Culture of Japan
This article needs additional citations for verification. (November 2015) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
|Part of a series on the|
The culture of Japan has changed greatly over the millennia, from the country's prehistoric Jōmon Period, to its contemporary modern culture, which absorbs influences from Asia, Europe, and North America.
Japan's indigenous culture originates primarily from the Yayoi people who settled in Japan between 1000 BCE to 300 CE. Yayoi culture quickly spread to the main island of Honshū, mixing with the native Jōmon culture. Modern Japanese have an estimated 80% Yayoi and 20% Jōmon ancestry.
Japanese culture was influenced from ancient times to the Middle Ages primarily by multiple Chinese dynasties and to a lesser extent by other Asian countries. For example the Japanese language uses Chinese characters (kanji) for writing, but Japanese has no genetic relationship with Chinese. In the near-contemporary history since the Meiji period Japan was primarily influenced by western countries. Repeated influence, absorption and selection in various ways have added to the development of a distinct and unique culture.[unreliable source?]
The inhabitants of Japan experienced a long period of relative isolation from the outside world for over 220 years during the Tokugawa shogunate until the arrival of the "Black Ships" and the Meiji period. Today, the culture of Japan stands as one of the leading and most prominent cultures around the world, mainly due to the global reach of its popular culture.
Japanese is the official and primary language of Japan. Japanese has a lexically distinct pitch-accent system. Early Japanese is known largely on the basis of its state in the 8th century, when the three major works of Old Japanese were compiled. The earliest attestation of the Japanese language is in a Chinese document from 256 AD. The Japanese language has no genetic relationship with Chinese. It belongs to a completely different language family called Japonic languages.
Chinese characters, or kanji (漢字), are extensively used in its writing; these are non-phonetic ideograms. They were imported from China, because Japan did not have a writing system until it was introduced around 50 AD. It is mainly used for nouns, adjective stems, and verb stems. After centuries of development, there is a notable number of kanji used in modern Japanese which have a different meaning from the corresponding hanzi used in modern Chinese. Japanese has much fewer simplified Chinese characters, and people use less kanji in general.
Hiragana and katakana are phonetic syllabaries which were derived from the Chinese man'yōgana of the 5th century.. Hiragana and katakana were first simplified from Kanji. Hiragana emerged somewhere around the 9th century. It was mainly used by women in informal language. Katakana was mainly used by men and for formal language. By the 10th century, it was common and used by everyone..
The Latin alphabet, rōmaji, is also often used in modern Japanese, especially for company names and logos, advertising, and when inputting Japanese into a computer. The Hindu-Arabic numerals are generally used for numbers, but traditional Sino-Japanese numerals are also very common.
Shinto is an ethnic religion that focuses on ceremonies and rituals. In Shinto, followers believe that kami, Shinto deities or spirits, are present throughout nature, including rocks, trees, and mountains. Humans can also be considered to possess a kami. One of the goals of Shinto is to maintain a connection between humans, nature, and kami. The religion developed in Japan prior to the sixth century CE, after which point followers built shrines to worship kami.
Buddhism developed in India around the 6th and 4th centuries BCE and eventually spread through China and Korea. It arrived in Japan during the 6th century CE, where it was initially unpopular. Most Japanese people were unable to understand the difficult philosophical messages present in Buddhism, however they did have an appreciation for the religion's art, which is believed to have led to the religion growing more popular. Buddhism is concerned with the soul and life after dying. In the religion a person's status was unimportant, as every person would get sick, age, die, and eventually be reincarnated into a new life, a cycle called saṃsāra. The suffering people experienced during life was one way for people to gain a better future. The ultimate goal was to escape the cycle of death and rebirth by attaining true insight.
The Japanese "national character" has been written about under the term Nihonjinron, literally meaning "theories/discussions about the Japanese people" and referring to texts on matters that are normally the concerns of sociology, psychology, history, linguistics, and philosophy, but emphasizing the authors' assumptions or perceptions of Japanese exceptionalism; these are predominantly written in Japan by Japanese people, though noted examples have also been written by foreign residents, journalists and even scholars.
