Juan Carlos I of Spain
Juan Carlos I (Spanish: [xwaŋˈkaɾlos];[a] Juan Carlos Alfonso Víctor María de Borbón y Borbón-Dos Sicilias, born 5 January 1938) is a member of the Spanish royal family who reigned as King of Spain from November 1975 until his abdication in June 2014.
|Juan Carlos I|
Photographed at an official reception at La Zarzuela, 2014
|King of Spain |
|Reign||22 November 1975 – 19 June 2014|
|Enthronement||27 November 1975|
|Born||5 January 1938|
Rome, Kingdom of Italy
Princess Sophia of Greece and Denmark (m. 1962)
|Father||Infante Juan, Count of Barcelona|
|Mother||Princess María de las Mercedes of Bourbon-Two Sicilies|
Juan Carlos is the grandson of Alfonso XIII, the last king of Spain before the abolition of the monarchy in 1931 and the subsequent declaration of the Second Spanish Republic. Juan Carlos was born in Rome, Italy, during his family's exile. Generalísimo Francisco Franco took over the government of Spain after his victory in the Spanish Civil War in 1939, yet in 1947 Spain's status as a monarchy was affirmed and a law was passed allowing Franco to choose his successor. Juan Carlos's father, Juan, was the third son of King Alfonso, who had renounced his claims to the throne in January 1941. Juan was seen by Franco to be too liberal and in 1969 was bypassed in favour of Juan Carlos as Franco's successor as head of state.
Juan Carlos spent his early years in Italy and came to Spain in 1947 to continue his studies. After completing his secondary education in 1955, he began his military training and entered the General Military Academy at Zaragoza. Later, he attended the Naval Military School, the General Academy of the Air, and finished his tertiary education at the University of Madrid. In 1962, Juan Carlos married Princess Sophia of Greece and Denmark in Athens. The couple had two daughters and a son together: Elena, Cristina, and Felipe. Due to Franco's declining health, Juan Carlos first began periodically acting as Spain's head of state in the summer of 1974. Franco died in November the following year and Juan Carlos became king on 22 November 1975, two days after Franco's death, the first reigning monarch since 1931; although his exiled father did not formally renounce his claims to the throne in favor of his son until 1977.
Expected to continue Franco's legacy, Juan Carlos, however, soon after his accession introduced reforms to dismantle the Francoist regime and begin the Spanish transition to democracy. This led to the approval of the Spanish Constitution of 1978 in a referendum, which re-established a constitutional monarchy. In 1981, Juan Carlos played a major role in preventing a coup that attempted to revert Spain to Francoist government in the King's name. In 2008, he was considered the most popular leader in all Ibero-America. Hailed for his role in Spain's transition to democracy, the King and the monarchy's reputation began to suffer after controversies surrounding his family arose, exacerbated by an elephant-hunting trip he undertook during a time of financial crisis in Spain. In 2014, Juan Carlos, citing personal reasons, abdicated in favour of his son, who acceded to the throne as Felipe VI.
- 1 Early life
- 2 Prince of Spain: 1969–1975
- 3 Restoration of the monarchy
- 4 Later role in Spanish politics
- 5 Family and private life
- 6 Health
- 7 Budget of the royal house
- 8 Abdication
- 9 Payment allegations
- 10 Titles, styles, honours and arms
- 11 Ancestry
- 12 See also
- 13 Notes
- 14 References
- 15 Further reading
- 16 External links
Juan Carlos was born to Infante Juan, Count of Barcelona, and Princess María de las Mercedes of Bourbon-Two Sicilies in Rome, Italy, where his grandfather King Alfonso XIII of Spain and other members of the Spanish royal family lived in exile following the proclamation of the Second Spanish Republic in 1931. He was baptized as Juan Carlos Alfonso Víctor María de Borbón y Borbón-Dos Sicilias. He was given the name Juan Carlos after his father and maternal grandfather, Prince Carlos of Bourbon-Two Sicilies.
