Yayoi people

The Yayoi people (弥生, Yayoi jin) were an ancient ethnic group that migrated to the Japanese archipelago from China and Korea during the Yayoi period (300 BCE–300 CE). Radio-carbon evidence suggests the Yayoi period began between 1,000 and 800 BCE.[1][2][3] They interacted, intermarried, and warred with the remaining Jōmon people to form the modern Japanese people. Modern Japanese people have primarily Yayoi ancestry (about 90% on average, with their remaining ancestry deriving from the Jōmon).[4]

Yayoi people attires.JPG

OriginEdit

The terms Yayoi and Wajin can be used interchangeably, though "Wajin" (倭人) refers to the people of Wa and "Wajin" (和人) is another name for the modern Yamato people.[5]

There are several hypotheses about the origin of the Yayoi people:

  • According to Vovin Alexander, The Yayoi were present on large parts of the Korean Peninsula before they were displaced and assimilated by arriving proto-Koreans.[14][15] Similarly Whitman (2012) suggests that the Yayoi are not related to the proto-Koreans but that they were present on the Korean peninsula during the Mumun pottery period. According to him, Japonic arrived in the Korean peninsula around 1500 BCE and was brought to the Japanese archipelago by the Yayoi at around 950 BCE. The language family associated with both Mumun and Yayoi culture is Japonic. Koreanic arrived later from Manchuria to the Korean peninsula at around 300 BCE and coexist with the descendants of the Japonic Mumun cultivators (or assimilated them). Both had influence on each other and a later founder effect diminished the internal variety of both language families.[16]

GeneticsEdit

It is estimated that Yayoi people mainly belonged to Haplogroup O-M176 (O1b2) (today ~36%), Haplogroup O-M122 (O2, formerly O3) (today ~23%) and Haplogroup O-M119 (O1) (today ~4%), which are typical for East- and Southeast-Asians.[17][18] Mitsuru Sakitani suggests that haplogroup O1b2, which is common in today Koreans, Japanese and some Manchu, and O1 are one of the carriers of Yangtze civilization. As the Yangtze civilization declined several tribes crossed westward and northerly, to the Shandong peninsula, the Korean Peninsula and the Japanese archipelago.[19] One study calls haplogroup O1b1 as a major Austroasiatic paternal lineage and the haplogroup O1b2 (of Koreans and Japanese) as a "para-Austroasiatic" paternal lineage.[20]

The modern Yamato people are predominantly descendants of the Yayoi people and closely related to other modern East Asians, particularly Koreans.[21][22][23] It is estimated that the majority of Japanese people around Tokyo have about 12% Jōmon ancestry or less.[24] A genome research (Takashi et al. 2019) confirmed that modern Japanese (Yamato) descend mostly from the Yayoi people. Mitochondrial DNA analysis of Jōmon and modern Japanese samples show that there is a discontinuity between the mtDNAs of people from the Jōmon period and people from the Kofun and Heian periods. This finding implies that the genetic conversion of the Japanese people may have occurred during or before the Kofun era, at least at the Shomyoji site.[25]

Recent studies have revealed that Jomon people are considerably genetically different from any other population, including modern-day Japanese.

— Takahashi et al. 2019, (Adachi et al., 2011; Adachi and Nara, 2018)

Another genetic study (2019) estimated that modern Japanese (Yamato) share more than 90% of their genome with the Yayoi people and less than 10% with the Jomon.[26] A more recent study by Gakuhari et al. 2019 estimates that modern Japanese people have between 90,2% - 92% Yayoi ancestry (with the 8% - 9,8% from the Jōmon) and cluster closely with other East Asians but are clearly distinct from the Ainu people. A geneflow estimation by the same study however suggests only 3.3% Jōmon ancestry in modern Japanese.[27] A study by Kanazawa-Kiriyama et al. (2019) suggests 9–13% Jomon ancestry in the modern Japanese, and 27% in Ryukyuans, with the remainder in both being from the Yayoi.[28]