This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (October 2010)
Early works of Japanese literature were heavily influenced by cultural contact with China and Chinese literature, often written in Classical Chinese. Eventually, Japanese literature developed into a separate style in its own right as Japanese writers began writing their own works about Japan. Since Japan reopened its ports to Western trading and diplomacy in the 19th century, Western and Eastern literature have strongly affected each other and continue to do so.
The flowing, brush-drawn Japanese rendering of the text itself is seen as a traditional art form as well as a means of conveying written information. The written work can consist of phrases, poems, stories, or even single characters. The style and format of the writing can mimic the subject matter, even to the point of texture and stroke speed. In some cases, it can take over one hundred attempts to produce the desired effect of a single character but the process of creating the work is considered as much an art as the end product itself. This calligraphy form is known as 'shodō' (書道) which literally means 'the way of writing or calligraphy' or more commonly known as 'shūji' (習字) 'learning how to write characters'. Commonly confused with calligraphy is the art form known as 'sumi-e' (墨絵), literally meaning 'ink painting', which is the art of painting a scene or object.
Painting has been an art in Japan for a very long time: the brush is a traditional writing and painting tool, and the extension of that to its use as an artist's tool was probably natural. Japanese painters are often categorized by what they painted, as most of them constrained themselves solely to subjects such as animals, landscapes, or figures. Chinese papermaking was introduced to Japan around the 7th century. Later, washi was developed from it. Native Japanese painting techniques are still in use today, as well as techniques adopted from continental Asia and from the West. Schools of painting such as the Kano school of the 16th century became known for their bold brush strokes and contrast between light and dark, especially after Oda Nobunaga and Tokugawa Ieyasu began to use this style. Famous Japanese painters include Kanō Sanraku, Maruyama Ōkyo, and Tani Bunchō.
Ukiyo-e, literally "pictures of the floating world", is a genre of woodblock prints that exemplifies the characteristics of pre-Meiji Japanese art. Because these prints could be mass-produced, they were available to a wide cross-section of the Japanese populace—those not wealthy enough to afford original paintings—during their heyday, from the 17th to 20th century.
Ikebana (生け花, 活花, or 挿花) is the Japanese art of flower arrangement. It has gained widespread international fame for its focus on harmony, color use, rhythm, and elegantly simple design. It is an art-centered greatly on expressing the seasons and is meant to act as a symbol to something greater than the flower itself.
This section does not cite any sources. (October 2011) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
Traditional Japanese clothing distinguishes Japan from all other countries around the world. The Japanese word kimono means "something one wears" and they are the traditional garments of Japan. Originally, the word kimono was used for all types of clothing, but eventually, it came to refer specifically to the full-length garment also known as the naga-gi, meaning "long-wear", that is still worn today on special occasions by women, men, and children. The earliest kimonos were heavily influenced by traditional Han Chinese clothing, known today as hanfu (漢服, kanfuku in Japanese), through Japanese embassies to China which resulted in extensive Chinese culture adoptions by Japan, as early as the 5th century AD. It was during the 8th century, however, that Chinese fashions came into style among the Japanese, and the overlapping collar became particularly women's fashion. Kimono in this meaning plus all other items of traditional Japanese clothing is known collectively as wafuku which means "Japanese clothes" as opposed to yofuku (Western-style clothing). Kimonos come in a variety of colors, styles, and sizes. Men mainly wear darker or more muted colors, while women tend to wear brighter colors and pastels, and, especially for younger women, often with complicated abstract or floral patterns.
