Hinduism in Nepal

Hinduism is the main and largest religion of Nepal.[1] In 2007, the country declared itself a secular country through democracy;[2][3][4] still, some special privileges were given to Indic religions like "The Constitution of Nepal has established a call for the protection of this age-old religion referring to Sanatan Dharma throughout the country".[5] According to the 2011 census, the Hindu population in Nepal is estimated to be around 21,551,492, which accounts for at least 81.34% of the country's population, the highest percentage of Hindus of any country in the world.[6] The national calendar of Nepal, Vikram Samvat, is a solar Hindu calendar essentially the same to that widespread in North India as a religious calendar, and is based on Hindu units of time.[7] Nepal remained the last Hindu country in the world until 2008, after the abolition of monarchy in the nation.[8]

Nepalese Hindus (नेपाली हिन्दू)
Om symbol.svg
Gaze of a priest.JPG
HinduDevoteeNepal.jpg
(top) A Nepali Brahmin, (below) a Newari Hindu devotee.
Total population
21,572,492 (2011)
(81.4% of the country's population)Increase
Founder
Rulers of Gopala Dynasty
Regions with significant populations
All over Nepal
Religions
Hinduism
Scriptures
Bhagavad Gita and Vedas
Languages
Sanskrit (Sacred)
Nepali, Nepal Bhasa, Bhojpuri, Maithili, Tharu language, and other signed languages.

The geographical distribution of religious groups revealed a preponderance of Hindus, accounting for at least 90% of the population in every region.[9] Among the ethnic groups in Nepal, those most influenced by Hinduism are the Bahun, Chhetri, Madheshi, Newari and Thakuri people.[10]

HistoryEdit

Historians and local traditions say that a Hindu sage named "Ne" established himself in the valley of Kathmandu during prehistoric times, and that the word "Nepal" means "the place protected" ("pala" in Sanskrit) by the sage Ne. He performed religious ceremonies at Teku, the confluence of the Bagmati and Bishnumati rivers. According to legends, he selected a pious cowherd to be the first of the many kings of the Gopala dynasty.[11] These rulers are said to have ruled Nepal for over 500 years. He selected Bhuktaman to be the first king in the line of the Gopal (Cowherd) dynasty.[12] The Gopala dynasty ruled for 621 years. Yakshya Gupta was the last king of this dynasty.[13]

According to Skanda Purana, a rishi called "Ne" or "Nemuni" used to live in the Himalayas.[14] In the Pashupati Purana, he is mentioned as a saint and a protector.[15] He is said to have practiced penance at the Bagmati and Kesavati rivers and to have taught his doctrines there too.[16]

In the mid-18th century, Prithvi Narayan Shah, a Gurkha king, set out to put together what would become present-day Nepal. He embarked on his mission by securing the neutrality of the bordering mountain kingdoms. After several bloody battles and sieges, notably the Battle of Kirtipur, he managed to conquer the Kathmandu Valley in 1769.[17]

Timeline of Hinduism in NepalEdit

Medieval EraEdit

The Gurkha control reached its height when the North Indian territories of the Kumaon and Garhwal Kingdoms in the west to Sikkim in the east came under Nepalese control. A dispute with Tibet over the control of mountain passes and inner Tingri valleys of Tibet forced the Qing Emperor of China to start the Sino-Nepali War, compelling the Nepali to retreat to their own borders in the north.[18] The rivalry between the Kingdom of Nepal and the East India Company over the control of states bordering Nepal eventually led to the Anglo-Nepali War (1815–18116). At first, the British underestimated the Nepali and were soundly defeated until committing more military resources than they had anticipated needing. Thus began the reputation of Gurkhas as fierce and ruthless soldiers. The war ended in the Sugauli Treaty, under which Nepal ceded recently captured lands.[19]

Factionalism inside the royal family led to a period of instability. In 1846, a plot was discovered revealing that the reigning queen had planned to overthrow Bir Narsingh Kunwar, a fast-rising military leader. This led to the Kot massacre; armed clashes between military personnel and administrators loyal to the queen led to the execution of several hundred princes and chieftains around the country. Bir Narsingh Kunwar emerged victorious and founded the Rana dynasty, and came to be known as Jung Bahadur Rana. The king was made a titular figure, and the post of Prime Minister was made powerful and hereditary. The Ranas were staunchly pro-British and assisted them during the Indian Rebellion of 1857 (and later in both World Wars). In 1860, some parts of the western Terai region were gifted to Nepal by the British as a friendly gesture because of their military support to sustain British control in India during the rebellion (known as Naya Muluk or "new country"). In 1923, the United Kingdom and Nepal formally signed an agreement of friendship that superseded the Sugauli Treaty of 1816.[20]

The Hindu practice of Sati, in which a widow sacrifices herself in the funeral pyre of her husband, was banned in 1919, and slavery was officially abolished in 1924.[21] Rana rule was marked by tyranny, debauchery, economic exploitation, and religious persecution.[22][23]

Early-modern EraEdit

In the time of early-modern era in Nepal, Hinduism was at the peak of its prominence. The Shah rulers focused on the Hinduization of Nepal; even then there were good relations of Nepalis Hindus with the Nepali Muslims and Buddhists.[24] The Nepal rulers passed laws making conversion from Hinduism to Islam and Christianity illegal and enacting them as criminal offenses.[25] These laws were enforced even after the revolution of 1951, and were reaffirmed in the legal code of 1963, which prohibited the preaching of Christianity or Islam and stipulated three years in jail for those who attempted to convert people, and six years for those who succeeded in converting others. For those who "attempt" to be converted, there was a fine of a hundred rupees, and for those who actually converted (that is, were baptized), there would be imprisonment of one year. The code stated that "when somebody becomes converted, the conversion is nullified, and he remains in the Hindu dharma [religion]".[26][27]

