Hurricane Nate was the costliest natural disaster in Costa Rican history. An unusually fast-moving tropical cyclone, it caused severe flooding in Central America, leading to widespread destruction and casualties, during early October 2017, before making landfall on the US Gulf Coast. The fourteenth named storm and ninth hurricane of the hyperactive 2017 Atlantic hurricane season, Nate originated from a broad area of low pressure over the southwestern Caribbean on October 3. The disturbance moved northwest, organizing into a tropical depression the next day and attaining tropical storm intensity early on October 5. The storm moved ashore the coastline of Nicaragua thereafter. Little change in strength occurred as the system continued into Honduras, and Nate began steady intensification over the warm waters of the northwestern Caribbean Sea shortly thereafter. It attained hurricane strength while moving through the Yucatán Channel early on October 7, attaining peak winds of 90 mph (150 km/h) in the central Gulf of Mexico later that day. Early on the next day, Nate made landfall near the mouth of the Mississippi River in Louisiana. After crossing the marshland of the Mississippi Delta, it made its second U.S. landfall near Biloxi, Mississippi early on October 8, causing a storm surge to flood the ground floor of coastal casinos and buildings, as well as causing rip currents, hurricane-force winds, and beach erosion.
|Category 1 hurricane (SSHWS/NWS)|
|Formed||October 4, 2017|
|Dissipated||October 11, 2017|
|(Extratropical after October 9)|
|Highest winds||1-minute sustained: 90 mph (150 km/h) |
|Lowest pressure||981 mbar (hPa); 28.97 inHg|
|Damage||$787 million (2017 USD)|
|Areas affected||Central America, Cayman Islands, Cuba, Yucatán Peninsula, Gulf Coast of the United States (Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama), East Coast of the United States, Atlantic Canada|
|Part of the 2017 Atlantic hurricane season|
Moving northwestward at 29 mph (47 km/h), Nate was the fastest-moving tropical system ever recorded in the Gulf of Mexico. It is also the fourth Atlantic hurricane of 2017 to have made landfall in the United States or one of its territories; such a quartet of landfalls has not occurred since 2005. In addition, Nate was the first tropical cyclone to move ashore in the state of Mississippi since Hurricane Katrina.
An elongated surface trough of low pressure began interacting with an upper-level low across the northwestern Caribbean at the start of October, resulting in widespread cloudiness and scattered showers across the region. Despite unusually low surface pressures, strong upper-level winds were initially forecast to prevent significant organization. During the afternoon hours of October 3, satellite imagery and surface observations indicated that a broad area of low pressure had formed over the extreme southwestern Caribbean. The disturbance began to show signs of strengthening almost immediately; satellite images the next morning showed large curved bands of deep convection wrapping into the well-defined center, prompting the National Hurricane Center (NHC) to upgrade it to a tropical depression at 12:00 UTC on October 4, while located about 40 mi (64 km) south of San Andres Island.
The newly formed cyclone traveled on a northwest course during its incipience, steered by a ridge over the southwestern Atlantic. Later on October 4, the inner core convection blossomed, with a well-defined convective band on the eastern semicircle. The presence of a partial eyewall on the San Andres radar, coupled with surface observations from Nicaragua, incentivized the NHC to upgrade the depression to Tropical Storm Nate at 06:00 UTC on October 5. 6 hours later, the system had moved ashore just south of Puerto Cabezas. Combined with moderate southwesterly wind shear aloft, the storm's passage over the rugged terrains of Nicaragua and Honduras caused the cloud pattern to deteriorate, although its winds remained near tropical storm force. This lapse in structure was temporary, however, as Nate redeveloped deep convection even before re-emerging over water; in fact, the cyclone exhibited some semblance of a convective ring on microwave imagery. Embedded within a larger cyclonic gyre across Central America, Nate maintained a northwesterly course across land, bringing the storm into the Gulf of Honduras during the early hours of October 6.
