Registry of the Administrative-Territorial Units of Krasnodar Krai. ).
  • Законодательное Собрание Краснодарского края. Закон №676-КЗ от 1 апреля 2004 г. «Об установлении границ муниципального образования город-курорт Анапа и наделении его статусом городского округа», в ред. Закона №1756-КЗ от 3 июня 2009 г «О внесении изменений в некоторые законодательные акты Краснодарского края об установлении границ муниципальных образований». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Кубанские новости", №64–65, 17 апреля 2004 г. (Legislative Assembly of Krasnodar Krai. Law #676-KZ of April 1, 2004 On Establishing the Borders of the Municipal Formation of the Resort City of Anapa and on Granting It the Status of an Urban Okrug, as amended by the Law #1756-KZ of June 3, 2009 On Amending Several Legislative Acts of Krasnodar Krai on Establishing the Borders of the Municipal Formations. Effective as of the day of the official publication.).
  • Совет муниципального образования город-курорт Анапа. Решение №544 от 16 апреля 2015 г. «О принятии Устава муниципального образования город-курорт Анапа». Вступил в силу после официального опубликования, за исключением отдельных положений, вступающих в силу в иные сроки. Опубликован: "Анапское Черноморье", №62–66, 30 мая 2015 г. (Council of the Municipal Formation of the Resort Town of Anapa. Decision #544 of April 16, 2015 On Adopting the Charter of the Municipal Formation of the Resort Town of Anapa. Effective as of after the official publication, with the exception of clauses which take effect on different dates.).

External linksEdit