The kimono of a woman who is married (tomesode) differs from the kimono of a woman who is not married (furisode). The tomesode sets itself apart because the patterns do not go above the waistline. The furisode can be recognized by its extremely long sleeves spanning anywhere from 39 to 42 inches, it is also the most formal kimono an unwed woman wears. The furisode advertises that a woman is not only of age but also single. The style of kimono also changes with the season, in spring kimonos are vibrantly colored with springtime flowers embroidered on them. In Autumn, kimono colors are not as bright, with Autumn patterns. Flannel kimonos are most commonly worn in winter; they are made of a heavier material and are worn mainly to stay warm. One of the more elegant kimonos is the uchikake, a long silk overgarment worn by the bride in a wedding ceremony. The uchikake is commonly embellished with birds or flowers using silver and gold threads. Kimonos do not come in specific sizes as most western dresses do. The sizes are only approximate, and a special technique is used to fit the dress appropriately.
The obi is a very important part of the kimono. Obi is a decorative sash that is worn by Japanese men and women, although it can be worn with many different traditional outfits, it is most commonly worn with the kimono. Most women wear a very large elaborate obi, while men typically don a more thin and conservative obi. Most Japanese men only wear the kimono at home or in a very laid back environment, however, it is acceptable for a man to wear the kimono when he is entertaining guests in his home. For a more formal event a Japanese man might wear the haori and hakama, a half coat and divided skirt. The hakama is tied at the waist, over the kimono and ends near the ankle. Hakama were initially intended for men only, but today it is acceptable for women to wear them as well. Hakama can be worn with types of kimono, excluding the summer version, yukata. The lighter and simpler casual-wear version of kimono often worn in the Japanese summer festival is called yukata. Formal kimonos are typically worn in several layers, with number of layers, visibility of layers, sleeve length, and choice of pattern dictated by social status, season, and the occasion for which the kimono is worn. Because of the mass availability, most Japanese people wear western style clothing in their everyday life, and kimonos are mostly worn for festivals, and special events. As a result, most young women in Japan are not able to put the kimono on themselves. Many older women offer classes to teach these young women how to do the traditional clothing.
Happi is another type of traditional clothing, but it is not famous worldwide like the kimono. A happy (or happy coat) is a straight sleeved coat that is typically imprinted with the family crest and was a common coat for firefighters to wear. Japan also has a very distinct footwear. Tabi, an ankle-high sock, is often worn with the kimono; Tabi is designed to be worn with geta, a type of thonged footwear. Geta are sandals mounted on wooden blocks held to the foot by a piece of fabric that slides between the toes. Geta are worn both by men and women with the kimono or yukata.
Japanese architecture has a long history as any other aspect of Japanese culture. Originally it was heavily influenced by Chinese architecture, it has developed many differences and aspects which are indigenous to Japan. Examples of traditional architecture are seen at temples, Shinto shrines, and castles in Kyoto and Nara. Some of these buildings are constructed with traditional gardens, which are influenced by Zen ideas. Some modern architects, such as Yoshio Taniguchi and Tadao Ando are known for their amalgamation of Japanese traditional and Western architectural influences.
Garden architecture is as important as building architecture and very much influenced by the same historical and religious background. A primary design principle of a garden is the creation of the landscape based on, or at least greatly influenced by, the three-dimensional monochrome ink (sumi) landscape painting, sumi-e or suibokuga. In Japan, the garden has the status of artwork.
Traditional Japanese sculptures mainly focused on Buddhist images, such as Tathagata, Bodhisattva, and Myō-ō. The oldest sculpture in Japan is a wooden statue of Amitābha at the Zenkō-ji temple. In the Nara period, Buddhist statues were made by the national government to boost its prestige. These examples are seen in present-day Nara and Kyoto, most notably a colossal bronze statue of the Buddha Vairocana in the Tōdai-ji temple.
Wood has traditionally been used as the chief material in Japan, along with traditional Japanese architecture. Statues are often lacquered, gilded, or brightly painted, although there are little traces on the surfaces. Bronze and other metals are not used. Other materials, such as stone and pottery, have had extremely important roles in the plebeian beliefs.
Hōryū-ji is widely known to be the oldest wooden architecture existing in the world.
This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (March 2012)
The music of Japan includes a wide array of performers in distinct styles both traditional and modern. The word for music in Japanese is 音楽 (ongaku), combining the kanji 音 "on" (sound) with the kanji 楽 "gaku" (enjoyment). Japan is the second largest music market in the world, behind the United States, and the largest in Asia, and most of the market is dominated by Japanese artists.
