The term summer vacation or summer break refers to a school break in the summer between school years and the break in the school academic year. Students believe that it is a time of pure bliss and freedom, free from the confines of schoolwork. Students are off anywhere between two weeks to three and a half months. Depending on the country and district, staff might be partially or fully excluded.

In Spain, Portugal, the Republic of Ireland, Italy, Greece, Georgia, Lithuania, Latvia, Lebanon, Romania and Russia, the summer break is normally three months, compared to two to six weeks (sometimes 3 months) in Australia, Brazil, the United Kingdom, Pakistan, Bangladesh, India, the Netherlands, Germany and Mexico.

Criticisms and support

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The research around the impact of summer vacation is mixed.[1] "Summer learning loss" (or "summer slide")[2] is the perceived loss of learning students experience due to interrupted education, but the exact consequences of extended breaks is unclear. Some research highlights that school holidays can be stressful periods for children from low-income families.[3]

By country

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Africa

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Zimbabwe

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School holidays occur once every three months for approximately 3 weeks and the new year begins in January.

America

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Bolivia

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In Bolivia, summer vacation runs from early December to early February[4] (2 months).

Canada

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Canada's summer vacation usually lasts from early July to early September.

Colombia

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In Colombia, summer vacation varies. Colombia has an equatorial climate (see Climate of Colombia) and schools run two different calendars. Public schools and some private schools run "Calendar A" which has a short break from mid-June to early-July. Only some private schools run "Calendar B" in which there is a long vacation from mid or late-June to late-August or early-September.[5] One of the reasons for private schools to run "Calendar B" is to adapt their calendar to match the calendars of international schools (of the Northern Hemisphere) for summer courses and academic exchanges.[6]

Suriname

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In Suriname, summer vacation usually starts in mid-August and ends in early-October.[7] In 2012, a change of summer vacation was proposed by several legislators having summer vacation the same time as the Caribbean Community.[7] The proposed plan is summer vacation starts from mid-August and ends in early-October.[7]

United States

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In the United States, depending on the region, summer break is approximately two to three months, with students typically finishing the school year in late May or early June and starting the new year in mid-late August or early September. About 4 percent of public schools in the U.S. use a balanced calendar that operates year-round with a shorter summer break.[8]

The modern school calendar has its roots in 19th-century school-reform movements seeking standardization between urban and rural areas. Up until the mid-19th century, most schools were open for a winter and summer term. As individual schools merged into school districts and bureaucracies emerged to manage the newly formed school districts, school leaders and politicians identified a need to standardize calendars across regions. This standardization was related to the emerging tax structures, laws around compulsory education, as well as a general sentiment that school should be an essential component of American childhood.[9]

As the calendar was standardized across regions, school leaders took cues from a variety of factors, including attendance rates and the difficulty cooling school buildings. Many upper-class families left the city for cooler climates in the northeast during hot summer months, and as such, schools cancelled their summer sessions due to low daily attendance. As train travel became more affordable, middle-class families followed similar patterns, keeping their children home during the hottest months of the year or going away for a summer vacation.[10]

Additionally, many school leaders advocated for breaks so that students and teachers could rest their brains. Many 19th- and early 20th-century Americans educators believed that too much learning in hot weather was bad for one's health and could result in heat exhaustion and injury, particularly for younger children, whose minds were still developing.[11] The extended summer break was seen as a way for children and their teachers to rest and recover. In many places, teachers would use the summer months for their own learning and professional development, including participating in seminars and courses like those held at Chautauqua.

While the origins of the summer holiday break are often believed to be rooted in agriculture and the idea children were needed to assist with planting and harvesting crops, this is inaccurate. Most crops were planted in the spring and harvested in the fall.[12][13][14]

Asia

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India

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In India, summer vacation lasts for around 1.5 - 2 months (6-8 weeks), the minimum time and span of dates of which the Government decides for the most part while private schools are allowed to extend them. Summer break/vacation time and length varies from region to region due to India's diverse climate. Typical summer vacation is from mid-late May to early July in the Northern states and from mid-April to the end of May or early June in the Southern States.