Once over the warm waters of the northwestern Caribbean Sea, Nate began to strengthen slowly, despite its broad surface center and the disjointment of the maximum winds east from the center. A developing subtropical ridge over the western Atlantic turned the storm on a more north-northwest trajectory. NOAA and Air Force reserve reconnaissance aircraft sampling the system throughout the evening of October 6 confirmed continued intensification; data around 02:30 UTC the next day, showing a developing eyewall, supported upgrading Nate to the season's ninth consecutive hurricane. Continued flow between the ridge over the western Atlantic and the Central American gyre propelled Nate into the Yucatán Channel and then the Gulf of Mexico on October 7; in fact, with a 12-hour averaged motion of 29 mph (47 km/h), Nate became the fastest-moving hurricane on record in the gulf. Favorable environmental conditions allowed the strengthening to continue: Nate developed a symmetrical central dense overcast, featuring cloud tops cooler than −114 °F (−81 °C) and a sizable eye underneath, attaining peak winds of 90 mph (150 km/h) at 12:00 UTC. The hurricane reached a minimum barometric pressure of 981 mbar (hPa; 28.97 inHg) 6 hours later.
Impinging vertical wind shear caused Nate's convection to rapidly warm and lose structure, despite the storm's attempts to form a more distinct eye. Around 00:00 UTC on October 8, Nate made its first landfall near the mouth of the Mississippi River with winds of 85 mph (137 km/h). Deep convection migrated to the north and east of the center, and a curve toward the north brought the storm ashore near Biloxi, Mississippi at 05:30 UTC with winds of 75 mph (121 km/h). Inland, Nate became embedded within the fast mid-latitude westerlies, causing the storm to accelerate north-northeast while weakening to a tropical storm 30 minutes later. Surface observations indicated a rapidly weakening cyclone, prompting the NHC to downgrade Nate to a tropical depression at 12:00 UTC while it was located over southwestern Alabama; further advisories were relegated to the Weather Prediction Center (WPC). Nate continued to weaken, and degrading to a remnant low over Tennessee. A few hours later, the remnant low became an extratropical cyclone over the Ohio Valley. The extratropical cyclone moved northeastward into New England, then turned east-northeastward into Canadian Maritime on October 10. The extratropical remnant dissipated near Newfoundland on early October 11, as it degenerated into a trough rotating around another extratropical cyclone to its north.
Preparations and impactEdit
|Costa Rica||14||0||$562 million|||
|United States||2||0||$225 million|||
Coinciding with an unusually extreme rainy season as well as strong confluence of the Pacific and Atlantic trade winds, Nate and its precursor brought days of torrential rain to the already satured soils of Central America throughout the first week of October 2017. Emergency agencies and governments issued various weather alerts for their respective countries, with the Caribbean shores of Nicaragua and Honduras placed under a tropical storm warning when a strengthening Nate approached land. Schools and public offices were closed as storm shelters were prepared. In addition, Nate led to the cancellation of a FIFA World Cup qualification match between Costa Rica and Honduras scheduled for October 6 at Estadio Nacional in San José.
Still battling the preceding flooding, the entire region once again faced life-threatening situations as Nate's rains triggered mudslides and filled already rising rivers and streams to critical levels by October 5. Floods and mudslides were widespread, with Costa Rica and Nicaragua enduring the worst and deadliest impacts. As of October 11, the deluge had left 43 dead and nine missing across Central America, as well as causing serious structural damage.
During its formative stages, the precursor disturbance interacted with the monsoon trough to produce widespread cloudiness over Panama in the first week of October. Flooding rains fell over much of the Talamanca and Central mountain ranges, including the west-central provinces of Chiriquí, Ngäbe-Buglé, Veraguas, Panamá Oeste, Bocas del Toro, and Coclé, as well as Colón and Guna Yala along the Atlantic coast. On October 3, Panamanian officials issued an alert for heavy rain with strong gusts and urged residents on the riverbanks of Río de Jesús to evacuate. In Ngäbe-Buglé, a landslide killed six people. Squally rains downed trees, damaged roofs, and flooded homes throughout Veraguas and Chiriqui; in the latter province, 150 homes in Puerto Armuelles were affected, and two people required rescue from the cascading waters of a river in the San Lorenzo District. Trees fell onto roads and homes in Panamá Oeste, Panamá Este, San Miguelito and Herrera, causing light damage. A few landslides impacted the roads in those regions, leaving some impassable and obstructing an important traffic junction in Viguí. Blustery conditions associated with Nate affected 4,975 people throughout Panama and damaged or destroyed 84 houses. One person died in a shipwreck in Panama Bay.
The Caribbean shores of Nicaragua were placed under alert as the precursor disturbance thrived, interacting with surrounding low pressures to produce widespread rainfall as early as October 3. Upon Nate's formation, a tropical storm warning was issued for the coast. Widespread flooding damaged or destroyed 5,953 homes, the vast majority in the Rivas Department, directly affecting approximately 29,000 people. At least 16 people died throughout Nicaragua while 1 other person was reported missing as of October 8.
