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Joshua Morgerman is an American businessman and storm chaser best known for his multitude of tropical cyclone chases. Born in 1970, he developed an interest in meteorology at an early age. After graduating from Harvard University in 1992, he co-founded the digital advertising company Symblaze in 1999. His storm chasing career began in earnest in 2005 with Hurricane Wilma in Florida. With no formal education in meteorology, all his experience comes from the chases. In the 28 years he has been chasing, Morgerman has intercepted 51 tropical cyclones including Typhoon Haiyan in 2013 and Hurricane Dorian in 2019, among the worst storms on record in the Philippines and the Bahamas respectively. He has successfully entered the eye of 29 hurricane-force tropical cyclones, with the strongest being Hurricane Dorian.

Josh Morgerman
Born1970 (age 48–49)
New York
ResidenceWest Hollywood, California
NationalityAmerican
EducationHarvard University
OccupationCEO of Symblaze and iCyclone
Known forRecord successful intercepts of tropical cyclones
Websitehttp://www.icyclone.com

Contents

Personal lifeEdit

Josh Morgerman grew up in Huntington, New York—part of suburban New York City—in 1970. Living on Long Island, he developed an interest in meteorology at an early age; his mother attributes part of this interest to him seeing The Wizard of Oz when Morgerman was four. In August 1976, Hurricane Belle struck Long Island as a Category 1 hurricane, causing significant damage in his hometown. At his father's insistence, Morgerman pursued a liberal arts degree and Harvard University rather than focusing on meteorology. In 1991, while attending Harvard, Morgerman went on his first hurricane chase: Hurricane Bob in Rhode Island.[1] In 1999, Morgerman co-founded the digital advertising company Symblaze alongside his friend Michael Horton.[2] By 2004, he was living in Prague, Czech Republic, to work with eastern European clientele.[1]

Morgerman has no spouse nor kids, wishing to remain unburdened by family responsibilities to pursue cyclone chases.[1] In his spare time, Morgerman often studies historic tropical cyclones.[3]

iCycloneEdit

Since 1991, Morgerman has been chasing tropical cyclones. His goal is to "core punch" the storms and record atmospheric pressure and document the experience.[1] With no formal education in meteorology, Morgerman's cyclone chasing is a passion project. All of his experience is in the field, though he advertises himself as an "adrenaline junkie". In an interview with The Washington Post in 2012, he stated this to be the primary motivator for chasing.[3] He often relies on his instincts backed up by years of chasing cyclones. Morgerman leads the iCyclone chase team. Members include his "right-hand guy" Scott Brownfield who coordinates logistics or assists on chases, meteorologists Adam Moyer Jorge González who provide forecasting information, and Cory Van Pelt who serves as the iCyclone technician.[3] In 2013, iCyclone expanded their chase region to East Asia, teaming up with fellow chasers James Reynolds and Mark Thomas. They ultimately intercepted four typhoons in one month including Typhoon Haiyan which devastated the Philippines.[4] Since 2014, the company has been funded by CBS, the Weather Channel, and WeatherNation.[1] Morgerman conducted his first Australian chase in 2017, intercepting Cyclone Debbie in Queensland.[5]

Data collection and usageEdit

Morgerman's collects atmospheric pressure with a Kestrel 4500. The data he has collected has been utilized by the National Hurricane Center (NHC) in multiple instances to refine landfall intensities. 2011's Hurricane Rina's landfall in the Yucatán Peninsula was adjusted in light of his observations.[3] In conjunction with satellite intensity estimates, his measurement of 975 mbar (28.8 inHg) within the eye of Hurricane Ernesto in 2012 was utilized to upgrade the hurricane's landfall intensity to Category 2.[6] In 2014, Morgerman's measurement of 943.1 mbar (27.85 inHg) within Hurricane Odile resulted in the landfall pressure being adjusted to 941 mbar (27.8 inHg) from the operational estimate of 930 mbar (27 inHg).[7][8] His observation of 937.8 mbar (27.69 inHg) in 2015's Hurricane Patricia, in conjunction with two nearby automated measurements, assisted in more accurately analyzing the hurricane's strength at landfall. Meteorologists at the NHC concluded an approximate minimum pressure of 932 mbar (27.5 inHg), yielding estimated winds of 150 mph (240 km/h); this made Patricia the strongest Pacific hurricane on record to strike Mexico.[9] Morgerman provided the only observed over-land pressure with Hurricane Willa's Mexican landfall in 2018. He observed a value of 968 mbar (28.6 inHg), corroborating the NHC's landfall intensity of 115 mph (185 km/h).[10]