His early life was dictated largely by the political concerns of his father and General Franco. He moved to Spain in 1948 to be educated there after his father persuaded Franco to allow it. He began his studies in San Sebastián and finished them in 1954 at the Instituto San Isidro in Madrid. He then joined the army, doing his officer training from 1955 to 1957 at the Military Academy of Zaragoza.
On the evening of Holy Thursday, 29 March 1956, Juan Carlos's younger brother Alfonso died in a gun accident at the family's home Villa Giralda in Estoril, on the Portuguese Riviera. The Spanish Embassy in Portugal then issued the following official communiqué:
Whilst His Highness Prince Alfonso was cleaning a revolver last evening with his brother, a shot was fired hitting his forehead and killing him in a few minutes. The accident took place at 20.30 hours, after the Infante's return from the Maundy Thursday religious service, during which he had received holy communion.
Alfonso had won a local junior golf tournament earlier in the day, then went to evening Mass and rushed up to the room to see Juan Carlos who had come home for the Easter holidays from military school. It is alleged that Juan Carlos began playing with a gun that had apparently been given to Alfonso by General Franco. Rumors appeared in newspapers that the gun had actually been held by Juan Carlos at the moment the shot was fired.
As they were alone in the room, it is unclear how Alfonso was shot, but according to Josefina Carolo, dressmaker to Juan Carlos's mother, Juan Carlos pointed the pistol at Alfonso and pulled the trigger, unaware that it was loaded. Bernardo Arnoso, a Portuguese friend of Juan Carlos, also said that Juan Carlos fired the pistol not knowing that it was loaded, and adding that the bullet ricocheted off a wall, hitting Alfonso in the face. Helena Matheopoulos, a Greek author who spoke with Juan Carlos's sister Pilar, said that Alfonso had been out of the room and when he returned and pushed the door open, the door knocked Juan Carlos in the arm, causing him to fire the pistol.
In 1957, Juan Carlos spent a year in the naval school at Marín, Pontevedra, and another in the Air Force school in San Javier in Murcia. In 1960–61, he studied Law, International Political Economy and Public Finance at Complutense University. He then went to live in the Palace of Zarzuela and began carrying out official engagements.
Prince of Spain: 1969–1975Edit
The dictatorial regime of Francisco Franco came to power during the Spanish Civil War, which pitted a government of democrats, anarchists, socialists, and communists, supported by the Soviet Union and international volunteers, against a rebellion of conservatives, monarchists, nationalists, and fascists, supported by both Hitler and Mussolini, with the rebels ultimately winning. Franco's authoritarian government remained dominant in Spain until the 1960s. With Franco's increasing age, left-wing protests increased, while at the same time, the far right factions demanded the return of a hardline absolute monarchy. At the time, the heir to the throne of Spain was Juan de Borbón (Count of Barcelona), the son of the late Alfonso XIII. However, General Franco viewed him with extreme suspicion, believing him to be a liberal who was opposed to his regime.
Juan Carlos's first cousin Alfonso, Duke of Anjou and Cádiz was also briefly considered as a candidate. Alfonso was known to be an ardent Francoist and would marry Franco's granddaughter, Doña María del Carmen Martínez-Bordiú y Franco in 1972.
Ultimately, Franco decided to skip a generation and name Juan de Borbón's son, Prince Juan Carlos, as his personal successor. Franco hoped the young prince could be groomed to take over the nation while still maintaining the ultraconservative and authoritarian nature of his regime. In 1969, Juan Carlos was officially designated heir-apparent and was given the new title of Prince of Spain (not the traditional Prince of Asturias). As a condition of being named heir-apparent, he was required to swear loyalty to Franco's Movimiento Nacional, which he did with little outward hesitation. His choice was ratified by the Spanish parliament on 22 July 1969.