LanguageEdit

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Director (Research Services Division) (2019-07-20). "Professor Ann Kumar". Archived from the original on 2019-07-20. Retrieved 2019-07-20. Professor Ann Kumar, BA Hons (ANU), PhD (ANU). Visiting Fellow. School of Culture, History & Language. ANU College of Asia and the Pacific.
  2. ^ "SUWA Haruo (諏訪春雄)". 2018-01-18.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Silberman et al., 154–155.
  2. ^ Schirokauer et al., 133–143.
  3. ^ Shōda, Shinya (2007). "A Comment on the Yayoi Period Dating Controversy". Bulletin of the Society for East Asian Archaeology. 1. Archived from the original on 2019-08-01. Retrieved 2020-02-16.
  4. ^ "'Jomon woman' helps solve Japan's genetic mystery | NHK WORLD-JAPAN News". NHK WORLD. Archived from the original on 2020-04-26. Retrieved 2020-05-06.
  5. ^ David Blake Willis and Stephen Murphy-Shigematsu: Transcultural Japan: At the Borderlands of Race, Gender and Identity, Archived 2017-01-06 at the Wayback Machine, p. 272: "“Wajin,” which is written with Chinese characters that can also be read “Yamato no hito” (Yamato person)".
  6. ^ 崎谷満『DNA・考古・言語の学際研究が示す新・日本列島史』(勉誠出版 2009年)(in Japanese)
  7. ^ "Yayoi linked to Yangtze area". Archived from the original on 2017-02-22. Retrieved 2018-02-14.
  8. ^ ロシア極東新石器時代研究の新展開 Archived 2017-08-26 at the Wayback Machine (in Japanese)
  9. ^ 徳永勝士 (2003)「HLA と人類の移動」『Science of humanity Bensei 』(42), 4-9, 東京:勉誠出版 (in Japanese)
  10. ^ 岡正雄『異人その他 日本民族=文化の源流と日本国家の形成』 言叢社 1979 (in Japanese)
  11. ^ "Javanese influence on Japanese - Languages Of The World". Languages Of The World. 2011-05-09. Archived from the original on 2018-07-25. Retrieved 2018-07-25.
  12. ^ 鳥越憲三郎『原弥生人の渡来 』(角川書店,1982)、『倭族から日本人へ』(弘文堂 ,1985)、『古代朝鮮と倭族』(中公新書,1992)、『倭族トラジャ』(若林弘子との共著、大修館書店,1995)、『弥生文化の源流考』(若林弘子との共著、大修館書店,1998)、『古代中国と倭族』(中公新書,2000)、『中国正史倭人・倭国伝全釈』(中央公論新社,2004)
  13. ^ 諏訪春雄編『倭族と古代日本』(雄山閣出版、1993)また諏訪春雄通信100
  14. ^ Janhunen, Juha (2010). "Reconstructing the Language Map of Prehistorical Northeast Asia". Studia Orientalia (108): 281–304. ... there are strong indications that the neighbouring Baekje state (in the southwest) was predominantly Japonic-speaking until it was linguistically Koreanized.
  15. ^ Vovin, Alexander (2013). "From Koguryo to Tamna: Slowly riding to the South with speakers of Proto-Korean". Korean Linguistics. 15 (2): 222–240.
  16. ^ Whitman, John (2011-12-01). "Northeast Asian Linguistic Ecology and the Advent of Rice Agriculture in Korea and Japan". Rice. 4 (3): 149–158. doi:10.1007/s12284-011-9080-0. ISSN 1939-8433.
  17. ^ Nonaka, I.; Minaguchi, K.; Takezaki, N. (2007). "Y-chromosomal Binary Haplogroups in the Japanese Population and their Relationship to 16 Y-STR Polymorphisms". Annals of Human Genetics. 71 (4): 480–495. doi:10.1111/j.1469-1809.2006.00343.x. hdl:10130/491. ISSN 1469-1809. PMID 17274803. S2CID 1041367.