In 2016, Morgerman collaborated with meteorologists Andrew Hagen, Erik Sereno Trabaldo, and Jorge Abelardo González to reanalyze the 1959 Mexico hurricane, then considered to be the strongest landfalling hurricane on the Pacific coast of Mexico. Their analysis determined the storm to have been significantly weaker than originally estimated and resulted in its downgrade from a Category 5 to a Category 4. These revisions were later incorporated into the NHC's Hurricane Database.[11] In 2017, Morgerman co-authored an academic paper published by the American Meteorological Society on the intensity of 2015's Hurricane Patricia. He provided in-situ data describing the structure of the storm and allowing for a more thorough analysis of its landfall.[12]

Tropical cyclone chasesEdit

As of August 2019, he has chased 51 cyclones across Australia, East Asia, and North America. Of these storms, four were Category 5 and seven were Category 4.

List of tropical cyclone chases and experiences by Josh Morgerman and the iCyclone team
Year Date Storm Chase location Landfall intensity (SSHWS) Recorded pressure Relative position Team Ref.
1976 August 9–10 Hurricane Belle Huntington, New York Category 1 hurricane N/A Inside eye N/A [13]
1985 September 27 Hurricane Gloria Huntington, New York Category 1 hurricane 965 mbar (28.5 inHg) Inside eye N/A [14]
1991 August 19 Hurricane Bob Providence, Rhode Island Category 2 hurricane N/A Eyewall Solo [15]
1999 August 22–23 Hurricane Bret Riviera, Texas Category 3 hurricane N/A Eyewall Solo [16]
2005 October 24 Hurricane Wilma Everglades City, Florida Category 3 hurricane N/A Inside eye Tony Brite [17]
2007 August 21 Hurricane Dean Chetumal, Mexico Category 5 hurricane N/A Eyewall Solo [18]
2008 July 23 Hurricane Dolly Port Isabel, Texas Category 1 hurricane N/A Eyewall Scott Brownfield [19]
2008 September 1 Hurricane Gustav St. Mary Parish, Louisiana Category 2 hurricane N/A Inside eye Scott Brownfield [20]
2008 September 13 Hurricane Ike Texas City, Texas Category 2 hurricane N/A Inside eye Solo [21]
2009 September 13 Hurricane Jimena Puerto San Carlos, Mexico Category 2 hurricane N/A Inside eye Solo [22]
2010 June 30 – July 1 Hurricane Alex Guadalupe Victoria, Mexico Category 2 hurricane N/A Inside eye Jorge González [23]
2010 September 17 Hurricane Karl Veracruz, Mexico Category 3 hurricane 985.9 mbar (29.11 inHg) Inside eye Solo [24]
2011 September 17 Tropical Storm Don Riviera Beach, Texas Tropical storm 1,008.2 mbar (29.77 inHg) Inside diffuse center Cory Van Pelt [25]
2011 August 27 Hurricane Irene Marshallberg, North Carolina Category 1 hurricane 953.0 mbar (28.14 inHg) Inside eye Keith Nugent [26]
August 28 Island Park, New York Tropical Storm N/A
2011 October 11–12 Hurricane Jova Emiliano Zapata, Mexico Category 2 hurricane 985.2 mbar (29.09 inHg) Eyewall Jim Edds [27]
2011 October 27–28 Hurricane Rina Paamul, Mexico Tropical storm 996.5 mbar (29.43 inHg) Inside center Solo [28]
2012 August 7–8 Hurricane Ernesto Buena Vista, Mexico Category 2 hurricane 975.0 mbar (28.79 inHg) Eyewall Solo [29]
2012 August 28–29 Hurricane Isaac Galliano, Louisiana Category 1 hurricane 970.0 mbar (28.64 inHg) Inside eye Solo [30]
2013 September 16 Hurricane Ingrid Lavaderos, Mexico Tropical storm N/A Inside center Jorge González [31]
2013 October 5–6 Typhoon Fitow Miyako-jima, Japan Category 2 typhoon N/A Eyewall James Reynolds, Mark Thomas [32]
2013 October 7 Typhoon Danas Okinawa, Japan Category 4 typhoon N/A Inside eye James Reynolds, Mark Thomas [33]
2013 October 11 Typhoon Nari Baler, Philippines Category 3 typhoon N/A Eyewall James Reynolds [34]
2013 November 8 Typhoon Haiyan Tacloban, Philippines Category 5 super typhoon 959.9 mbar (28.35 inHg) Eyewall James Reynolds, Mark Thomas [35]