Juan Carlos met and consulted Franco many times while heir apparent and often took part in official and ceremonial state functions, standing alongside the dictator, much to the anger of hardline republicans and more moderate liberals, who hoped that Franco's death would bring in an era of reform. During 1969–1975, Juan Carlos publicly supported Franco's regime. Although Franco's health worsened during those years, whenever he did appear in public, from state dinners to military parades, it was in Juan Carlos's company. Juan Carlos continued to praise Franco and his government for the economic growth and positive changes in Spain. However, as the years progressed, Juan Carlos began meeting secretly with political opposition leaders and exiles, who were fighting to bring liberal reform to the country. He also had secret conversations with his father over the telephone. Franco, for his part, remained largely oblivious to the prince's actions and denied allegations from his ministers and advisors that Juan Carlos was in any way disloyal to his vision of the regime.
During periods of Franco's temporary incapacity in 1974 and 1975, Juan Carlos was acting head of state. On 30 October 1975, Franco gave full control to Juan Carlos; he died three weeks later, on 20 November. On 22 November, two days after Franco's death, the Cortes Españolas proclaimed Juan Carlos King of Spain. In his address to the Cortes, Juan Carlos spoke of three factors: historical tradition, national laws, and the will of the people, and in so doing referred to a process dating back to the Civil War of 1936–39. On 27 November, a Mass of the Holy Spirit was celebrated in the church of San Jerónimo el Real in Madrid to inaugurate his reign. He opted not to call himself Juan III or Carlos V, but Juan Carlos I. Juan Carlos is reported to have been pressured by Valéry Giscard d'Estaing to personally tell Chilean dictator Augusto Pinochet, who had traveled to Spain for Franco's funeral, not to attend his coronation.
Restoration of the monarchyEdit
Juan Carlos's accession met with relatively little parliamentary opposition. Some members of the Movimiento Nacional voted against recognising him, and more against the 1976 Law for Political Reform. But even most Movimiento members supported both measures. Juan Carlos quickly instituted reforms, to the great displeasure of Falangist and conservative (monarchist) elements, especially in the military, who had expected him to maintain the authoritarian state. In July 1976, Juan Carlos dismissed prime minister Carlos Arias Navarro, who had been attempting to continue Francoist policies in the face of the King's attempts at democratisation. He instead appointed Adolfo Suárez, a former leader of the Movimiento Nacional, as prime minister, who would go on to win the following year's election and become the first democratically elected leader of the new regime.
Further legitimacy was restored to Juan Carlos's position on 14 May 1977, when his father (whom many monarchists had recognized as the legitimate, exiled King of Spain during the Franco era) formally renounced his claim to the throne and recognized his son as the sole head of the Spanish Royal House, transferring to him the historical heritage of the Spanish monarchy, thus making Juan Carlos both de facto and de jure king in the eyes of the traditional monarchists.
On 20 May 1977, the leader of the only recently legalized Spanish Socialist Workers' Party (PSOE), Felipe González, accompanied by Javier Solana, visited Juan Carlos in the Zarzuela Palace. The event represented a key endorsement of the monarchy from Spain's political left, who had been historically republican. Left-wing support for the monarchy grew when the Communist Party of Spain was legalized shortly thereafter, a move Juan Carlos had pressed for, despite enormous right-wing military opposition at that time, during the Cold War.
On 15 June 1977, Spain held its first post-Franco democratic elections. In 1978, the government promulgated a new constitution that acknowledged Juan Carlos as rightful heir of the Spanish dynasty and king; specifically, Title II, Section 57 asserted Juan Carlos's right to the throne of Spain by dynastic succession in the Bourbon tradition, as "the legitimate heir of the historic dynasty" rather than as the designated successor of Franco. The Constitution was passed by the democratically elected Constituent Cortes, ratified by the people in a referendum (6 December) and then signed into law by the King before a solemn meeting of the Cortes.