From the early 1960s, the state began to actively prosecute Christians in places where the baptism of Nepali citizens had occurred; this active governmental persecution continued up to 1990. Following baptisms in Nepalgunj and Tansen between 1958 and 1960, pastors David Mukhia and Prem Pradhan, along with six baptized believers, were prosecuted by the authorities for proselytism and conversion.[28] The pastors were sentenced to six years imprisonment; the male converts were sentenced to one year imprisonment and the female converts to six months. Prosecutions such as this continued for the whole of the Panchayat period: when an amnesty was proclaimed in 1990, there were 30 individuals in Nepal imprisoned for crimes of proselytism or conversion, and 200 others who were subject to legal action for the same offenses.[29]

Modern EraEdit

After the overthrow of the Rana regime in 1951, King Tribhuvan opened Nepal's borders and appealed to the outside world to assist in Nepal's development.[30] Then, he granted the freedom of religion to Nepalese, especially to Nepali Muslims, and the first church was established in Nepal.[31] Though giving release to other religious groups, the society of Nepal followed strict and rigid Hindu laws for all the citizens, with Hinduism being the state religion.

Hinduization by rulersEdit

According to various historical sources, even though the presence of varna and caste had been known as an element in the social structure of the Kathmandu Valley since the Licchavi period (c., 3rd century CE), the majority of the residents of the Nepal Valley were for the first time codified into a written code only in the 14th century in the Nepalarastrasastra by the Maithil–origin king Jayasthithi Malla (1354–1395 A.D.).[32] Jayasthithi Malla, with the aid of five Kānyakubja and Maithil Brahmins whom he invited from the Indian plains, divided the population of the valley into four major classes (varna)—Brahmin, Kshatriya, Vaishya, Shudra—derived from the ancient Hindu text Manusmriti and based on individual's occupational roles.[33] The four classes varna encompassed a total of 64 castes jat within it, with the Shudras being further divided into 36 sub-castes.[34]

After the Gurkhali conquest of Kathmandu Valley, King Prithvi Narayan Shah expelled the Christian Capuchin missionaries from Patan and revisioned Nepal as Asal Hindustan (Real Land of Hindus).[35] The Tagadharis, thread wearing Hindus of higher categorization, enjoyed the privileged status in the Nepalese capital and more access to the central power after the Gurkhali King Prithvi Narayan's conquest of Kathmandu Valley.[36][37] Since then Hinduization became the significant policy of the Kingdom of Nepal.[38]

The Nepali civil code Muluki Ain was commissioned by Jung Bahadur Rana after his European tour and enacted in 1854. It was rooted in traditional Hindu Law and codified social practices for several centuries in Nepal.[39] The law also comprised Prāyaścitta (avoidance and removal of sin) and Ācāra (the customary law of different castes and communities). It was an attempt to include the entire Hindu as well as non-Hindu population of Nepal of that time into a single hierarchic civic code from the perspective of the Khas rulers.[40][41]

The Hinduization of Nepal was mainly predominant in Kathmandu and the adjoining regions near the Valley.[42] Nepali society has been known for its interfaith religious harmony and tolerance, but the Hinduization and Saffronisation of Nepal by the Shah dynasty, especially by Prithvi Narayan Shah, were seen as the persecution of other religious communities. After that time, until the 1940s, propagation of any other faith than Hinduism was prohibited.[43] The Hindu community was given special rights and even more rights than the other religious community, though freedom of religion was present in the Kingdom of Nepal.

Then, there was the era of Rana dynasty, which was composed mainly of Kshatriya Hindus. Though in the regime of Rana dynasty, Nepal did not witness much Hinduization, but there were still strict Hindus law.[44] Rana rulers focused on the saffronisation of tribal Hindus in the Kingdom and focused mainly on the warrior class Gurkhas.[45] There were many temples and shrines built during the Rana dynasty and imposed the Vedic culture on the Nepalis.[46]

Hindu symbolism of NepalEdit

The pennant is an important Hindu flag that flutters atop Hindu temples.[47]

Popular tradition holds that Lord Vishnu had organized the Nepali people and given them their flag, with the sun and moon as emblems on it.[48] In a Hindu Purana, it is written that it was Lord Shiva who handed the flag to Lord Vishnu, and then Lord Vishnu to Lord Indra, for the purpose for battling demons.[49]

List of festivals in NepalEdit

Impact of Hinduism in Modern NepalEdit

Hindu and Buddhist traditions in Nepal go back more than two millennia.[50] In Lumbini, Buddha was born, and Pashupatinath temple in Kathmandu is an old and famous Shiva temple of Hindus. Nepal has several other temples and Buddhist monasteries, as well as places of worship for other religious groups.[51] Traditionally, Nepalese philosophical thoughts are ingrained with the Hindu and Buddhist philosophical ethos and traditions, which include elements of Kashmir Shaivism, Nyingma School of Tibetan Buddhism, works of Karmacharyas of Bhaktapur, and tantric traditions. Tantric traditions are deep rooted in Nepal, including the practice of animal sacrifices. Five types of animals, always male, are considered acceptable for sacrifice: water buffalo, goats, sheep, chickens, and ducks. Cows are very sacred animals and are never considered acceptable for sacrifice.[52][53][54][55] Nepal has been the home of many ancient sites of the Hinduism and is the hub for the tourism for many Hindu pilgrimages.[56][57]