2014 July 8 Typhoon Neoguri Miyako-jima, Japan Did not make landfall 964.8 mbar (28.49 inHg) Outside eyewall James Reynolds, Mark Thomas [36]
2014 September 14–15 Hurricane Odile Cabo San Lucas, Mexico Category 3 hurricane 943.1 mbar (27.85 inHg) Inside eye Steve Crighton [37]
2014 July 8 Typhoon Vongfong Kagoshima, Japan Tropical storm 975.5 mbar (28.81 inHg) Inside center Steve Crighton [38]
2015 August 8 Typhoon Soudelor Hualien City, Taiwan Category 3 typhoon 952.8 mbar (28.14 inHg) Inside eye Anthony van Dyck [39]
2015 August 23 Typhoon Goni Ishigaki, Japan Category 3 typhoon 944.2 mbar (27.88 inHg) Inside eye Solo [40]
2015 September 28 Typhoon Dujuan Su'ao, Taiwan Category 4 typhoon 958.3 mbar (28.30 inHg) Inside eye Solo [41]
2015 October 23 Hurricane Patricia Emiliano Zapata, Mexico Category 4 hurricane 937.8 mbar (27.69 inHg) Inside eye Solo [42]
2016 July 8 Typhoon Nepartak Taitung, Taiwan Category 3 typhoon 957.7 mbar (28.28 inHg) Eyewall Solo [43]
2016 August 3–4 Hurricane Earl Belize City, Belize Category 1 hurricane 982.2 mbar (29.00 inHg) Inside eye Solo [44]
2016 September 1–2 Hurricane Hermine Big Bend, Florida Category 1 hurricane 986.2 mbar (29.12 inHg) Inside eye Solo [45]
2016 September 5–6 Hurricane Newton Cabo San Lucas, Mexico Category 1 hurricane 984.3 mbar (29.07 inHg) Inside eye Solo [46]
2016 September 27 Typhoon Megi Hualien, Taiwan Category 3 typhoon 949.2 mbar (28.03 inHg) Inside eye Anthony van Dyck [47]
2016 October 6 Hurricane Matthew New Providence, Bahamas Category 4 hurricane 977.8 mbar (28.87 inHg) Outside eyewall Solo [48]
2016 October 6 Typhoon Haima Tuguegarao, Philippines Category 4 hurricane 942.0 mbar (27.82 inHg) Inside eye Solo [49]
2017 March 28–29 Cyclone Debbie Whitsunday Region, Australia Category 3 cyclone 958.7 mbar (28.31 inHg) Inside eye Solo [50]
2017 August 6 Typhoon Noru Tachiutsu, Japan Category 1 typhoon 977.1 mbar (28.85 inHg) Eyewall Solo [51]
2017 August 9–10 Hurricane Franklin Vega de Alatorre, Mexico Category 1 hurricane 990.4 mbar (29.25 inHg) Inside eye Solo [52]
2017 August 25–26 Hurricane Harvey Rockport, Texas Category 4 hurricane 940.8 mbar (27.78 inHg) Inside eye Solo [53]
2017 September 10 Hurricane Irma Naples, Florida Category 3 hurricane 940.0 mbar (27.76 inHg) Inside eye Solo [54]
2017 September 20 Hurricane Maria Palmas del Mar, Puerto Rico Category 4 hurricane 929.4 mbar (27.45 inHg) Eyewall Solo [55]
2017 October 7–8 Hurricane Nate Ocean Springs, Mississippi Category 1 hurricane 985.5 mbar (29.10 inHg) Inside eye Solo [56]
2017 October 22–23 Typhoon Lan Omaezaki, Japan Category 2 typhoon 952.8 mbar (28.14 inHg) Inside eye Solo [57]
2018 August 21 Typhoon Soulik Amami Ōshima, Japan Category 3 typhoon N/A Eyewall Caroline Menzies [58]
2018 August 23 Typhoon Cimaron Muroto, Japan Category 1 typhoon 973.7 mbar (28.75 inHg) Inside eye Caroline Menzies [59]
2018 September 4 Typhoon Jebi Mihama, Japan Category 3 typhoon 967.1 mbar (28.56 inHg) Eyewall Oli Sloane [60]
2018 September 15 Typhoon Mangkhut Buguey, Philippines Category 5 super typhoon 942.2 mbar (27.82 inHg) Eyewall Oli Sloane [61]
2018 October 10 Hurricane Michael Callaway, Florida Category 5 hurricane 923.2 mbar (27.26 inHg) Inside eye Oli Sloane, Matt Delaloye [62]
2018 October 23 Hurricane Willa Palmito del Verde, Mexico Category 3 hurricane 968.0 mbar (28.59 inHg) Inside eye Erik Sereno, Caroline Menzies [63]
2018 October 30 Typhoon Yutu Dilasag, Philippines Category 2 typhoon 960.4 mbar (28.36 inHg) Eyewall Caroline Menzies, James Levelle [64]
2019 September 1 Hurricane Dorian Marsh Harbour, Bahamas Category 5 hurricane 913.4 mbar (26.97 inHg) Inside eye Solo [65]