1981 coup d'état attemptEdit
There was an attempted military coup, known as 23-F, on 23 February 1981, when the Cortes were seized by members of the Guardia Civil in the parliamentary chamber. During the coup, the King, in the uniform of the Captain-General of the Spanish armed forces, gave a public television broadcast calling for unambiguous support for the legitimate democratic government. The broadcast is believed to have been a major factor in foiling the coup. The coup leaders had promised many of their potential supporters that they were acting in the King's name and with his approval, but were unable to demonstrate either, and the broadcast – coming just after midnight on the night of the coup – definitively showed the King's opposition to the coup makers.
When Juan Carlos became king, Communist leader Santiago Carrillo nicknamed him Juan Carlos the Brief, predicting that the monarchy would soon be swept away with the other remnants of the Franco era. After the collapse of the attempted coup, however, in an emotional statement, Carrillo remarked: "Today, we are all monarchists." Public support for the monarchy among democrats and leftists before 1981 had been limited; following the king's handling of the coup it increased significantly.
Later role in Spanish politicsEdit
The victory of the PSOE in 1982 under González marked the effective end of the King's active involvement in Spanish politics. González would govern for 14 years, longer than any democratically elected Prime Minister. His administration helped consolidate Spanish democracy and thus maintained the stability of the nation.
On paper, Juan Carlos retained fairly extensive reserve powers. He was the guardian of the constitution, and was responsible for ensuring that it was obeyed. In practice, since the passage of the Constitution (and especially since 1982) he took a mostly non-partisan and representative role, acting almost entirely on the advice of the government. However, he commanded great moral authority as an essential symbol of the country's unity.
Under the constitution, the King has immunity from prosecution in matters relating to his official duties. Consequently, he exercised most of his powers through the ministers; his acts as King (and not as a citizen) were not valid unless countersigned by a minister, who became politically responsible for the act in question.
The honour of the Royal Family is specifically protected from insult by the Spanish Penal Code. Under this protection, Basque independentist Arnaldo Otegi and cartoonists from El Jueves were tried and punished.
In July 2000, Juan Carlos was the target of an enraged protester when former priest Juan María Fernández y Krohn, who had once attacked Pope John Paul II, breached security and attempted to approach the king.
When the media asked Juan Carlos in 2005 if he would endorse the bill legalising same-sex marriage that was then being debated in the Cortes Generales, he answered "Soy el Rey de España y no el de Bélgica" ("I am the King of Spain, not of Belgium") – a reference to King Baudouin of Belgium, who had refused to sign the Belgian law legalising abortion. The King gave his Royal Assent to Law 13/2005 on 1 July 2005; the law legalising same-sex marriage was gazetted in the Boletín Oficial del Estado on 2 July, and came into effect on 3 July.
According to a poll in the newspaper El Mundo in November 2005, 77.5% of Spaniards thought Juan Carlos was "good or very good", 15.4% "not so good", and only 7.1% "bad or very bad". Even so, the issue of the monarchy re-emerged on 28 September 2007 as photos of the king were burnt in public in Catalonia by small groups of protesters wanting the restoration of the Republic.
2007 Ibero-American SummitEdit
In November 2007, at the Ibero-American Summit in Santiago de Chile, during a heated exchange, Juan Carlos interrupted Venezuelan President Hugo Chávez, saying, "¿Por qué no te callas?" ("Why don't you shut up?"). Chávez had been interrupting the Spanish Prime Minister, José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero, while the latter was defending his predecessor and political opponent, José María Aznar, after Chávez had referred to Aznar as a fascist and "less human than snakes". The King shortly afterwards left the hall when President Daniel Ortega of Nicaragua accused Spain of intervention in his country's elections and complained about some Spanish energy companies working in Nicaragua. This was an unprecedented diplomatic incident and a rare display of public anger by the King.