Local music often appears at karaoke venues, which is on lease from the record labels. Traditional Japanese music is quite different from Western Music and is based on the intervals of human breathing rather than mathematical timing. In 1873, a British traveler claimed that Japanese music, "exasperate(s) beyond all endurance the European breast."
The four traditional theatres from Japan are noh (or nō), kyōgen, kabuki, and bunraku. Noh had its origins in the union of the sarugaku, with music and dance made by Kan'ami and Zeami Motokiyo. Among the characteristic aspects of it are the masks, costumes, and the stylized gestures, sometimes accompanied by a fan that can represent other objects. The noh programs are presented in alternation with the ones of kyōgen, traditionally in number of five, but currently in groups of three.
The kyōgen, of a humorous character, had an older origin, in 8th-century entertainment brought from China, developing itself in sarugaku. In kyōgen, masks are rarely used and even if the plays can be associated with the ones of noh, currently many are not.
Kabuki appears in the beginning of the Edo period from the representations and dances of Izumo no Okuni in Kyoto. Due to prostitution of actresses of kabuki, the participation of women in the plays was forbidden by the government in 1629, and the feminine characters had passed to be represented only by men (onnagata). Recent attempts to reintroduce actresses in kabuki had not been well accepted. Another characteristic of kabuki is the use of makeup for the actors in historical plays (kumadori).
Japanese puppet theater bunraku developed in the same period, that kabuki in a competition and contribution relation involving actors and authors. The origin of bunraku, however is older, lies back in the Heian period. In 1914, appeared the Takarazuka Revue a company solely composed by women who introduced the revue in Japan.
Sports and leisureEdit
In the long feudal period governed by the samurai class, some methods that were used to train warriors were developed into well-ordered martial arts, in modern times referred to collectively as koryū. Examples include kenjutsu, kendo, kyūdō, sōjutsu, jujutsu, and sumo, all of which were established in the Edo period. After the rapid social change in the Meiji Restoration, some martial arts changed into modern sports, called gendai budō. Judo was developed by Kanō Jigorō, who studied some sects of jujutsu. These sports are still widely practiced in present-day Japan and other countries. Baseball, Association football, and other popular western sports were imported to Japan in the Meiji period. These sports are commonly practiced in schools, along with traditional martial arts. Baseball, soccer, football, and ping pong are the most popular sports in Japan. Association football gained prominence in Japan after the J League (Japan Professional Football League) was established in 1991. Japan also co-hosted the 2002 FIFA World Cup. In addition, there are many semi-professional organizations, which are sponsored by private companies: for example, volleyball, basketball, rugby union, table tennis, and so on.
Through a long culinary past, the Japanese have developed sophisticated and refined cuisine. In more recent years, Japanese food has become fashionable and popular in the United States, Europe, and many other areas. Dishes such as sushi, tempura, noodles, and teriyaki are some of the foods that are commonly known. The Japanese diet consists principally of rice; fresh, lean seafood; and pickled or boiled vegetables. The healthy Japanese diet is often believed to be related to the longevity of Japanese people.
Japanese popular culture not only reflects the attitudes and concerns of the present day but also provides a link to the past. Popular films, television programs, manga, music, anime and video games all developed from older artistic and literary traditions, and many of their themes and styles of presentation can be traced to traditional art forms. Contemporary forms of popular culture, much like the traditional forms, provide not only entertainment but also an escape for the contemporary Japanese from the problems of an industrial world.
When asked how they spent their leisure time, 80 percent of a sample of men and women surveyed by the government in 1986 said they averaged about two and a half hours per weekday watching television, listening to the radio, and reading newspapers or magazines. Some 16 percent spent an average of two and a quarter hours a day engaged in hobbies or amusements. Others spent leisure time participating in sports, socializing, and personal study. Teenagers and retired people reported more time spent on all of these activities than did other groups.