2013 Typhoon HaiyanEdit

 
The streets of Tacloban City remained littered with debris a week after Typhoon Haiyan struck

On November 7, 2013, Morgermen flew with fellow chasers James Reynolds and Mark Thomas to Tacloban City in the Philippines to intercept one of the most powerful typhoons in the 21st century: Typhoon Haiyan. They initially planned to ride out the storm south of the city, where the eye would ultimately make landfall; however, owing to a lack of sturdy shelters they opted to stay in Tacloban itself.[4] They set up at a four-story concrete hotel about 26 ft (7.9 m) above sea level.[4][66] The chasers came prepared with a week's-worth of food and water. Around 6:45 a.m. local time, the northern eyewall began battering Tacloban and winds rapidly became violent. Morgerman described the winds to have a "tornado-like quality" at times. Windows and doors at the hotel blew out and the roof was torn off. Trees in the region were completely defoliated. Around 7:50 a.m. a powerful storm surge swept through the city, with flood waters reaching a depth of 4 ft (1.2 m) at Morgerman's location. The fast-rising nature of the water incited panic, residents sheltering at the hotel scrambled to the building's second floor and some broke windows to escape their rooms. Morgerman jumped into the water to help people get from flooding rooms to the stairs. Thomas severely injured his leg in the water while assisting trapped people.[4]

Morgerman described the experience as traumatizing, witnessing the total devastation of Tacloban, bodies strewn across the streets, and "a city spiraling out of control".[4] The crew was stuck in Tacloban for three days, eventually "escaping" on November 10 by which time the Philippine military arrived with relief supplies.[66] Morgerman observed a minimum pressure of 959.9 mbar (28.35 inHg) in the eyewall of Haiyan. Extrapolating from his second measurement of 960.4 mbar (28.36 inHg), he estimated the central pressure to have been below 900 mbar (27 inHg).[35]