Japan

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In Japan, most businesses close for a few days in August around Obon, while schools close for around six weeks (usually the second half of July and all of August). As most schools in the country run between April and March of the following year, the summer vacation period actually takes place within the school year.[15]

Israel

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In Israel the summer break is called "The Great Vacation". In most elementary schools the break lasts from July 1 to August 31, and in most middle schools and high schools it lasts between June 21 and August 31.

Philippines

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Select universities have adapted the school year schedule of other countries, starting the school year in September and having the summer holidays from June to August.[16][17] Some of the schools that complied are still in transition, their academic calendars still beginning in July, others in August, with their summer vacations adjusted accordingly.[18]

Oceania

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New Zealand

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In New Zealand, the school holidays typically start in early to mid-December, and end in late January or early February, which is usually 6–8 weeks.[19]

Europe

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Belgium

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The summer holidays for primary and secondary education in Flanders run from 1 July to 31 August. These are not always whole weeks. In Wallonia and French-speaking education, the summer holidays start in the second week of July, and lessons are also resumed in the last week of August. The school holidays in French-speaking education have been reformed from the 2022–2023 school year, in Flanders the two-month summer holiday will be maintained. At universities, colleges and education for social advancement, the holidays for students usually last a little longer. They start in the course of September, and the exams are already at the beginning of June. For companies and public administrations, the most popular period is the end of July - beginning of August, coinciding with the construction holiday. However, there is a tendency to keep shops, services and businesses open during the summer holidays, albeit with a more limited staffing. The employees and civil servants must then agree on a rotation to take vacation.

Croatia

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In Croatia, school year finishes at 21 June, starting again on the first Monday of September, but if it is 1 or 2 September, then school year will start 7 days later.[20] Until school year 2018./2019., school was over between 10 and 15 June, but with same starting date.[21] Students of last year of secondary school finish school year between 21 and 26 May, but they have national exams during whole June, called "matura".[22]

Czech Republic

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In the Czech Republic, summer holiday begins on July 1 and ends on August 31 (2 months).[23]

Germany

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In the Federal Republic of Germany, school holidays are set by the 16 state governments and are mandatory for all schools in primary and secondary education. For the summer vacation in particular, the start and end dates are coordinated among states and somewhat rotate, so the local school year varies in length. This roster has been introduced in the 1970s to better distribute demand for hotel rooms and holiday homes throughout peak season.[24]

The summer vacation lasts for six weeks and up to three days. It usually includes 1 August, which is the formal start date of the school year, but this will be close to the end for some states and close to the start for others. This amounts to about half of the total school holidays, which also include up to two weeks each in autumn, winter (around Christmas) and spring (around Easter).

Iceland

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In Iceland, the duration of the summer vacation can vary from one school to another. Typically students start their summer vacation during the first week of June and return to school in the fourth week of August.[25]

Ireland

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In the Republic of Ireland, most secondary schools start summer holidays at the end of May or the start of June. However, Junior and Leaving Certificate exams will take place during June. Schools will usually open again at the end of August to the start of September. Primary schools in the Republic of Ireland are sixteen days longer, so they start their summer holiday at the end of June but do not return until the first week of September.[26] Private schools follow the same pattern.

Italy

In Italy the summer holiday usually starts on the first half of June and ends on the first half of september for a total of about three months. The exact dates usually depend on region and year

Netherlands

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The summer holiday has existed in the Netherlands since at least 1830. The summer holiday takes place in the months of July, August and September, although it depends on the region in which you live whether September is also part of the summer holiday period. In the Netherlands, students get six weeks of vacation; this also applies in the Caribbean Netherlands. The government has spread the holidays over three regions: the northern, central and southern Netherlands. There is a two-week difference between the start of the holiday in the first region and that in the last region. The summer holidays will start in 2023, the Central Netherlands is the first region to be affected, on July 8 and the end date of the school holidays is August 27 for the South of the Netherlands. Universities will resume their activities at the end of August. In politics, the summer recess officially ends on Prinsjesdag, the third Tuesday in September. The heart of the summer holiday is the so-called construction holiday: three weeks at the end of July and the beginning of August. Many people travel to a tourist area during the summer holidays. Campsites and holiday homes are very popular; outside the Netherlands, France is the favorite destination.