Hindu templesEdit

 
Night view of Pashupatinath Temple

Before 2007, when Nepal was a Hindu country, the Pashupatinath Temple was considered as the "Temple of the Nepal".[58] The Pashupatinath Temple is considered as the most sacred temple for the Hindus of Nepal.[59]

There are many Hindu temple located in Nepal. The notable of them are listed below:

Relations with other communitiesEdit

Hinduism and BuddhismEdit

There has traditionally been a great deal of intermingling of Hindu and Buddhist beliefs.[60] Many people regarded as Hindus in the 1981 census could also in some senses be called Buddhists. Hindus long have worshipped at Buddhist temples and Buddhists at Hindu temples.[61] The reason for this is that both Hinduism and Buddhism have common roots, and over most of their history have not been seen as separate communions, but rather rival tendencies within a shared religious tradition.[62][63] Because of such dual faith practices (or mutual respect), the differences between Hindus and Buddhists have been very subtle and academic in nature; Hindus and Buddhists have never engaged in any religious conflicts for past millennia.[64][65] There are many temples where both Hindus and Buddhists can enter and worship.[66][67]

Hinduism and IslamEdit

Though historically, there have been no major conflict between the Hindus and Muslims in the Nepal,[68] though in the 20th century there have been some controversies between the two communities due to the religious conversions and strict laws against the same.[69] There have been claims of increases in Islamophobia in Nepal by local Hindus and Buddhists as a result of the rise of Hindutva in India and the prejudice against Muslims by Hindus.[70][71] However, this is reported to have had no effect in the community level, reflected by demands of Muslims to convert Nepal into a Hindu State.[72] This is because they feel their religion is not threatened by the other and that they have shared in a spirit of brotherhood for decades. Both see the Expansion of Christianity as a common problem.[68][73]

As a result, during the protests for Nepal re-declaration as a Hindu state, many Muslims supported the movement for Nepal as a हिंदू राष्ट्र (transl. Hindu nation).[73][74]

Hinduism and ChristianityEdit

In Nepal, the relations between the Hindus and Christians have many often been a subject of controversy.[75] The expansion of Christianity is a controversial subject in Nepal, and Nepali Christians have been subject to sporadic violence and widespread social exclusion by the local Hindus and Muslims.[76][77] It is frequently claimed in Nepali media and political discourse that missionaries offer the poor material incentives to convert with necessary proof but these proofs are often left with no attention.[78] There has been number of increase of conflicts between the Hindus and Christians of Nepal, due to the conversion of the poor and uneducated Hindus by the Christian Pastors and Missionaries.[79][78] There have often been conflicts between the Hindus with Christians in Nepal, among the land and other cultural disputes.[80] The Catholic Church of Nepal is the one of the fastest growing churches in the world, due to which the population and demographics of the Hindus of Nepal is decreasing leading to the serious tensions between the two communities.[81] There have been several incident reporting the conflicts between the two communities. The rise of Hindu nationalism in Nepal is seen as a threat on non-Sanatani religions in Nepal. The only saying of people here is if western country can protect Christianity, Nepalese are also free to protect Sanatani religions. The persecution mainly occurs as attacks on tribal people who converted to Christianity by other tribal people, destruction of churches and a ban on proselytization.[82] Specially, the conversion flourishes after an earthquake, flood and landslides when people are strivening. Pastures and missionories are often seen to take profit in these condition.[83][78] Nepalese Hindu can certainly not accept missonories taking profit of onces economic condition and caste to change Religion. A bill passed in 2017 on the same.[84][48]

DemographicsEdit

Historic populationEdit

Percentage wise and historic changeEdit

Year Percent Increase
1952/54 88.87% -
1961 87.69% -1.18%
1971 89.39% +1.70%
1981 89.50% +0.11%
1991 86.51% -2.99%
2001 80.62% -5.89%
2011 81.34% +0.72%

Growth rateEdit

Historical Growth of the Hindu Population in Nepal
YearPop.±%
1952 7,318,392—    
1961 8,254,403+12.8%
1971 10,330,009+25.1%
1981 13,445,787+30.2%
1991 15,996,653+19.0%
2001 18,330,121+14.6%
2011 21,551,492+17.6%
Source: 1952–2011[85]

In 1952, the Hindu population of Nepal was 7,318,392 with the percentage of 88.87%.[86] In recent years, the percentage of Hindus has decreased by nearly 7% from 88.87% in 1952 to 81.34%, as per 2011 census of Nepal.[85] The Hindu population has experienced continuous decline in the population, which is mainly due to the low-fertility rate among the Nepali Hindus,[87] which is also accompanied by diaspora of Nepalese to the United Kingdom, Hong Kong, India and Oman.[88][89][90]

Hindu population by ethnic groupEdit

The figures are based on the 2011 Nepal census.[86] NEG denotes newly listed ethnic group, for which 2001 Nepal census figures are not available.