2014 Hurricane OdileEdit

In September 2014, Morgerman intercepted Hurricane Odile in Cabo San Lucas, Mexico. Successfully entering the eye, he recorded a pressure of 943.1 mbar (27.85 inHg).[37] Operational assessments of the hurricane's landfall intensity were taken into account for the release of catastrophe bonds funded by Wall Street and the World Bank. The bond system guaranteed a payout of $50 million for a storm with a pressure under 932 mbar (27.5 inHg); Odile's operational estimate was 930 mbar (27 inHg). However, his observations "upend[ed] the system" and the bonds were rescinded. This prevented vital recovery funds from being provided to the Government of Mexico.[67] The hurricane caused extensive damage throughout Baja California Sur, with insured losses estimated at $1.2 billion.[68] Industry experts later expressed concern over possible conflicts of interest with storm chasers and the catastrophe bonds.[67][68]

2019 Hurricane DorianEdit

 
Hurricane Dorian over the Abaco Islands on September 1, 2019

On August 31, 2019, Morgerman flew to Marsh Harbour, in the Bahamas to intercept Category 5 Hurricane Dorian.[69] Initially staging his chase in Treasure Cay, he ultimate chose to ride out the storm at Central Abaco Primary School—a designated concrete shelter—in Marsh Harbour.[70][71] At 11:40 a.m. EDT on September 1, Morgerman reported board to be flying off the structures windows and children being wrapped in blankets for safety.[72] After tweeting this information, contact with Morgerman lost for two days before he was able to contact the Weather Channel.[70] Around 2:00 p.m. EDT, Hurricane Dorian made landfall over the Abaco Islands with maximum sustained winds of 185 mph (295 km/h), making it the strongest such storm on record in the Bahamas.[73] The eyewall of Dorian proved exceptionally violent, battering the school with "the force of a thousand sledgehammers".[74] He and others sheltering at the school held furniture against window shutters to prevent them from blowing in.[75] The school was largely destroyed in the first half of the hurricane, forcing Morgerman and those sheltering inside to evacuate to a sturdier government building during the calm of the eye.[70] During the eye, he recorded a pressure of 913.4 mbar (26.97 inHg), the lowest in his career.[65] Hundreds of residents, many injured during the storm, sought refuge in the structure for the second half of the hurricane.[70] After living in his car for two days, Morgerman arrived in Nassau by helicopter on September 3 before returning to the United States. He described Dorian as a "nuclear-grade hurricane" and "the most intense cyclone I’ve witnessed in 28 years of chasing".[70][75]