At the risk of flooding rains, Costa Rica's Central Valley, Pacific coast, and Huetar Norte region were placed under red alert for at least 3 days, starting on October 4, while a yellow alert was issued for the Caribbean coast. The greatest quantities, reaching 19.19 inches (487 mm), fell in Maritima; many other central Pacific locales, such as Quepos, recorded over 4.7 inches (120 mm) that day. In contrast, the capital of San José received no more than 1.4 inches (36 mm). In the canton of Oreamuno, Cartago Province, a bridge and part of a riverside house succumbed to the forces of a river, swollen from the initial rains on October 3. By October 5, the situation culminated: muddy waters surged through streets, neighborhoods, and even homes—some submerged to their roofs—as an increasing number of rivers burst their banks. About 800 residents living in risk zones had to be rescued, including 200 in Palmar Norte when the overflowing Térraba River swept away houses and belongings. The storm cut off drinking water to nearly 500,000 people, and left 18,500 without power. Torrents, landslides, and fallen trees—particularly in the provinces of Cartago, Puntarenas, Guanacaste, Alajuela, and San José—claimed the lives of 14 people, and forced 11,300 into 170 shelters across Costa Rica. The flooding was the worst to hit the country in recent years, leading to the "biggest crisis in Costa Rican history" according to President Luis Guillermo Solís. In response, Solís declared a state of emergency for the entire country on October 6, as well as a national day of mourning.
The country's infrastructure, especially the road networks in southern regions, sustained tremendous damage from expansive flooding, landslides and subsidence; 117 roads throughout all provinces but Limón were affected in some way or form, 40 of which were rendered impassable. Spanning 413 mi (665 km) through Costa Rica, the Inter-American Highway suffered various degrees of damage at 112 different sites, ranging from superficial cracks and potholes, to total structural failures. At least 42 bridges collapsed, many waterways and drainage systems were overwhelmed, and a number of routes were practically "wiped out," isolating villages and leading to widespread disruptions in the transport sector. Many petrospheres at the World Heritage archaeological site of Palmar Sur were covered with up to 12 inches (30 cm) of mud. The infrastructural costs across the country exceeded ₡10 billion (US$17.5 million), with repairs expected to take years. With over 306,000 acres (124,000 hectares) of arable land damaged, the agricultural sector reported significant losses. Among the hardest hit crops were sugarcane, vegetables, grains, melons and papayas, especially in the Guanacaste, Puntarenas and Central Valley regions. In Guanacaste, the storm converted pastures and sugarcane fields into ponds and washed out 3,200 acres (1,300 hectares) of rice. Material damage from Nate across Costa Rica is estimated at ₡106 billion (US$185 million). Total damages caused by the hurricane in Costa Rica are estimated at ₡322.1 billion (US$562 million), making it the costliest natural disaster in Costa Rican history.
Rest of Central AmericaEdit
Heavy rains and strong winds impacted portions of western Cuba, particularly Pinar del Río Province. Rainfall reached 4.04 in (102.7 mm) in San Juan y Martínez, bringing local reservoirs to near-capacity. Some flooding affected homes in the province, but overall damage was limited. Winds up to 56 mph (90 km/h) disrupted electrical service in Cabo San Antonio.
The local officials in Louisiana, Florida, Alabama, and Mississippi declared states of emergency or also evacuation orders. In preparation for Nate, officials in Grand Isle, Louisiana, declared a voluntary evacuation. New Orleans Mayor Mitch Landrieu met with local, state, and federal officials to discuss preparation measures as the city continued to experience critical deficiencies in its drainage system from two months prior. Florida Governor Rick Scott declared a state of emergency for 29 counties in the northern portion of the state. Offshore, oil and gas companies began evacuating production platforms in the Gulf of Mexico. Six platforms had been cleared by midday on October 5, and a movable rig was moved out of the storm's path. Aircraft of the Air Force Reserve Command's 403d Wing were evacuated from Keesler Air Force Base, Mississippi, as a precautionary measure. The military also prepared the amphibious assault ship Iwo Jima and transport dock New York to assist with search-and-rescue and recovery effort.