Botswana hunting tripEdit
In April 2012, Juan Carlos faced criticism for making an elephant-hunting trip in Botswana. Spaniards found out about the trip only after the King injured himself and a special aircraft was sent to bring him home. Spanish officials stated that the expenses of the trip were not paid by taxpayers or by the palace, but by Mohamed Eyad Kayali, a businessman of Syrian origin. Cayo Lara Moya of the United Left party said the king's trip "demonstrated a lack of ethics and respect toward many people in this country who are suffering a lot" while Tomás Gómez of the Socialist party said Juan Carlos should choose between "public responsibilities or an abdication". In April 2012, Spain's unemployment was at 23 percent and nearly 50 percent for young workers. El País estimated the total cost of a hunting trip at 44,000 euros, about twice the average annual salary in Spain. A petition called for the king to resign from his position as honorary president of the Spanish branch of the World Wide Fund for Nature. The WWF itself responded by asking for an interview with the King to resolve the situation. In July 2012, WWF-Spain held a meeting in Madrid and decided with 226 votes to 13 to remove the king from the honorary presidency. He later apologised for the hunting trip.
Family and private lifeEdit
Juan Carlos was married in Athens on 14 May 1962, to Princess Sophia of Greece and Denmark, daughter of King Paul of Greece, first in a Roman Catholic ceremony at the Church of St. Denis, followed by a Greek Orthodox ceremony at the Metropolitan Cathedral of Athens. She converted from her Greek Orthodox religion to Roman Catholicism.
They have two daughters and one son:
- Infanta Elena, Duchess of Lugo (born 20 December 1963 at Our Lady of Loreto Clinic in Madrid)
- Infanta Cristina (born 13 June 1965 at Our Lady of Loreto Clinic in Madrid)
- King Felipe VI of Spain (born 30 January 1968 at Our Lady of Loreto Clinic in Madrid)
Juan Carlos is also the alleged father of Alberto Sola, born in Barcelona in 1956, also of a woman born in Catalonia in 1964, and of Ingrid Sartiau, a Belgian woman born in 1966 who has filed a paternity suit, but complete sovereign immunity prevented that suit prior to his abdication. Juan Carlos has had several extramarital affairs adversely affecting his marriage.
In 1972, Juan Carlos, a keen sailor, competed in the Dragon class event at the Olympic Games, finishing 15th. In their summer holidays, the whole family meets in Marivent Palace (Palma de Mallorca) and the Fortuna yacht, where they take part in sailing competitions. The king has manned the Bribón series of yachts. In winter, the family often go skiing in Baqueira-Beret and Candanchú (Pyrenees). At present, his hobbies include classic sailing boats.
Juan Carlos also hunts bears; in October 2004, he angered environmental activists by killing nine bears, one of which was a pregnant female, in central Romania. It was alleged by the Russian regional authorities that in August 2006 Juan Carlos shot a drunken tame bear (Mitrofan the Bear) during a private hunting trip to Russia; the Office of the Spanish Monarchy denied this claim.
A benign 17-19mm tumour was removed under general anaesthetic from King Juan Carlos's right lung in an operation carried out in the "Hospital Clínic" of Barcelona in May 2010. The operation followed an annual check-up, and Juan Carlos was not expected to need any further treatment.
In April 2012, the King underwent surgery for a triple fracture of the hip at the San Jose Hospital, Madrid, following a fall on a private elephant-hunting trip to Botswana. He also underwent a hip operation in September 2013 at Madrid's Quirón hospital. In April 2018, Juan Carlos was admitted to hospital for a surgery on his right knee.
Budget of the royal houseEdit
After the King's son-in-law Iñaki Urdangarín was accused of corruption (the "Urdangarín affair"), the King in 2011 for the first time detailed the yearly royal budget of 8.3 million euros, excluding expenses such as the electricity bill, paid by the State.