Hurricane ManEdit

In October 2018, UKTV announced a new show starring Morgerman to be aired on the network channel Dave. The eight-episode show, titled Hurricane Man, chronicles Morgerman's chases in 2018 across the world. A film crew accompanied him on his chases. The series is produced by ScreenDog Productions and distributed by BBC Studios.[76] In addition to following Morgerman's experiences, the show also focuses on victims of the storms, sharing their experiences and how they're coping with its aftermath.[77] Morgerman acted more carefully during his chases with the film crew present, feeling responsibility for their safety.[78] The show premiered in the United Kingdom on March 24, 2019,[77] and June 12 in Australia on BBC Knowledge.[78] The show is scheduled for a September 15 debut in the United States on the Science Channel.[79] The series' first two episodes focus on 2018's Category 5 Hurricane Michael and its effects in Panama City, Florida.[78]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d e Josh Morgerman (March 31, 2019). "Inside the Mind of a Hurricane Chaser". Outside (Interview). Interviewed by S. I. Rosenbaum. Retrieved September 7, 2019.
  2. ^ "josh morgerman". iCyclone. 2019. Retrieved May 22, 2019.
  3. ^ a b c d Josh Morgerman (August 27, 2012). "Hurricane chasing: While most run from the storm, iCyclone seeks the core". The Washington Post (Interview). Interviewed by Ian Livingston. Capital Weather Gang. Retrieved September 7, 2019.
  4. ^ a b c d e Josh Morgerman (December 4, 2013). "A heart-pounding inside look at Super Typhoon Haiyan" (Interview). Interviewed by Ian Livingston. Retrieved September 7, 2019.
  5. ^ Victoria Craw (March 28, 2017). "US storm-chaser Josh Morgerman says Cyclone Debbie is 'worst case scenario'". news.com.au. Retrieved September 7, 2019.
  6. ^ Daniel P. Brown (February 20, 2013). Hurricane Ernesto (AL052012) (PDF) (Report). Tropical Cyclone Report. National Hurricane Center. Retrieved September 7, 2019.
  7. ^ John P. Cangialosi and Todd B. Kimberlain (March 4, 2015). Hurricane Odile (EP152014) (PDF) (Report). Tropical Cyclone Report. National Hurricane Center. Retrieved September 7, 2019.
  8. ^ Daniel P. Brown and Christopher W. Landsea (September 14, 2014). Hurricane Odile Tropical Cyclone Update (Report). National Hurricane Center. Retrieved September 7, 2019.
  9. ^ Todd B. Kimberlain, Eric S. Blake, and John P. Cangialosi (February 4, 2016). Hurricane Patricia (EP202015) (PDF) (Report). Tropical Cyclone Report. National Hurricane Center. Retrieved September 7, 2019.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  10. ^ Michael J. Brennan (April 2, 2019). Hurricane Willa (EP242018) (PDF) (Report). Tropical Cyclone Report. National Hurricane Center. Retrieved September 7, 2019.
  11. ^ Josh Morgerman, Andrew Hagen, Erik Sereno Trabaldo, and Jorge Abelardo González (February 3, 2016). Reanalysis of the 1959 Manzanillo hurricane (PDF) (Report). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved September 7, 2019.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  12. ^ Robert F. Rogers, Sim Aberson, Michael M. Bell, Daniel J. Cecil, James D. Doyle, Todd B. Kimberlain, Josh Morgerman, Lynn K. Shay, and Christopher Velden (October 30, 2017). "Rewriting the Tropical Record Books: The Extraordinary Intensification of Hurricane Patricia (2015)" (PDF). Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society. 98 (10): 2, 091–2, 112. doi:10.1175/BAMS-D-16-0039.1. Retrieved September 7, 2019.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  13. ^ "Belle 1976: My Very First Taste". iCyclone. 2019. Retrieved May 22, 2019.
  14. ^ "Gloria 1985: Careful What You Wish For". iCyclone. 2019. Retrieved May 22, 2019.
