Alfonso Armada

Divisional General Alfonso Armada Comyn, 9th Marquis of Santa Cruz de Rivadulla (February 12, 1920 – December 1, 2013)[1] was a Spanish military officer involved in both the Spanish Civil War and the 1981 attempted coup d'état in Spain.[2]

Armada was born into an aristocratic and pro-monarchist family.[1] He joined the Francoists in the Spanish Civil War and also participated in the Siege of Leningrad during World War II with the Blue Division. Armada rose in prestige over decades, eventually becoming a tutor, and then an aide, to Juan Carlos, and becoming part of the Royal Household of Spain when Juan Carlos became king.[1]

Armada was a major figure in the attempted coup d'état in Spain on February 23, 1981.[2] Though he pretended to be a mediator in the coup by going to the Congress of Deputies after Antonio Tejero had taken the legislature hostage, Armada's full involvement soon came to light:[3] He was one of the "three main conspirators",[2] and had planned to become president.[3] When Armada went to the legislature, he and Tejero disagreed about the direction of the government, and the coup fell apart.[1] Within five days, Armada was dismissed from all positions and arrested.[3]

In April 1983, Armada was sentenced to 30 years in prison,[2][3] but received a compassionate release pardon in December 1988 for health reasons.[2][3] He spent the rest of his life in Rivadulla, Galicia, Spain, and died in 2013.[2]


  1. ^ a b c d Prieto, Joaquín (2013-12-03). "Alfonso Armada, one of the leaders of the failed 1981 coup". (online ed.). Madrid: PRISA. Retrieved 2017-11-04. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  2. ^ a b c d e f "General Alfonso Armada obituary". London. Retrieved 2017-11-04. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  3. ^ a b c d e "23-F: the Coup Attempt in Spain". Google Arts & Culture. Google. Retrieved 2017-11-04. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)