Rain-slicked roads may have been a factor in a fatal accident along Interstate 24 in Tennessee. A firefighter was struck and killed by a car while cleaning up storm debris in Morganton, North Carolina. Total damage reached $22.3 million, primarily in southwestern Alabama.
Records and retirementEdit
On October 7, the National Weather Service stated that Hurricane Nate had broken the record for the fastest forward motion by a hurricane in the Gulf of Mexico, with a speed of 29 miles per hour (47 km/h). This top forward motion occurred during a 12-hour period on Saturday, October 7, as Nate sped northward towards the Gulf Coast.
On April 11, 2018, due to the storm's significant impacts in Costa Rica, the World Meteorological Organization retired the name Nate from its rotating lists of names, and it will never again be used for another Atlantic hurricane. It will be replaced with Nigel for the 2023 season.
- Other tropical cyclones named Nate
- Other North Atlantic tropical cyclones that formed near Central America then traveled north before hitting the Gulf Coast of the United States
- 1916 Gulf Coast hurricane – A destructive Category 3 hurricane that took a similar, albeit slower, path to Nate's
- Hurricane Ida – A Category 2 hurricane that took a similar path to Nate's
- Hurricane Michael – Another tropical cyclone that spawned near Central America and tracked northwards before making landfall on the Gulf Coast of the United States
- Tropical Storm Alberto (2018)
- Tropical Storm Arlene (2005)
- Hurricane Gert – Produced widespread flooding through Central America in September 1993 before striking Mexico
- Hurricane Otto – A Category 3 hurricane that produced similarly severe effects in Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and Panama
- Hurricane Richard – A Category 2 hurricane that took a similar path over the Yucátan Peninsula, causing landslides
- David Caplan; Morgan Winsor, Emily Shapiro (October 8, 2017). "Nate downgraded to tropical storm, moves farther inland". abcnews.go.com. Retrieved October 13, 2017.
- "Nate slams Mississippi as the 4th hurricane in an extraordinary year to make landfall in the U.S." Retrieved October 9, 2017.
- Stacy R. Stewart (October 2, 2017). "Graphical Tropical Weather Outlook". Miami, Florida: National Hurricane Center. Retrieved October 5, 2017.
- John P. Cangialosi (October 3, 2017). "Graphical Tropical Weather Outlook". Miami, Florida: National Hurricane Center. Retrieved October 13, 2017.
- John L. Beven II and Robbie Berg (April 5, 2018). Tropical Cyclone Report: Hurricane Nate (PDF) (Report). Miami, Florida: National Hurricane Center. Retrieved April 10, 2018.
- Eric S. Blake (October 4, 2017). Tropical Depression Sixteen Discussion Number 2 (Report). Miami, Florida: National Hurricane Center. Retrieved October 13, 2017.
- Robbie J. Berg (October 4, 2017). Tropical Depression Sixteen Discussion Number 3 (Report). Miami, Florida: National Hurricane Center. Retrieved October 13, 2017.
- John L. Beven II (October 5, 2017). Tropical Storm Nate Intermediate Advisory Number 4A (Report). Miami, Florida: National Hurricane Center. Retrieved October 13, 2017.
- John L. Beven II (October 5, 2017). Tropical Storm Nate Discussion Number 5 (Report). Miami, Florida: National Hurricane Center. Retrieved October 13, 2017.
- John L. Beven II (October 5, 2017). Tropical Storm Nate Discussion Number 6 (Report). Miami, Florida: National Hurricane Center. Retrieved October 13, 2017.
- Robbie J. Berg (October 5, 2017). Tropical Storm Nate Discussion Number 7 (Report). Miami, Florida: National Hurricane Center. Retrieved October 13, 2017.
- Robbie J. Berg (October 6, 2017). Hurricane Nate Intermediate Advisory Number 11 (Report). Miami, Florida: National Hurricane Center. Retrieved October 6, 2017.
- John L. Beven II (October 7, 2017). Hurricane Nate Public Advisory Number 14 (Report). Miami, Florida: National Hurricane Center. Retrieved October 13, 2017.
- Robbie J. Berg (October 7, 2017). Hurricane Nate Intermediate Advisory 14A (Report). Miami, Florida: National Hurricane Center. Retrieved October 13, 2017.
- Daniel P. Brown (October 8, 2017). Tropical Depression Nate Public Advisory Number 17 (Report). Miami, Florida: National Hurricane Center. Retrieved October 13, 2017.