Caste Hindu change

(2001-2011)

Race Hindus 2001 Hindus 2011 Hindus 2021
% Pop. % Pop.
Chhetri/Kshetri −0.23% Khas 99.48% 99.25% 4,398,053
Brahmin (Hill)/Bahun −0.12% Khas 99.68% 99.56% 3,226,903
Magar +4.36% Sino/Tibetan 74.60% 78.96% 1,887,733
Tharu −3.67% Adivasi 97.63% 93.96% 1,737,470
Tamang +1.19% Sino/Tibetan 7.69% 8.88% 1,539,830
Newar +3.25% Sino/Tibetan and Indic Aryan 84.13% 87.38% 1,321,933
Kami −0.34% Khas 96.69% 96.35% 1,258,554
Yadav −0.09% Terai 99.78% 99.69% 1,054,458
Rai +2.53% Sino/Tibetan 25.00% 27.53% 620,004
Gurung +3.43% Sino/Tibetan 28.75% 32.18% 522,641
Damai/Dholi −1.22% Khas 97.81% 96.59% 472,862
Limbu +3.02% Sino/Tibetan 11.32% 14.34% 387,300
Thakuri −0.09% Khas 99.40% 99.31% 425,623
Sarki −2.44% Khas 97.90% 95.46% 374,816
Teli +0.39% Terai 99.19% 99.58% 369,688
Chamar +0.70% Khas 98.85% 99.55% 335,893
Koiri −0.06% Terai 99.77% 99.71% 306,393
Kurmi 0.00% Terai 99.84% 99.84% 231,129
Sanyasi −0.16% Khas 99.21% 99.05% 227,822
Dhanuk −0.15% Terai 99.75% 99.60% 219,808
Musahar +0.58% Khas 98.52% 99.10% 234,490
Dusadh +0.20% Khas 99.47% 99.67% 208,910
Sherpa −6.26% Sino/Tibetan 6.26% 0.00% 112,946
Sonar +1.29% Terai 98.20% 99.49% 64,335
Kewat +0.17% Terai 99.58% 99.75% 153,772
Brahman(Terai) −0.05% Terai 99.58% 99.53% 134,106
Kathbaniyan +0.36% Terai 99.32% 99.68% 138,637
Gharti/Bhujel +1.10% Sino/Tibetan 96.50% 97.60% 118,650
Mallaha +0.63% Terai 99.13% 99.76% 173,261
Kalwar +0.08% Terai 99.69% 99.77% 128,232
Kumal −0.17% Sino/Tibetan 98.42% 98.25% 121,196
Hajam/Thakur +0.07% Terai/Low 99.59% 99.66% 117,758
Kanu −0.16% Terai 99.89% 99.73% 125,184
Rajbansi +13.75% Adivasi 85.15% 98.90% 115,242
Sunuwar +12.79% Sino/Tibetan 79.50% 92.29% 55,712
Sudhi −0.18% Terai 99.67% 99.49% 93,115
Lohar −0.24% Terai 99.78% 99.54% 101,421
Tatma −0.29% Khas 99.79% 99.50% 104,865
Khatwe +0.15% Khas 99.45% 99.60% 100,921
Dhobi +0.27% Khas 99.45% 99.72% 109,079
Majhi +0.31% Sino/Tibetan 81.67% 81.98% 83,727
Nuniya +0.48% Terai 99.34% 99.82% 70,540
Kumhar +0.39% Terai 99.19% 99.58% 62,399
Danuwar −15.60% Sino/Tibetan 99.26% 83.66% 84,115
Chepang −5.73% Sino/Tibetan 70.23% 64.50% 68,399
Haluwai +0.25% Terai 99.38% 99.63% 83,869
Rajput +0.29% Terai 99.32% 99.61% 41,972
Kayastha +0.74% Terai 98.88% 99.62% 44,304
Badhaee +0.07% Terai 99.52% 99.59% 28,932
Marwadi −1.53% Other 94.88% 93.35% 51,443
Santhal −6.07% Adivasi 83.06% 76.99% 51,735
Jhangad −11.29% Adivasi 92.79% 81.50% 37,424
Bantar/Sardar +1.31% Khas 97.85% 99.16% 55,104
Baraee −0.10% Terai 99.90% 99.80% 80,597
Kahar −0.39% Terai 99.88% 99.49% 53,159
Gangai −11.13% Adivasi 98.44% 87.31% 36,988
Lodh −1.39% Terai 99.82% 98.43% 32,837
Rajbhar +0.25% Terai 99.41% 99.66% 9,542
Thami −11.81% Sino/Tibetan 55.74% 43.93% 28,671
Dhimal −1.30% Adivasi 57.41% 56.11% 26,298
Bhote −37.90% Sino/Tibetan 37.90% 0.00% 13,397
Bin −0.10% Terai/Low 99.88% 99.78% 75,195