Spanish news media speculated about the King's future in early 2014, following public criticism over his taking an elephant hunting safari in Botswana and an embezzlement scandal involving his daughter Cristina, and her husband Inaki Urdangarin. The King's chief of staff in a briefing denied that the 'abdication option' was being considered. On the morning of 2 June 2014, Prime Minister Mariano Rajoy made a televised announcement that the King had told him of his intention to abdicate. Later, the King delivered a televised address and announced that he would abdicate the throne in favour of the Prince of Asturias. Royal officials described the King's choice as a personal decision which he had been contemplating since his 76th birthday at the start of the year. The King reportedly said, "No queremos que mi hijo se marchite esperando como el príncipe Carlos." (English: "[I] do not want my son to wither waiting like Prince Charles.") As required by the Spanish constitution, any abdication would be settled by means of an organic law. A draft law was passed with 299 in favour, 19 against and 23 abstaining. On 18 June, he signed the organic law passed by parliament several hours before his abdication took effect. Felipe was enthroned on 19 June 2014, and Juan Carlos's granddaughter Leonor became the new Princess of Asturias.
Juan Carlos thus became the fourth European monarch to abdicate in just over a year, following Pope Benedict XVI (28 February 2013), Queen Beatrix of the Netherlands (30 April 2013), and King Albert II of Belgium (21 July 2013).
The Spanish constitution at the time of the abdication did not grant an abdicated monarch the legal immunity of a head of state, but the government was planning to make changes to allow this. Legislation has been passed, although unlike his previous immunity, the new legislation does not completely shield the former sovereign. Juan Carlos must answer to the supreme court, in a similar type of protection afforded to many high-ranking civil servants and politicians in Spain. The legislation stipulates that all outstanding legal matters relating to the former king be suspended and passed "immediately" to the supreme court.
The Spanish press gave the announcement a broadly positive reception, but described the moment as an "institutional crisis" and "a very important moment in the history of democratic Spain". Around Spain and in major cities (including London) the news was met by republican celebration and protests, calling for the end of the monarchy.
Catalan leader Artur Mas said that the news of the King's abdication would not slow down the process of independence for Catalonia. Iñigo Urkullu, the President of the Basque government, concluded that the King's reign was "full of light yet also darkness" and said that his successor Felipe should remember that "the Basque Question has not been resolved". Other regional leaders had more positive evaluations of Juan Carlos following his decision to abdicate: Alberto Núñez Feijóo of Galicia called him "the King of Democracy" who "guaranteed the continuation of constitutional monarchy" and Alberto Fabra of the Valencian Community said that Spaniards are proud of their king who had been "at the forefront of protecting our interests inside and outside of our borders".
British Prime Minister David Cameron stated: "I would like to use this opportunity to make a tribute to King Juan Carlos, who has done so much during his reign to aid the successful Spanish transition to democracy, and has been a great friend of the United Kingdom." The President of the European Commission, José Manuel Barroso, said that Juan Carlos was a "believer in Europeanism and modernity...without whom one could not understand modern Spain".
The Spanish public also gave a broadly positive opinion not only of the abdication but of his reign as a whole. According to a poll taken by El Mundo, 65 percent saw the king's reign as either good or very good, up from 41.3 percent. Overall, 55.7 percent of those polled in the 3–5 June survey by Sigma Dos supported the institution of the monarchy in Spain, up from 49.9 percent when the same question was posed six months prior. 57.5 percent believed the prince could restore the royal family's lost prestige. An overwhelming majority of Spaniards believed the new king, Felipe VI, would make a good monarch and more than three-quarters believed King Juan Carlos had been right to hand over the throne to his son.
The former King's public image was further tarnished in 2018 when recordings of the conversations of an alleged mistress, Corinna zu Sayn-Wittgenstein, with a former police chief were leaked to the press. She claimed Juan Carlos had obtained secret commissions on commercial contracts in the Gulf States, and had hidden Swiss bank accounts and property purchases under her name, stating that it was not "because he loves me a lot, but because I reside in Monaco", where the declaration of such assets is not required. She further claimed the head of the Spanish intelligence service warned her that her life, and those of her children, would be at risk if she spoke of their association, which has never been officially confirmed. The allegations drew demands for Juan Carlos to be investigated for corruption.
In June 2019, the former King announced his retirement from official duties.