- "Se eleva a 11 la cifra de muertos por Nate en Costa Rica". El Diario (in Spanish). EFE. October 7, 2017. Retrieved October 8, 2017.
- European Commission's Directorate-General for European Civil Protection and Humanitarian Aid Operations (November 8, 2017). La Unión Europea destina 68 millones de colones en ayuda humanitaria para los afectados por la tormenta Nate en Costa Rica (Report) (in Spanish). ReliefWeb. Retrieved April 13, 2018.
- "Al menos 26 muertos deja tormenta Nate en Centroamérica" (in Spanish). Voice of America. October 6, 2017. Retrieved October 6, 2017.
- Central America: Tropical Storm Nate (Alert). ACT Alliance. October 9, 2017. Retrieved October 11, 2017.
- "Al menos 23 muertos y 27 desaparecidos en Centroamérica tras el paso de Nate". El Mundo (in Spanish). EFE. October 6, 2017. Retrieved October 6, 2017.
- "Seis muertos por alud en Panamá". Prensa Latina (in Spanish). October 2, 2017. Retrieved October 6, 2017.
- "Reports on hurricanes, tropical storms, tropical disturbances and related floods during 2017". United States of America. 2018. Retrieved March 13, 2018.
- "Lluvias dejan destrucción y muerte en Centroamérica". La Prensa (in Spanish). Agence France-Presse. October 3, 2017. Retrieved October 10, 2017.
- Martínez, Roberto (October 4, 2017). Bulletin N° 1 - 4/10/2017. Empresa de Transmisión Eléctrica S.A. (Bulletin) (in Spanish). Dirección de Hidrometeorología Panamá. Retrieved October 4, 2017.
- "Lluvias dejan muerte y destrucción en Centroamérica". Estrategia & Negocios (in Spanish). Agence France-Presse. October 5, 2017.
- "Costa Rica-Honduras World Cup qualifier postponed until Saturday". ESPN FC. October 5, 2017. Retrieved October 7, 2017.
- "La tormenta tropical Nate deja al menos 23 muertos y 27 desaparecidos en Centroamérica" (in Spanish). RTVE. EFE. October 6, 2017. Retrieved October 10, 2017.
- Martínez, Roberto (October 4, 2017). Bulletin N° 1 – 4/10/2017. Empresa de Transmisión Eléctrica S.A. (Bulletin) (in Spanish). Dirección de Hidrometeorología Panamá. Retrieved October 4, 2017.
- "Encuentran cuerpo de hombre desaparecido en Santa Isabel". La Estrella (in Spanish). October 3, 2017. Retrieved October 4, 2017.
- Núñez, Yandira (October 7, 2017). "Tormenta Nate deja un saldo de 4mil 975 afectados en Panamá". La Estrella (in Spanish). Retrieved October 11, 2017.
- Comunicado #3: Tormenta Tropical Nate localizada al sur de Nicaragua (Report) (in Spanish). Sistema Nacional de Protección Civil. October 5, 2017. Retrieved October 11, 2017.
- SINAPROC coordina el desplazamiento de ayuda para familias afectadas (Press release) (in Spanish). Sistema Nacional de Protección Civil. October 6, 2017. Retrieved October 11, 2017.
- USA and Central America: Tropical Cyclone Nate (PDF) (Map). ECHO Daily Maps. Emergency Response Coordination Centre. October 9, 2017. Retrieved October 11, 2017.
- "Nicaragua queda en alerta por depresión tropical que provocará más lluvia". El Nuevo Diario (in Spanish). October 3, 2017. Retrieved October 4, 2017.
- "Combinación de depresión y onda tropical causa intensas lluvias en Nicaragua". La Vanguardia (in Spanish). October 5, 2017. Retrieved October 10, 2017.
- Tropical Depression Sixteen Advisory Number 1 (Report).
- Jiménez, Eillyn (October 4, 2017). "CNE declara alerta roja en el Pacífico, Valle Central y zona norte por influencia de depresión tropical". La Nación (in Spanish). Retrieved October 4, 2017.
- Díaz, Juan D. N. "Informe Meteorológico N°17: Condiciones del tiempo mejoran conforme se aleja Nate" (Bulletin) (in Spanish). Instituto Meteorológico Nacional de Costa Rica.
- Calderón, Kenya; Salano, Hugo (October 3, 2017). "Río Toyogres falsea puente en Oreamuno de Cartago y se lleva parte de una casa". La Nación (in Spanish). Retrieved October 4, 2017.