Gaderi −0.03% Terai 99.70% 99.67% 26,375
Nurang −98.54% Sino/Tibetan 98.54% 0.00% 278
Yakkha −2.67% Sino/Tibetan 14.17% 11.50% 24,336
Darai −2.95% Sino/Tibetan 97.89% 94.94% 16,789
Tajpuriya +13.05% Adivasi 64.15% 77.20% 19,213
Thakali −3.21% Sino/Tibetan 33.83% 30.62% 13,215
Chidimar −0.17% Adivasi 99.29% 99.12% 1,254
Pahari +12.28% Sino/Tibetan 78.90% 91.18% 13,615
Mali −0.11% Terai 99.78% 99.67% 14,995
Bangali +2.05% Other 97.02% 99.07% 26,582
Chhantyal +64.25% Sino/Tibetan 30.78% 95.03% 11,810
Dom −0.05% Khas 99.24% 99.19% 13,268
Kamar +1.89% Terai 98.00% 99.89% 1,787
Bote −10.53% Sino/Tibetan 98.57% 88.04% 10,397
Brahmu +7.55% Sino/Tibetan 72.04% 79.59% 8,140
Gaine −2.72% Khas 97.01% 94.29% 6,791
Jirel +6.82% Sino/Tibetan 10.55% 17.37% 5,774
Dura +80.43% Sino/Tibetan 18.94% 99.37% 5,394
Badi −2.88% Khas 98.83% 95.95% 38,603
Meche −4.69% Adivasi 80.28% 75.59% 4,867
Lepcha +1.93% Sino/Tibetan 7.62% 9.55% 3,445
Halkhor −0.01% Khas 99.34% 99.33% 4,003
Punjabi +10.36% Other 80.68% 91.04% 7,176
Kisan −0.85% Adivasi 95.62% 94.77% 1,739
Raji +9.69% Sino/Tibetan 88.33% 98.02% 4,235
Byangsi −98.05% Sino/Tibetan 98.05% 0.00% 3,895
Hayu −22.67% Sino/Tibetan 70.29% 47.62% 2,925
Koche −3.14% Adivasi 97.76% 94.62% 1,635
Dhunia +6.38% Terai 93.10% 99.48% 14,846
Walung −82.40% Sino/Tibetan 82.40% 0.00% 1,249
Munda +18.12% Adivasi 78.94% 97.06% 2,350
Raute +13.00% Sino/Tibetan 83.28% 96.28% 618
Yehlmo −1.55% Sino/Tibetan 1.55% 0.00% 10,752
Patharkatta −5.95% Adivasi 99.82% 93.87% 3,182
Kusunda −14.78% Sino/Tibetan 97.56% 82.78% 273
Lhomi NEG Sino/Tibetan NEG 0.00% 1,614
Kalar NEG Khas NEG 99.26% 1,077
Natuwa NEG Dalit NEG 99.74% 3,062
Dhandi NEG Khas NEG 100.00% 1,982
Dhankar NEG Khas NEG 99.59% 2,681
Kulung NEG Sino/Tibetan NEG 2.27% 28,613
Ghale NEG Sino/Tibetan NEG 35.96% 22,881
Khawas NEG Sino/Tibetan NEG 87.61% 18,513
Rajdhob NEG Terai NEG 99.78% 13,422
Kori NEG Khas NEG 99.98% 12,276
Nachhiring NEG Sino/Tibetan NEG 3.17% 7,154
Yamphu NEG Sino/Tibetan NEG 7.05% 6,933
Chamling NEG Sino/Tibetan NEG 28.70% 6,668
Aathpariya NEG Sino/Tibetan NEG 5.86% 5,977
Sarbaria NEG Khas NEG 99.55% 4,906
Bantaba NEG Sino/Tibetan NEG 42.66% 4,604
Dolpo NEG Sino/Tibetan NEG 0.00% 4,107
Amat NEG Terai NEG 99.11% 3,830
Thulung NEG Sino/Tibetan NEG 17.45% 3,535
Mewahang NEG Sino/Tibetan NEG 10.23% 3,100
Bahing NEG Sino/Tibetan NEG 14.73% 3,096
Lhopa NEG Sino/Tibetan NEG 0.27% 2,624
Dev NEG Terai NEG 99.44% 2,147
Samgpang NEG Sino/Tibetan NEG 25.34% 1,681
Khaling NEG Sino/Tibetan NEG 20.88% 1,571
Topkegola NEG Sino/Tibetan NEG 0.00% 1,523
Loharung NEG Sino/Tibetan NEG 10.15% 1,153
Khas Oth +0.02% Khas 97.84% 97.86% 155,354
Janajati Oth NEG Sino/Tibetan NEG 70.36% 1,228
Terai Oth +8.47% Terai 90.44% 98.91% 103,811
Undefined NEG Other NEG 70.32% 15,277
Foreigner NEG Other NEG 67.22% 6,651
Total +0.72% All 80.62% 81.34% 26,494,504