  18. ^ Kutanan, Wibhu; Chakraborty, Ranajit; Eisenberg, Arthur; Sun, Jie; Chantawannakul, Panuwan; Ghirotto, Silvia; Pittayaporn, Pittayawat; Srikummool, Metawee; Srithawong, Suparat (July 2015). "Genetic and linguistic correlation of the Kra–Dai-speaking groups in Thailand". Journal of Human Genetics. 60 (7): 371–380. doi:10.1038/jhg.2015.32. ISSN 1435-232X. PMID 25833471. S2CID 21509343.
  19. ^ 崎谷満『DNA・考古・言語の学際研究が示す新・日本列島史』(勉誠出版 2009年
  20. ^ Robbeets, Martine; Savelyev, Alexander (2017-12-21). Language Dispersal Beyond Farming. John Benjamins Publishing Company. ISBN 9789027264640.
  21. ^ Siska, Veronika; Jones, Eppie Ruth; Jeon, Sungwon; Bhak, Youngjune; Kim, Hak-Min; Cho, Yun Sung; Kim, Hyunho; Lee, Kyusang; Veselovskaya, Elizaveta; Balueva, Tatiana; Gallego-Llorente, Marcos; Hofreiter, Michael; Bradley, Daniel G.; Eriksson, Anders; Pinhasi, Ron; Bhak, Jong; Manica, Andrea (2017). "Genome-wide data from two early Neolithic East Asian individuals dating to 7700 years ago". Science Advances (published February 1, 2017). 3 (2): e1601877. Bibcode:2017SciA....3E1877S. doi:10.1126/sciadv.1601877. PMC 5287702. PMID 28164156. Archived (PDF) from the original on December 24, 2019.
  22. ^ Wang, Yuchen; Lu Dongsheng; Chung Yeun-Jun; Xu Shuhua (2018). "Genetic structure, divergence and admixture of Han Chinese, Japanese and Korean populations". Hereditas. 155: 19. doi:10.1186/s41065-018-0057-5. PMC 5889524. PMID 29636655. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2018-07-03.
  23. ^ Wang, Yuchen; Lu, Dongsheng; Chung, Yeun-Jun; Xu, Shuhua (2018). "Genetic structure, divergence and admixture of Han Chinese, Japanese and Korean populations". Hereditas (published April 6, 2018). 155: 19. doi:10.1186/s41065-018-0057-5. PMC 5889524. PMID 29636655.
  24. ^ "「縄文人」は独自進化したアジアの特異集団だった!: 深読み". 読売新聞オンライン (in Japanese). 2017-12-15. Archived from the original on 2019-04-17. Retrieved 2019-04-17.
  25. ^ David Blake Willis and Stephen Murphy-Shigematsu: Transcultural Japan: At the Borderlands of Race, Gender and Identity, Archived 2017-01-06 at the Wayback Machine, p. 272: "“Wajin,” which is written with Chinese characters that can also be read “Yamato no hito” (Yamato person)".
  26. ^ "'Jomon woman' helps solve Japan's genetic mystery | NHK WORLD-JAPAN News". NHK WORLD. Archived from the original on 2019-06-11. Retrieved 2019-07-09.
  27. ^ Gakuhari, Takashi; Nakagome, Shigeki; Rasmussen, Simon; Allentoft, Morten; Sato, Takehiro; Korneliussen, Thorfinn; Chuinneagáin, Blánaid; Matsumae, Hiromi; Koganebuchi, Kae; Schmidt, Ryan; Mizushima, Souichiro (March 15, 2019) [2019]. "Jomon genome sheds light on East Asian population history" (PDF). bioRxiv: 3–5. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  28. ^ Late Jomon male and female genome sequences from the Funadomari site in Hokkaido, Japan - Hideaki Kanzawa-Kiriyama, Department of Anthropology, National Museum of Nature and Science 2018/2019en