Romania

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In Romania, summer vacation usually starts in mid-June and ends on the second Sunday of September (3 months).[27] Since 2022, though, the end date was moved to the first Sunday of September.[28]

For the 8th grade, summer break starts a week earlier before everyone else, whereas for the 12th (day) and 13th grades (evening and reduced frequentation) it starts 2 weeks earlier. For students attending the technological branch of secondary education, as well as those attending vocational and post-secondary education (with a few exceptions), summer vacation starts 1–2 weeks after everyone else.[28]

Slovakia

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In Slovakia, Last day in school is usually 30 June and the first day in school after the vacation is usually 2 September unless 2 September is Thursday, in that case schools open on 5 September.[29]

Slovenia

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In Slovenia, summer vacations are 9 weeks long. Last day in school is traditionally always on 24 June, with earlier end only in case if Saturday or Sunday comes on that day. And the day of school traditionally always starts on 1 September, or day or two later if it comes on Saturday or Sunday.

Spain

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In Spain, the school year finishes in mid to late June and begins in early to mid-September. Vacation varies by region but often includes a family vacation to lower temperatures in the cooler regions in the north of Spain, or south or east to the Mediterranean beaches.[30]

Switzerland

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In Switzerland, summer vacation varies in each canton. As an example, in Zürich, it lasts five weeks and between mid-July and mid-August.[31] In Ticino, it lasts about ten weeks between late June and early September.[32]

Turkey

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In Turkey, the summer vacation typically begins in mid-June and lasts until mid-September. However, the exact start and end dates can vary depending on the level of education and the type of school. For elementary, middle, and high school students, summer vacation usually lasts about three months, while for university students, the duration may vary based on the academic calendar of the institution. Public schools generally start their summer break in the second week of June, but private schools may have slightly different schedules. For the most accurate information on the academic year and vacation periods, it's best to consult the specific school or educational institution the student attends. [33]