As seen from the 2001 and 2011 Census data, the percentage of Hindus has gone up by 0.72%, from 80.62% to 81.34%. However, the overall trend remains largely negative. All the major racial group except the Sino/Tibetans showed a decline in the percentage of Hindus, which was especially sharp among certain Adivasi groups such as Tharu. Among the Sino/Tibetans, the percentage of Hindus went up by 2.37%, from 49.74% to 52.11%.

Hindu population by regionsEdit

The figures are based on 2011 Nepal census.

Province wise populationEdit

S. No Province Total pop Hindu pop Hindu %
1. Province No. 1 4,534,943 3,021,632   66.63%
2. Madhesh Province 5,404,145 4,580,012 84.75%
3. Bagmati Province 5,529,452 3,969,040 71.78%
4. Gandaki Province 2,403,757 1,992,474 82.89%
5. Lumbini Province 4,499,272 3,998,053 88.86%
6. Karnali Province 1,570,418 1,497,236 95.34%
7. Sudurpashchim Province 2,552,517 2,481,812 97.23%
Total 26,494,504 21,551,492 81.34%

District wise populationEdit

District Hindus %
2011[91] 2021
Baitadi 99.93%
Kalikot 99.8
Bajhang 99.74%
Achham 99.43%
Doti 99.04%
Jajarkot 98.96%
Dadeldhura 98.88%
Darchula 98.88%
Bajura 98.68%
Jumla 97.89%
Salyan 97.71%
Dailekh 97.40%
Arghakhanchi 97.03%
Gulmi 96.78%
Pyuthan 96.61%
Rukum 96.51%
Dang 96.46%
Kanchanpur 95.09%
Kailali 94.91%
Bardiya 94.17%
Surkhet 91.86%
Mugu 91.64%
Palpa 90.52%
Syangja 90.21%
Siraha 90.19%
Parbat 89.48%
Dhanusa 89.35%
Baglung 89.27%
Nawalparasi 88.18%
Bhaktapur 87.85%
Myagdi 87.16%
Tanahu 86.51%
Rupandehi 86.24%
Saptari 85.73%
Sarlahi 85.56%
Rolpa 85.17%
Mahottari 84.24%
Parsa 83.10%
Kaski 82.33%
Bara 81.73%
Humla 81.62%
Chitwan 81.40%
Kapilbastu 80.62%
Morang 80.27%
Kathmandu 80.01%
Jhapa 79.88%
Banke 78.42%
Rautahat 77.77%
Gorkha 75.15%
Lalitpur 73.53%
Sunsari 73.28%
Udayapur 72.57%
Dhading 72.42%
Ramechhap 71.93%
Okhaldhunga 70.76%
Dolpa 70.15%
Dolakha 67.80%
Sindhuli 64.47%
Lamjung 63.98%
Kavrepalanchok 62.57%
Sindhupalchok 58.98%
Khotang 58.78%
Nuwakot 57.77%
Bhojpur 53.33%
Terhathum 52.17%
Dhankuta 49.17%
Makwanpur 48.26%
Ilam 44.49%
Sankhuwasabha 42.73%
Solukhumbu 40.21%
Manang 39.19%
Mustang 37.47%
Taplejung 35.90%
Panchthar 34.31%
Rasuwa 25.38%

Laws for religious affairsEdit

Currently, Nepal is a secular country, as declared by the Constitution of Nepal 2072 (Part 1, Article 4), where secularism 'means religious, cultural freedom, along with the protection of religion, culture handed down from time immemorial (सनातन)'.[92][93] Nepal remained the last Hindu nation until 2008, and still Nepal has a Hindu majority population. It has the highest Hindu population in the world, after India.[94] By percentage, Nepal has the highest Hindu population in the world.[95][96] Although many government policies throughout history have disregarded or marginalized minority religions, Nepalese societies generally enjoy religious tolerance and harmony among all religions, with only isolated incidents of religiously motivated violence.[72] Nepal's constitution does not give anyone the right to convert any person to another religion. Nepal also passed a more stringent anti-conversion law on 2017.[84]