In the late 1980s, the family was the focus of leisure activities, such as excursions to parks or shopping districts. Although Japan is often thought of as a hard-working society with little time for leisure, the Japanese seek entertainment wherever they can. It is common to see Japanese commuters riding the train to work, enjoying their favorite manga, or listening through earphones to the latest in popular music. A wide variety of types of popular entertainment are available. There is a large selection of music, films, and the products of a huge manga and anime industry, among other forms of entertainment, from which to choose. Game centers, bowling alleys, and karaoke are popular hangout places for teens while older people may play shogi or go in specialized parlors. Together, the publishing, film/video, music/audio, and game industries in Japan make up the growing Japanese content industry.
There are 51 official cultural landscapes (文化的景観, bunkateki keikan) in Japan. These landscapes evolved with the way of life and geocultural features of a region, and which are indispensable for understanding the lifestyle of the Japanese people.
Three Views of JapanEdit
The Three Views of Japan (日本三景, Nihon Sankei) is the canonical list of Japan's three most celebrated scenic sights, attributed to 1643 and scholar Hayashi Gahō. These are traditionally the pine-clad islands of Matsushima in Miyagi Prefecture, the pine-clad sandbar of Amanohashidate in Kyoto Prefecture, and Itsukushima Shrine in Hiroshima Prefecture. In 1915, the New Three Views of Japan were selected with a national election by the Jitsugyo no Nihon Sha (株式会社実業之日本社). In 2003, the Three Major Night Views of Japan were selected by the New Three Major Night Views of Japan and the 100 Night Views of Japan Club (新日本三大夜景・夜景100選事務局).
Japan has a number of national symbols. The Japanese archipelago is located to the east of the Asian continent. Japan is regarded as the most eastern Asian country, because east of Japan is the vast Pacific Ocean. Minamitorishima is Japan's easternmost island. Thus Japan is the land where the sun rises before the Asian continent. The kanji 日本 that make up the name of Japan literally mean 'sun origin'. It is pronounced as Nihon or Nippon in Japanese. So it is often called by the epithet "Land of the Rising Sun". The Nisshōki (日章旗, the "sun-rise flag") is the national flag of Japan. It symbolizes the rising sun and corresponds with the name of Japan. The earliest accounts of the rising sun flag is in the 7th century CE. In 607, an official correspondence that began with "from the Emperor of the rising sun" was sent to Chinese Emperor Yang of Sui. Thus the central importance of the sun in Japanese culture is represented in the national flag and other cultural goods. Similarly, the Japan Self-Defense Forces have flags that symbolize the sun.
The sun also plays an important role in Japanese mythology and religion as the Emperor is said to be the direct descendant of the sun goddess Amaterasu. Amaterasu is the personification of Japan. She is seen as the goddess of the sun and the universe in Shinto religion. The Emperor is "the symbol of the State and of the unity of the people." Emperor Jimmu (神武天皇 Jinmu-tennō) is the national founder of Japan. The national animals are the Green pheasant, Koi fish and the Great purple emperor butterfly. The Imperial Seal of Japan is one of the national seals and a crest (mon) used by the Emperor of Japan and members of the Imperial Family. The Cherry blossom (Prunus serrulata) & Chrysanthemum morifolium are de facto national flowers of Japan.
Mount Fuji (Fujisan) is the national mountain of Japan. It is one of Japan's "Three Holy Mountains" (三霊山, Sanreizan) along with Mount Tate and Mount Haku. It is also a Special Place of Scenic Beauty and one of Japan's Historic Sites. The summit is considered a sacred place since ancient times. As a national symbol of the country, Fujisan has been depicted in various art and media such as painting, woodblock prints (such as the Thirty-six Views of Mount Fuji), poetry, music, theater, film, manga, anime and pottery.