- Cambronero, Natasha; Jiménez B., Eillyn; Cerdas E., Daniela; Arguedas C., Carlos; Oviedo, Esteban; Loaiza N., Vanessa (October 6, 2017). "Tormenta Nate deja 11 fallecidos, 2 desaparecidos y severos daños". La Nación (in Spanish). Retrieved October 11, 2017.
- "Costa Rica intenta de salir de la devastación que dejó la tormenta Nate". La Prensa (in Spanish). Agence France-Presse. October 9, 2017. Retrieved October 11, 2017.
- "Son 10 los muertos en Costa Rica por Nate". Bohemia (in Spanish). La Prensa. October 6, 2017. Retrieved October 7, 2017.
- Portuguez Morales, Alejandra (October 6, 2017). "Presidente declara duelo nacional por las víctimas mortales que dejó Nate". La Teja (in Spanish). Retrieved October 6, 2017.
- Arguedas C., Carlos (October 9, 2017). "Tormenta deja daños en 112 sitios de carretera Interamericana". La Nación (in Spanish). Retrieved October 10, 2017.
- Bosque G., Diego (October 7, 2017). "MOPT: 'Daños de tormenta Nate en vías son de proporciones titánicas'". La Nación (in Spanish). Retrieved October 10, 2017.
- Artavia, Silvia (October 10, 2017). "Nate también dejó huella en las esferas de piedra de Osa". La Nación (in Spanish). Retrieved October 10, 2017.
- Luis Manuel Madrigal (October 9, 2017). "Nate dejó graves daños en infraestructura vial que podrían tardar años en repararse" (in Spanish). El Mundo. Retrieved October 10, 2017.
- Más de 124 mil hectáreas en cultivos fueron afectados por la tormenta Nate (Press release) (in Spanish). Presidencia de la República de Costa Rica. October 9, 2017. Retrieved October 11, 2017.
- Cruz, Maria Fernanda; Esquivel, Noelia (October 6, 2017). "Nate deja dos fallecidos, unas mil hectáreas de arroz inundadas y más de 70.000 personas sin agua". La Voz de Guanacaste (in Spanish).
- "309 mil millones de colones para la reconstrucción convierten a Nate en el mayor desastre de origen natural de la historia en Costa Rica" (in Spanish). Comisión Nacional de Emergencias. January 12, 2018. Retrieved April 13, 2018.
- "Honduras reporta un muerto por lluvias y mantiene las alertas". La Prensa (in Spanish). October 5, 2017. Retrieved October 6, 2017.
- "El huracán Nate deja lluvias e inundaciones en Pinar del Río". Diario De Cuba (in Spanish). October 8, 2017. Retrieved October 12, 2017.
- Corky Siemaszko (October 5, 2017). "Tropical Storm Nate Could Pose Threat to U.S. Gulf Coast". Miami, Florida: NBC News. Retrieved October 5, 2017.
- Alaa Elassar; Michelle Krupa (October 5, 2017). "Tropical Storm Nate poses weekend threat to central US Gulf Coast". CNN. Retrieved October 5, 2017.
- "The Latest: Costa Rica raises death toll from Nate to 8". ABC News. Associated Press. October 5, 2017. Retrieved October 5, 2017.
- Maj. Marnee Losurdo (October 6, 2017). "403rd Wing evacuates aircraft, continues Tropical Storm Nate missions". 403rd Wing. Retrieved October 6, 2017.
- Richard Sisk (October 6, 2017). "Amphib Iwo Jima to Back Up FEMA as Tropical Storm Nate Threatens". Military.com. Retrieved October 7, 2017.
- "1 Killed In Single Vehicle Crash On Interstate 24". News Channel 5. October 8, 2017. Retrieved October 10, 2017.
- "Firefighter killed in western NC while responding to Nate storm damage". WRAL. October 9, 2017. Retrieved October 10, 2017.
- Manuel Torres (October 7, 2017). "Hurricane Nate sets record as fastest moving storm in Gulf of Mexico". NOLA.com. Retrieved October 10, 2017.
- "Hurricane names Harvey, Irma, Maria and Nate being retired". Associated Press. Washington Post. April 12, 2018. Retrieved April 12, 2018.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Hurricane Nate (2017).|
|Wikinews has related news: Hurricane Nate weakens as it reaches United States|