ReferencesEdit

CitationsEdit

  1. ^ Meneses, Eloise (2019-07-23). "Religiously Engaged Ethnography: Reflections of a Christian Anthropologist Studying Hindus in India and Nepal". Ethnos. 86 (3): 477–491. doi:10.1080/00141844.2019.1641126. ISSN 0014-1844. S2CID 199858627.
  2. ^ "Nepal Adopts New Constitution, Becomes a Secular State: 5 Facts". NDTV.com. Retrieved 2021-05-11.
  3. ^ "Nepal to stay secular, proposal for a Hindu nation rejected - Times of India". The Times of India. PTI. Sep 14, 2015. Retrieved 2021-05-11.
  4. ^ Petrova, Svetlana (2 January 2021). "Nepal Hindu Rashtra: Time to Wrap Up Communism?". Retrieved 2021-02-11.
  5. ^ Diwakar (2015-09-07). "EDITORIAL: Decks cleared". The Himalayan Times. Retrieved 2021-05-11.
  6. ^ Timilsina, Rajendra Raj (2015-12-07). "Sandhyopaasan:The Hindu Ritual as a Foundation of Vedic Education". Dhaulagiri Journal of Sociology and Anthropology. 9: 53–88. doi:10.3126/dsaj.v9i0.14022. ISSN 1994-2672.
  7. ^ Shanmuganathan, Thilagavathi (2014-09-01). "A pragmatic analysis of Lord Shiva's dance". International Journal of the Sociology of Language. 2014 (229): 95–115. doi:10.1515/ijsl-2014-0019. ISSN 1613-3668. S2CID 170652980.
  8. ^ "Nepal's Royal Coup: Making a Bad Situation Worse". Crisis Group. 2005-02-09. Retrieved 2021-02-18.
  9. ^ Books 2019, p. 87.
  10. ^ "Nepal – RELIGION". countrystudies.us. Retrieved 2021-02-11.
  11. ^ W.B., P. 34 Land of the Gurkhas
  12. ^ "Swagger UI". cqnotify.info.com.np. Archived from the original on May 24, 2008.
  13. ^ Maharjan 2002
  14. ^ "Alone In Kathmandu". Archived from the original on 2009-08-22. Retrieved 2008-07-04.
  15. ^ Prasad, P. 4 The life and times of Maharaja Juddha Shumsher Jung Bahadur Rana of Nepal
  16. ^ Sharma 2019, pp. 67–75; Grieve 2006, pp. 783–791; Levy 1990, pp. 190–191.
  17. ^ Giuseppe, Father (1799). Account of the Kingdom of Nepal. Asiatick Researches. London: Vernor and Hood. p. 308. Archived from the original on 16 October 2015. Retrieved 2 July 2015.
  18. ^ Landon 1928, pp. 68–69.
  19. ^ Books 2019, pp. 89–90.
  20. ^ savada, andrea matles; harris, george lawrence. Nepal and Bhutan : country studies. Archived from the original on 30 June 2016. Retrieved 26 June 2016.
  21. ^ Hutt 2004, p. 22.
  22. ^ Dietrich, Angela (1996). "Buddhist Monks and Rana Rulers: A History of Persecution". Buddhist Himalaya: A Journal of Nagarjuna Institute of Exact Methods. Archived from the original on 1 October 2013. Retrieved 17 September 2013.
  23. ^ Lal, C.K. (16 February 2001). "The Rana resonance". Nepali Times. Archived from the original on 28 September 2013. Retrieved 17 September 2013.
  24. ^ Hutt, Michael (2005). "King Gyanendra's Coup and its Implications for Nepal's Future". The Brown Journal of World Affairs. 12 (1): 111–123. ISSN 1080-0786. JSTOR 24590670 – via JSTOR.
  25. ^ "Lagan Rai - Copy of SIRF Final Report.pdf". Google Docs. Retrieved 2021-02-18.
  26. ^ Regmi Research Series. Regmi Research. 1987. pp. 18–19.
  27. ^ Sharma, Bal Krishna (2013-01-09). From This World to the Next: Christian Identity and Funerary Rites in Nepal. Wipf & Stock Publishers. p. 82. ISBN 978-1-62032-897-2.
  28. ^ Gellner, Pfaff-Czarnecka & Whelpton 2012, pp. 120–126.
  29. ^ The National Review. W.H. Allen. 1884. pp. 609–610.
  30. ^ Jain 2016, p. 956.
  31. ^ Grieve 2006, p. 89.
  32. ^ Levy 1990, p. 76.
  33. ^ Fisher 1978, p. 487.
  34. ^ Levine, Nancy E. (1987b). "Caste, State, and Ethnic Boundaries in Nepal". The Journal of Asian Studies. 46 (1): 71–88. doi:10.2307/2056667. ISSN 1752-0401. JSTOR 2056667. S2CID 161519560.
  35. ^ Birkenholtz 2018, pp. 67–71; Sharma 2019, pp. 145–147.
  36. ^ Dharam Vir 1988, p. 65.
  37. ^ Borgström 1980, p. 11.
  38. ^ Contributions to Nepalese studies. Institute of Nepal and Asian Studies, Tribhuvan University. 1998. pp. 123.
  39. ^ Stiller, L. F. (1993). Nepal: Growth of a Nation. Human Resources Development Research Center, Kathmandu.
  40. ^ Hofer, Andras (1979). The Caste Hierarchy and the State of Nepal: A Study of the Muluki Ain of 1854. Universitatsverlag Wagner.
  41. ^ Guneratne, Arjun (2002). Many Tongues, One People: The Making of Tharu Identity in Nepal. Cornell University Press. ISBN 9780801487286.
  42. ^ Gellner, Pfaff-Czarnecka & Whelpton 2012, p. 118.
  43. ^ Sharma 2019, pp. --; Tree 2014, pp. 90–93.
  44. ^ Michaels 2004, p. Ch-Nepal.
  45. ^ Michaels 2004, p. Ch-Nepal (34).
  46. ^ Schlemmer, Grégoire (2018-07-23). "Enshrining Space: Shrines, Public Space and Hinduization among the Kulung of Nepal". South Asia Multidisciplinary Academic Journal (18). doi:10.4000/samaj.4603. ISSN 1960-6060.
  47. ^ "The World Factbook — Central Intelligence Agency". www.cia.gov. Archived from the original on 1 July 2017. Retrieved 24 July 2018.
  48. ^ a b The Nepalese Perspective. Gorkhapatra Corporation. 1972.
  49. ^ Sāyami, Dhūsvāṃ (1972). The Lotus & the Flame: An Account on Nepalese Culture. Department of Information, Ministry of Communication, H.M.G., Nepal. p. 10.
  50. ^ Barua 2015, p. 19.
  51. ^ Power, pp. 89–111; Dharam Vir 1988, pp. 167–169; Lecomte-Tilouine 2011, pp. 223–240.
  52. ^ "Gadhimai: Nepal's animal sacrifice festival goes ahead despite 'ban'". BBC News. 2019-12-03. Retrieved 2021-02-18.
  53. ^ Sharma, Bhadra (2019-12-06). "Nepal's Animal-Sacrifice Festival Slays On. But Activists Are Having an Effect. (Published 2019)". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2021-02-18.
  54. ^ "Animal Slaughter at Gadhimai Festival". Humane Society International. Retrieved 2021-02-18.