- Cool Japan
- History of Japan
- National symbols of Japan
- Imperial House of Japan
- Tourism in Japan
- Japanese Language
- Etiquette in Japan
- Religion in Japan
- Japanese cuisine
- Japanese Aesthetics
- Japanese music
- Japanese Performing arts
- Science and technology in Japan
- Japanese martial arts
- Yamato damashii
Books on Japanese culture:
- Cwiertka, Katarzyna J. (2007). Modern Japanese Cuisine: Food, Power and National Identity. Reaktion Books. ISBN 978-1-86189-298-0. Review
- Japan This article incorporates public domain material from the Library of Congress Country Studies website http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/.
- Goldstein-Gidoni, Ofra (Fall 1999). "Kimono And The Construction of Gendered and Cultural Identities". Ethnology. 38 (4): 351–370. doi:10.2307/3773912. JSTOR 3773912.
- Martin, Richard (1995). "Our Kimono Mind: Reflections on 'Japanese Design: A Survey since 1950'". Journal of Design History. 8 (3): 215–223. doi:10.1093/jdh/8.3.215.
- Nakagawa, Keiichirō; Rosovsky, Henry (Spring–Summer 1963). "The Case of the Dying Kimono: The Influence of Changing Fashions on the Development of the Japanese Woolen Industry". The Business History Review. 37 (1/2): 59–80. doi:10.2307/3112093. JSTOR 3112093.
- Varley, Paul. Japanese Culture. 4th Edition. Honolulu. 2000.
- Nippon The Land And Its People. 2006.
- Haffner, John; Klett, Tomas; Lehmann, Jean-Pierre (2009). Japan's Open Future: An Agenda for Global Citizenship. Anthem Press. p. 17. ISBN 978-1843313113.
- Seiji Kobayashi. "Eastern Japanese Pottery During the Jomon-Yayoi Transition: A Study in Forager-Farmer Interaction". Kokugakuin Tochigi Junior College. Archived from the original on 23 September 2009.
- Kanzawa-Kiriyama, H.; Kryukov, K.; Jinam, T. A.; Hosomichi, K.; Saso, A.; Suwa, G.; Ueda, S.; Yoneda, M.; Tajima, A.; Shinoda, K. I.; Inoue, I.; Saitou, N. (1 June 2016). "A partial nuclear genome of the Jomons who lived 3000 years ago in Fukushima, Japan". Journal of Human Genetics. 62 (2): 213–221. doi:10.1038/jhg.2016.110. PMC 5285490. PMID 27581845.
- Deal, William E. (2005). Handbook to Life in Medieval and Early Modern Japan. Infobase Publishing. p. 242. ISBN 978-0-8160-7485-3.
Japanese has no genetic affiliation with Chinese, but neither does it have any clear affiliation with any other language.
- Explanation from the Japanese wiki page: 日本の文化
- "How Japan became a pop culture superpower". The Spectator. 31 January 2015.
- Tamaki, Taku. "Japan has turned its culture into a powerful political tool". The Conversation.
- Yookoso! An Invitation to Contemporary Japanese 1st edition McGraw-Hill, page 13 "Linguistic Note: The Origins of Hiragana and Katakana"
- Burlock, Ben (2017). "How did katakana and hiragana originate?". sci.lang.japan. Retrieved 26 July 2017.
- Ager, Simon (2017). "Japanese Hiragana". Omniglot. Retrieved 26 July 2017.
- Watt, Paul (October 2003). "Japanese Religions". FSI | SPICE. Retrieved 28 September 2017.
- Peter N. Dale, The Myth of Japanese Uniqueness (London: Routledge, 1990; ISBN 0-415-05534-2), passim.
- Bowie, Henry P. (1952). On the Laws of Japanese Painting. Dover Publications, Inc. pp. 4, 16–19.
- Dalby, Liza (2001). Kimono: Fashioning Culture. Seattle: University of Washington Press. ISBN 9780295981550. OCLC 46793052.
- Kuitert, Wybe (1988). Themes, Scenes, and Taste in the History of Japanese Garden Art. J.C.Gieben, Publisher, Amsterdam. ISBN 978-90-5063-021-4.
- Kenkyusha's New Japanese-English Dictionary, ISBN 4-7674-2015-6
- "America's Top Pop Imports". Forbes. 26 February 2008. Archived from the original on 3 March 2008. Retrieved 23 September 2010.