Titles, styles, honours and armsEdit
In 1969, Juan Carlos was named as General Franco's successor and was given the title of 'Prince of Spain'. Upon the death of Franco in 1975, Juan Carlos acceded to the throne of Spain. The current Spanish constitution refers to the monarch by the simple title "King of Spain". Aside from this title, the constitution allows for the use of other historic titles pertaining to the Spanish monarchy, without specifying them. This was also reiterated by a decree promulgated on 6 November 1987 concerning titles of members of the royal family. Since his abdication in 2014, King Juan Carlos has retained, by courtesy, the title and style of King that he enjoyed during his reign.
The coat of arms used as Prince of Spain which was virtually identical to the one later adopted when he became King, differed only that it featured the crown of heir to the throne, decorated with only four half-arches."
- In other languages of Spain, the name of the King Juan Carlos is adapted as:
- "His Majesty the King Juan Carlos". The Royal Household of His Majesty the King!. Archived from the original on 22 August 2012.
- The English-language version of the Official Royal Family website is rendered as Borbon, while in Spanish it is Borbón
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- Quoted in Paul Preston, Juan Carlos: Steering Spain from Dictatorship to Democracy (New York: W. W. Norton, 2004), 101.
- "Royal Foibles". Retrieved 5 June 2014.
- Davison, Phil (16 October 1992). "Juan Carlos lays to rest a haunting Spanish tragedy". The Independent. London. Retrieved 5 June 2014.
- Preston, 102.
- A Royal Mystery at Snopes.com.
- Su Majestad el Rey Don Juan Carlos Archived 10 September 2012 at the Wayback Machine, Página oficial de la Casa de Su Majestad el Re. Retrieved 16 September 2011 (in Spanish)
- "Chapter 26: A History of Spain and Portugal vol. 2". Libro.uca.edu. Retrieved 10 June 2014.
- Bernecker, Walther (January 1998). "Monarchy and Democracy: The Political Role of King Juan Carlos in the Spanish Transición". Journal of Contemporary History. 33 (1): 65–84.
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- Powell, Charles (1996). Juan Carlos of Spain. St Anthony's Series. Oxford, UK: MacMillan Press. pp. 1–5, 9, 13–14, 27–28, 50–51, 221–222. ISBN 0-333-54726-8.
- "Juan Carlos I jura como sucesor de Franco". Youtube. 22 July 1969. Retrieved 3 June 2014.
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- Chislett, William (2013). "The Transition to Democracy 1975-1982" (PDF). Spain: What Everyone Needs to Know. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-993646-5.
- "Spain: Juan Carlos coronation ceremony | OnlineFootage". Onlinefootage.tv. 22 November 1975. Retrieved 10 June 2014.
- Cedéo Alvarado, Ernesto (4 February 2008). "Rey Juan Carlos abochornó a Pinochet". Panamá América. Retrieved 4 April 2016.
- Payne, Stanley G; Fascism in Spain 1923–1977; University of Wisconsin Press, 1999
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- "Felipe González Márquez — former president of the Government of Spain". Transatlantic Dialogues. Archived from the original on 6 June 2014. Retrieved 3 June 2014.
- "Título II. De la Corona, Wikisource" (in Spanish). Es.wikisource.org. Retrieved 2 June 2014.
- Title II, Section 57, Subsection 1:
"The Crown shall be inherited by the successors of H.M. Juan Carlos I de Borbón, the legitimate heir of the historic dynasty."
"La Corona de España es hereditaria en los sucesores de S. M. Don Juan Carlos I de Borbón, legítimo heredero de la dinastía histórica."
- "El Rey abdica: La utilidad de un rey | Política | EL PAÍS". Politica.elpais.com. 2 June 2014. Retrieved 10 June 2014.
- "El retiro del Rey". El Pais. 1 January 1970. Retrieved 10 June 2014.
- Brooks, Anita (26 February 2010). "Spanish King rebrands for the recession – Europe – World". The Independent. London. Retrieved 10 June 2014.
- Basque convicted for king insult, BBC News, 4 November 2005. Retrieved 29 December 2007.