  15. ^ "Bob 1991: My Very First Chase". iCyclone. 2019. Retrieved May 22, 2019.
  16. ^ "Bret 1999: The Real Deal". iCyclone. 2019. Retrieved May 22, 2019.
  17. ^ "Wilma 2005: Ferocious Second Act". iCyclone. 2019. Retrieved May 22, 2019.
  18. ^ "Dean 2007: The Thing That Went Bump in the Night". iCyclone. 2019. Retrieved May 22, 2019.
  19. ^ "Dolly 2008: Howling Across the Rio Grande Valley". iCyclone. 2019. Retrieved May 22, 2019.
  20. ^ "Gustav 2008: Chasing in Cajun Country". iCyclone. 2019. Retrieved May 22, 2019.
  21. ^ "Ike 2008: Big, Bad Texan Cyclone". iCyclone. 2019. Retrieved May 22, 2019.
  22. ^ "Jimena 2009: Grand Trek Up the Baja Peninsula". iCyclone. 2019. Retrieved May 22, 2019.
  23. ^ "Alex 2010: Threading the Needle in the Dark". iCyclone. 2019. Retrieved May 22, 2019.
  24. ^ "Karl 2010: Flying Debris Festival". iCyclone. 2019. Retrieved May 22, 2019.
  25. ^ "Don 2011: Now You See It—Now You Don't". iCyclone. 2019. Retrieved May 22, 2019.
  26. ^ "Irene 2011: Thin Slice of 1950s Nostalgia". iCyclone. 2019. Retrieved May 22, 2019.
  27. ^ "Jova 2011: Violent Midnight Microcane". iCyclone. 2019. Retrieved May 22, 2019.
  28. ^ "Rina 2011: When Given a Lemon, Make Lemonade". iCyclone. 2019. Retrieved May 22, 2019.
  29. ^ "Ernesto 2012: Pinprick in the Night". iCyclone. 2019. Retrieved May 22, 2019.
  30. ^ "Isaac 2012: Swamp Marathon". iCyclone. 2019. Retrieved May 22, 2019.
  31. ^ "Ingrid 2013: Deceptively Lame Start to an Epic Season". iCyclone. 2019. Retrieved May 22, 2019.
  32. ^ "Fitow 2013: Endurance Test". iCyclone. 2019. Retrieved May 22, 2019.
  33. ^ "Danas 2013: Razor-thin Win". iCyclone. 2019. Retrieved May 22, 2019.
  34. ^ "Nari 2013: Hit & Run". iCyclone. 2019. Retrieved May 22, 2019.
  35. ^ a b Josh Morgerman (April 3, 2014). "Super Typhoon Haiyan in Tacloban City & Leyte, Philippines" (PDF). iCyclone. Retrieved May 22, 2019.
  36. ^ "Neoguri 2014: Nasty Tease". iCyclone. 2019. Retrieved May 22, 2019.
  37. ^ a b Josh Morgerman (2014). Odile 2014: Baja California Terror (PDF) (Report). iCyclone. Retrieved September 7, 2019.
  38. ^ "Vongfong 2014: Slow, Painful Demise". iCyclone. 2019. Retrieved September 7, 2019.
  39. ^ "Soudelor 2015: Mountain Mischief". iCyclone. 2019. Retrieved September 7, 2019.
  40. ^ "Goni 2015: Island Roulette Jackpot!". iCyclone. 2019. Retrieved September 7, 2019.
  41. ^ "Dujuan 2015: Eye Obsession". iCyclone. 2019. Retrieved September 7, 2019.
  42. ^ "Patricia 2015: Cruel Queen of the East Pacific" (PDF). iCyclone. 2019. Retrieved September 7, 2019.
  43. ^ "Nepartak 2016: Taiwan Typhoon Trickery". iCyclone. 2019. Retrieved September 7, 2019.
  44. ^ "Earl 2016: The Caribbean Sea Annexes a City" (PDF). iCyclone. 2019. Retrieved September 7, 2019.
  45. ^ "Hermine 2016: Penetrate & Conquer". iCyclone. 2019. Retrieved September 7, 2019.
  46. ^ "Newton 2016: Sudden Sequel" (PDF). iCyclone. 2019. Retrieved September 7, 2019.
  47. ^ "Megi 2016: Mad Dash North". iCyclone. 2019. Retrieved September 7, 2019.
  48. ^ "Matthew 2016: A Close & Painful Miss". iCyclone. 2019. Retrieved September 7, 2019.
  49. ^ "Haima 2016: Where There's a Will, There's a Way". iCyclone. 2019. Retrieved September 7, 2019.
  50. ^ "Debbie 2017: Dangerous First Journey to Oz". iCyclone. 2019. Retrieved September 7, 2019.
  51. ^ "Noru 2017: Victory by a Hair". iCyclone. 2019. Retrieved September 7, 2019.
  52. ^ "Franklin 2017: Running on Empty— But Hitting the Bullseye" (PDF). iCyclone. 2019. Retrieved September 7, 2019.
  53. ^ "Harvey 2017: Chaserdude's Fantasy Storm" (PDF). iCyclone. 2019. Retrieved September 7, 2019.