See also

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References

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  1. ^ Polikoff, David M. Quinn and Morgan (14 September 2017). "Summer learning loss: What is it, and what can we do about it?". Brookings. Retrieved 17 April 2020.
  2. ^ The summer slide: what we know and can do about summer learning loss. Alexander, Karl L.; Pitcock, Sarah; Boulay, Matthew. New York, NY. 2016. ISBN 978-0-8077-5799-4. OCLC 957134420.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: location missing publisher (link) CS1 maint: others (link)
  3. ^ Stewart, Hilary (2018). "The cost of school holidays for children from low income families". Childhood. 25 (4): 516–529. doi:10.1177/0907568218779130. PMC 6210572. PMID 30473595.
  4. ^ "Bolivia Education. Bolivia School. Education in Bolivia. School in Bolivia".
  5. ^ "Calendario y Jornada Escolar - Ministerio de Educación Nacional de Colombia".
  6. ^ "Info Pa'lante". www.infopalante.org. Retrieved 6 May 2024.
  7. ^ a b c "Surinamese mull school vacation change".
  8. ^ "The pros and cons of schools ditching a long summer break". PBS NewsHour. 24 July 2018. Retrieved 13 July 2022.
  9. ^ Gold, Kenneth (2002). Schools In: The History of Summer Education in American Public Schools. New York: Lang Publishing. ISBN 0-8204-5657-8.
  10. ^ Gold, Kenneth (Spring 2002). "From vacation to Summer School: The Transformation of Summer Education in New York City, 1894–1915". History of Education Quarterly. 42 (1): 18–49. doi:10.1111/j.1748-5959.2002.tb00099.x. S2CID 143153012.
  11. ^ Weiss, Joel; Robert S. Brown (December 2003). "Telling Tales Over Time: Constructing and Deconstructing the School Calendar". Teachers College Record. 105 (9): 1720–1757. doi:10.1046/j.1467-9620.2003.00307.x.
  12. ^ Lieszkovszky, Ida (10 August 2011). "Six Reasons Students Get Summer Off (And The Agrarian Calendar Isn't One of Them)". IdeaStream. National Public Radio. Retrieved 2 June 2018.
  13. ^ de Melker, Saskia; Weber, Sam (7 September 2014). "Agrarian roots? Think again. Debunking the myth of summer vacation's origins". PBS NewsHour. PBS. Retrieved 2 June 2018.
  14. ^ Gold, Kenneth (4 September 2018). "The myth behind summer break And the challenge it creates for school reformers". The Washington Post. Retrieved 10 May 2024.
  15. ^ "Japanese education system". Japan-guide.com. 9 June 2002. Archived from the original on 8 April 2011. Retrieved 19 January 2013.
  16. ^ Poca, Ricky (7 January 2014). "September start for school year?". Inquirer News. Retrieved 26 May 2018.
  17. ^ Ong G, Flores H (5 March 2014). "Public elementary, high schools will still follow June–March calendar". Philstar.com. Retrieved 26 May 2018. Luistro said only a few schools, mostly higher education institutions, have decided to move their school opening.
  18. ^ Elemia, Camille (23 May 2017). "Escudero wants synchronized opening of classes by 2018". Rappler. Retrieved 26 May 2018.
  19. ^ "New Zealand Public Holidays, School Holidays, Special Events and Daylight Saving Dates".
  20. ^ ucenici.com (28 April 2019). "Školski kalendar za 2019./2020. godinu s praznicima za učenike". Kalendar školske godine s praznicima 2022./23. Sve o upisima u srednju školu, regres, kalkulatori, pravilnici, zakoni (in Croatian). Retrieved 6 April 2023.
  21. ^ "ŠKOLSKA GODINA 2015./2016. - ŠKOLSKA GODINA - Lukin portal za djecu i obitelj - Dječje pjesme i pjesmice, igre, zagonetke, priče, basne, bajke, crtići, zanimljivosti, igrice, brojalice i bojanke za djecu". www.pjesmicezadjecu.com. Retrieved 6 April 2023.
  22. ^ "Državna matura", Wikipedija (in Croatian), 6 January 2023, retrieved 6 April 2023
  23. ^ Parlament České republiky (24 September 2004). "Zákon 561/2004 Sb. o předškolním, základním, středním, vyšším odborném a jiném vzdělávání (školský zákon): § 24 Školní rok". Ministerstvo vnitra České republiky. Retrieved 9 June 2014.
  24. ^ Kultusministerkonferenz: Ferienregelung
  25. ^ "ÚTDRÁTTUR ÚR SKÓLADAGATÖLUM ALMENNRA GRUNNSKÓLA REYKJAVÍKUR SKÓLAÁRIÐ 2012 - 2013" (PDF). vefsafn.is. 11 July 2012. Retrieved 7 May 2024.
  26. ^ "School holidays Ireland".
  27. ^ "Care este structura anului şcolar 2017-2018. Când vor avea elevii vacanţă". adevarul.ro. 4 September 2017.
  28. ^ a b "Structura anului școlar 2022-2023, publicată în Monitorul Oficial / Care sunt perioadele de cursuri și de vacanțe". www.hotnews.ro (in Romanian). Retrieved 6 April 2022.
  29. ^ Národná rada Slovenskej republiky (2 July 2008). "Zákon 245/2008 Z.z. o výchove a vzdelávaní (školský zákon): § 150 Organizácia školského roka". Ministerstvo spravodlivosti Slovenskej republiky. Retrieved 9 June 2014.
  30. ^ Bennett, Annie (5 February 2016). "Spain summer holidays guide". The Telegraph.
  31. ^ CH--Bern, psc Informatik. "Schulferien Stadt Zürich 2017". www.feiertagskalender.ch.
  32. ^ CH--Bern, psc Informatik. "Schulferien Kanton Tessin 2017". www.feiertagskalender.ch.
  33. ^ CH--Bern, psc Informatik. "Yaz Tatili". dogadayiz.net.