- Cardyn, Hans. "'Belager' koning Albert komt er goedkoop vanaf" (in Dutch). Gazet Van Antwerpen. Archived from the original on 17 March 2008. Retrieved 29 December 2007.
- "Don Juan Carlos, sobre el matrimonio gay: 'Soy el Rey de España y no el de Bélgica'". El Mundo (in Spanish). 13 May 2006. Retrieved 8 January 2007.
- "Disposiciones Generales" (PDF) (in Spanish). Boletin Oficial del Estado. 2 June 2005. Retrieved 8 January 2007.
- Tarvainen, Sinikka (28 September 2007). "Spanish royals worried about protests against monarchy". EUX.TV. Archived from the original on 1 December 2008. Retrieved 29 December 2007.
- "El Rey Don Juan Carlos a Hugo Chávez: "¿Por qué no te callas?"" (in Spanish). Antena 3. 11 November 2007. Archived from the original on 12 November 2007. Retrieved 11 November 2007. ("King Juan Carlos to Hugo Chávez: 'Why don't you shut up?'")
- "Nunca se había visto al Rey tan enfadado en público" (in Spanish). 10 November 2007. Archived from the original on 8 December 2008. Retrieved 10 November 2007. ("Never has the King been seen so angry in public")
- Tremlett, Giles (15 April 2012). "Spain's King Juan Carlos under fire over elephant hunting trip". The Guardian. London.
- Govan, Fiona (14 April 2012). "King Juan Carlos of Spain operated on after 'elephant hunting' accident". The Daily Telegraph. London.
- Minder, Raphael (15 April 2012). "Spanish King's Hip Surgery Follows Controversial Hunting Trip". The New York Times.
- Winds of change: The rights, wrongs, abdication and legacy of King Juan Carlos, economist.com.
- "Row over hunting trip for Spanish King Juan Carlos". BBC News. 16 April 2012.
- Heckle, Harold (15 April 2012). "Spanish King Juan Carlos Elephant-Hunting Trip Causes Outrage, Injures Hip In Botswana And Requires Surgery". Huffington Post. Associated Press.
- "WWF asks to speak to king". Worldwildlife.org. Retrieved 2 June 2014.
- "Spain king ousted as honorary president of World Wildlife Fund branch after elephant hunt". Washington Post. Madrid. Associated Press. 21 July 2012. Archived from the original on 23 July 2012. Retrieved 11 March 2019.
- "Spain's King Juan Carlos meets with Bill Clinton". Fox News. 23 September 2012. Archived from the original on 5 June 2014.
- Mailet, Victor (18 April 2012). "Spanish king apologises for hunting trip". FT. Retrieved 7 May 2012.
- "Juan Carlos I es mi padre". El Español. 29 November 2018. Retrieved 30 November 2018.
- Article by Jennifer Navarro in El Nacional 2018-01-08
- Bajekal, Nainia (15 January 2015). "Former Spanish King Faces Paternity Suit". Time. Retrieved 23 January 2015.
- Stanley G. Payne & Jesús Palacios in Franco: A Personal and Political Biography 2014 ISBN 978-0-299-30210-8 p. 578
- Jones, Sam (17 February 2017). "Spain's Princess Cristina acquitted in tax fraud trial". The Guardian. Retrieved 18 November 2017.
- "El Rey Don Juan Carlos adquiere un velero de 1929, en Finlandia". elmundo.es.
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|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Juan Carlos I of Spain.|
- Official website of the Spanish Royal Family
- Full text of the King's broadcast regarding his abdication
- Organic Law approving Juan Carlos's abdication, published in the Boletin Oficial del Estado
- Juan Carlos I abdicates (2 June 2014)
- Biography by CIDOB
Juan Carlos I of SpainBorn: 5 January 1938
Title last held byAlfonso XIII
| King of Spain
Alejandro Rodríguez de Valcárcel
as President of the Regency
| Head of State of Spain|