  54. ^ "Irma 2017: Explosive Halfcane". iCyclone. 2019. Retrieved September 7, 2019.
  55. ^ "Maria 2017: At the Coast, in the Right-Front Quad" (PDF). iCyclone. 2019. Retrieved September 7, 2019.
  56. ^ "Nate 2017: Late-Season Surprise Rush Job" (PDF). iCyclone. 2019. Retrieved September 7, 2019.
  57. ^ "Lan 2017: Honshu Express". iCyclone. 2019. Retrieved September 7, 2019.
  58. ^ "Soulik 2018: Snatching Victory from Jaws of Defeat". iCyclone. 2019. Retrieved September 7, 2019.
  59. ^ "Cimaron 2018: Sexy Second Act". iCyclone. 2019. Retrieved September 7, 2019.
  60. ^ "Jebi 2018: Honshu Shocker". iCyclone. 2019. Retrieved September 7, 2019.
  61. ^ "Mangkhut 2018: Playing with Cat-5 Fire" (PDF). iCyclone. 2019. Retrieved September 7, 2019.
  62. ^ "Michael 2018: Great American Hurricane" (PDF). iCyclone. 2019. Retrieved September 7, 2019.
  63. ^ "Willa 2018: Mad Dash into the Bullseye" (PDF). iCyclone. 2019. Retrieved September 7, 2019.
  64. ^ "Yutu 2018: Luzon Left Hook". iCyclone. 2019. Retrieved September 7, 2019.
  65. ^ a b Josh Morgerman [@iCyclone] (September 3, 2019). "My lowest-pressures list has a new top dog. Ain't even close. #DORIAN" (Tweet). Retrieved September 7, 2019 – via Twitter.
  66. ^ a b Josh Morgerman (November 11, 2013). "5 Questions For A Seasoned Storm Chaser Who Witnessed The Wrath Of Typhoon Haiyan" (Interview). Interviewed by Tony Merevick. BuzzFeed News. Retrieved September 7, 2019.
  67. ^ a b Jeremy Blackman, Micah Maidenberg, and Sylvia, Varnham O'Regan (April 8, 2018). "Mexico's disaster bonds were meant to provide quick cash after hurricanes and earthquakes. But it often hasn't worked out that way". The Los Angeles Times. Retrieved September 7, 2019.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  68. ^ a b Robert Muir-Wood (July 4, 2017). "The Hurricane Hunter and the Cat Bond". RMS. Retrieved September 7, 2019.
  69. ^ Josh Morgerman [@iCyclone] (August 31, 2019). "Goin' for it. Last flight into Abaco Islands #Bahamas before it shuts down. I passionately hate Island Roulette. But I hate standing on my hind legs for three days to lick the bland edges of an unraveling recurver even more. I may go down in flames on this chase. Oh well. #DORIAN" (Tweet). Retrieved September 7, 2019 – via Twitter.
  70. ^ a b c d e Joe McCarthy (September 3, 2019). "Hurricane Chaser Josh Morgerman Emerges After Days of Silence". The Weather Channel. Retrieved September 7, 2019.
  71. ^ Josh Morgerman [@iCyclone] (September 1, 2019). "3:40 am. Middle-of-the-night strategy move: With #DORIAN's continued W movement, I started to feel like I'd miss the eye—so I jumped in the car & drove ~20 miles from black star (resort in Treasure Cay) to brown star (school in Marsh Harbour). May ride it out here. Ain't sure" (Tweet). Retrieved September 7, 2019 – via Twitter.
  72. ^ Josh Morgerman [@iCyclone] (September 1, 2019). "11:40 am. Pounding. CRASHING. Boards prying off windows. We're moving children to a safe space, wrapping them in blankets. 969 mg. #DORIAN" (Tweet). Retrieved September 7, 2019 – via Twitter.
  73. ^ Lixion Avila (September 1, 2019). Hurricane Dorian Intermediate Advisory Number 33A (Report). National Hurricane Center. Retrieved September 7, 2019.
  74. ^ Josh Morgerman [@iCyclone] (September 3, 2019). "Winds pounded the building with the force of a thousand sledgehammers. Crept out during eye to find school mostly destroyed, cars in parking lot thrown around & mutilated. Barometer said 913.4 mb" (Tweet). Retrieved September 7, 2019 – via Twitter.
  75. ^ a b Victor Garcia (September 6, 2019). "Storm chaser describes being in Bahamas for Dorian". Fox News. Retrieved September 7, 2019.
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