- "News World news Germany Lost in translation"
- Web, Japan. "Japan Fact Sheet" (PDF). Noh and Kyogen: The world's oldest living theater. Archived from the original (PDF) on 9 April 2008. Retrieved 1 March 2008.
- Web, Japan. "Japan Fact Sheet" (PDF). Kabuki: A vibrant and exciting traditional theater. Archived from the original (PDF) on 9 April 2008. Retrieved 1 March 2008.
- Web, Japan. "Japan Fact Sheet" (PDF). Bunraku: Puppet theater brings old Japan to life. Archived from the original (PDF) on 9 April 2008. Retrieved 1 March 2008.
- "Takarazuka History". Takarazuka Revue. Archived from the original on 25 February 2008. Retrieved 1 March 2008.
- "Cool Japan: Why Japanese remakes are so popular on American TV, and where we’re getting it wrong" Archived 15 September 2008 at the Wayback Machine. AsianWeek. Retrieved on 2008-09-16.
- "Digital Content Association Of Japan". Dcaj.org. 27 January 2012. Archived from the original on 6 January 2012. Retrieved 2 February 2012.
- "Our Treasure Cultural Landscapes to future generations" (PDF). Administration of Cultural Affairs in Japan ― Fiscal 2009. Agency for Cultural Affairs. 2009. Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 October 2010. Retrieved 3 January 2010.
- The Agency for Cultural Affairs (1 November 2008). 国指定文化財 データベース (in Japanese). Database of National Cultural Properties. Retrieved 16 April 2009.
- "Policy of Cultural Affairs in Japan" (PDF). Agency for Cultural Affairs. 2015. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 April 2016.
- "文化的景観" [Cultural Landscapes] (in Japanese). Agency for Cultural Affairs. 2015.
- "重要文化的景観選定地一覧" [Important Cultural Landscapes Sites] (in Japanese). Nara National Research Institute for Cultural Properties. 2015.
- "Amanohashidate – History". Amanohashidate kankokyokai. Archived from the original on 17 July 2011. Retrieved 14 May 2011.
- "Where does the name Japan come from?". Retrieved 29 January 2017.
- Piggott, Joan R. (1997). The emergence of Japanese kingship. Stanford University Press. pp. 143–144. ISBN 978-0-8047-2832-4.
- Dyer 1909, p. 24 harvnb error: no target: CITEREFDyer1909 (help)
- "Traditional Dishes of Japan". Japan National Tourism Organization. Retrieved 24 June 2014.
- 『カレーライス』に関するアンケート (in Japanese). ネットリサーチ ディムスドライブ. Retrieved 16 October 2008.
- McCurry, Justin (18 June 2010). "Ramen: Japan's super slurpy noodles". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 5 June 2011.
- RatesToGo: Best National Drinks Part I Archived 2009-11-02 at the Wayback Machine
-  Archived June 27, 2013, at the Wayback Machine
- "収蔵品のご紹介 | サンリツ服部美術館". www.sunritz-hattori-museum.or.jp.
- Momoyama, Japanese art in the age of grandeur. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art. 1975. ISBN 9780870991257.
- Kamei, Shunsuke (June 1981). "The Kiss and Japanese Culture after World War II". Comparative Literature Studies. 18 (2): 114–123. ISSN 0010-4132. JSTOR 40246247.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Culture of Japan.|
- Japanese-City.com Japanese Cultural Events by Japanese Organizations throughout America.
- The History of Japanese Calligraphy In English, at BeyondCalligraphy.com
- Japan Society – New York City North America's single major producer of high-quality content on Japan for an English-speaking audience.
- Agency for Cultural Affairs
- Traditional Culture – The Imperial Household Agency
- "Working with the Japanese," BBC
- Rare Materials Exhibition – Kyoto University Digital Library(貴重資料画像--京都大学電子図書館) Image files of rare materials related to culture of Japan
- Japanese Architecture and Art Net Users System
- Web Japan