  55. ^ Acharya, Krishna Prasad; Wilson, R. Trevor (2020-09-01). "The animal sacrifice–public health nexus in Nepal". Journal of Public Health Policy. 41 (3): 386–389. doi:10.1057/s41271-020-00224-3. ISSN 1745-655X. PMID 32296112. S2CID 215795323.
  56. ^ "10 Hindu Temples in Nepal you must Visit". www.touchkailash.com. Retrieved 2021-04-02.
  57. ^ Adhikari, Deepak. "Religion pays: Temple visits by top Indian politicians are boosting tourism in Nepal". Scroll.in. Retrieved 2021-04-02.
  58. ^ Mayhew, Bradley; Bindloss, Joe; Armington, Stan (2006). Nepal : Lonely Planet. Internet Archive. Lonely Planet. pp. 166 . ISBN 978-1-74059-699-2.
  59. ^ Gittinger 2018, p. 19.
  60. ^ Gellner, David N. (2005). "The Emergence of Conversion in a Hindu-Buddhist Polytropy: The Kathmandu Valley, Nepal, c. 1600–1995". Comparative Studies in Society and History. 47 (4): 755–780. doi:10.1017/S0010417505000344. ISSN 0010-4175. JSTOR 3879342. S2CID 145199001.
  61. ^ Birkenholtz 2018, pp. 98–105; Books 2019, pp. viii.
  62. ^ Lewis, Todd T. (1996). "Religious Belief in a Buddhist Merchant Community, Nepal". Asian Folklore Studies. 55 (2): 237–270. doi:10.2307/1178821. ISSN 0385-2342. JSTOR 1178821.
  63. ^ Markov, D (2016). "Hindu-Buddhist Syncretism in Medieval and Early Modern Nepal (An Obelisk (Middle of the XVIII Century) on the Restoration of Stupa Svayambhunath)". The World of the Orient (in Ukrainian). 2016 (4): 74–83. doi:10.15407/orientw2016.04.074. ISSN 1608-0599.
  64. ^ Mitra, Rājendralāla; Asiatic Society (Calcutta, India) Library (1882). The Sanskrit Buddhist literature of Nepal. Cornell University Library. Calcutta, Asiatic Society of Bengal.
  65. ^ Okada, Ferdinand E. (1957). "Ritual Brotherhood: A Cohesive Factor in Nepalese Society". Southwestern Journal of Anthropology. 13 (3): 212–222. doi:10.1086/soutjanth.13.3.3629147. ISSN 0038-4801. JSTOR 3629147. S2CID 157008533.
  66. ^ "The Culture of Nepal". Travel Channel. Retrieved 2021-02-11.
  67. ^ Shastri, G. C (July 1968). "Hinduism and Buddhism in Nepal" (PDF). Ancient Nepal: Journal of the Department of Archaeology. 4: 48–51. Archived from the original (PDF) on July 6, 2012.
  68. ^ a b Petraglia, Michael D.; Allchin, Bridget (2007-05-22). The Evolution and History of Human Populations in South Asia: Inter-disciplinary Studies in Archaeology, Biological Anthropology, Linguistics and Genetics. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 6. ISBN 978-1-4020-5562-1.
  69. ^ "Nepali Muslims and Their Struggle for Recognition". INSAMER English. 2020-12-19. Retrieved 2021-02-18.
  70. ^ "A worrying rise in Islamophobia ever since a number of Muslim men were diagnosed with Covid-19". kathmandupost.com. Retrieved 2021-02-18.
  71. ^ "As Nepal Strives to Become More Inclusive, Are Muslims Being Left Behind?". www.worldpoliticsreview.com. Retrieved 2021-02-18.
  72. ^ a b KHADKA, UPENDRA LAMICHHANE and BASANT. "Eid highlights Nepal's religious tolerance". My Republica. Retrieved 2021-02-18.
  73. ^ a b "Muslims in Nepal demand a Hindu state". The Economic Times. Retrieved 2021-02-18.
  74. ^ Dastider, Mollica (2000). "Muslims of Nepal's Terai". Economic and Political Weekly. 35 (10): 766–769. ISSN 0012-9976. JSTOR 4408986.
  75. ^ Maharjan 2002, pp. 1–2.
  76. ^ "Sermon on the mountain | Nepali Times Buzz | Nepali Times". archive.nepalitimes.com. Archived from the original on 21 November 2018. Retrieved 2021-02-19.
  77. ^ Coburn, Brot. "Preaching on high | Nation | Nepali Times". archive.nepalitimes.com. Retrieved 2021-02-19.
  78. ^ a b c "They use money to promote Christianity". The Guardian. 2017-08-15. Retrieved 2021-06-20.
  79. ^ "Story Map Journal". www.arcgis.com. Retrieved 2021-02-19.
  80. ^ Sharma 2019, p. 78.
  81. ^ "Lagan Rai - Copy of SIRF Final Report.pdf". Google Docs. Retrieved 2021-03-07.
  82. ^ "Christianity thrives in Nepal amid trials and tribulations - UCA News". ucanews.com. Retrieved 2021-05-06.
  83. ^ Nepjol https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/JJIS/article/view/35283/27618&ved=2ahUKEwi6q6v2gafxAhV7IbcAHeMXA_QQFjAEegQIBxAC&usg=AOvVaw0sqiWpixWUspARTq5iE99C. Retrieved 2021-06-20. {{cite web}}: Missing or empty |title= (help)CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  84. ^ a b "Nepal: Nepal: Bill criminalises religious conversion". www.csw.org.uk. Retrieved 2021-02-18.
  85. ^ a b "Population monograph (Volume 12)" (PDF). Retrieved 2021-02-11.
  86. ^ a b "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2017-09-18. Retrieved 2017-04-02.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  87. ^ "Hindu Population Drops in Nepal - Hindu Press International - Hindu Press International - Hinduism Today Magazine". www.hinduismtoday.com. Retrieved 2021-05-06.
  88. ^ "Oman amnesty offers undocumented Nepalis chance to return home". kathmandupost.com. Retrieved 2021-05-06.
  89. ^ Subba, Tanka B. (2008). "Living the Nepali Diaspora in India: An Autobiographical Essay". Zeitschrift für Ethnologie. 133 (2): 213–232. ISSN 0044-2666. JSTOR 25843148.
  90. ^ "Nepali Diaspora in a Globalised Era". Routledge & CRC Press. Retrieved 2021-05-06.
  91. ^ "Population | Central Bureau of Statistics". Archived from the original on 2016-03-05. Retrieved 2014-01-07.
  92. ^ "Laws of Nepal (NP029)" (PDF). Government of Nepal. Retrieved 18 February 2021.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  93. ^ "Constitution of Nepal 2072" (PDF). Government of Nepal. Retrieved 18 February 2021.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  94. ^ "The Global Religious Landscape". Pew Research Center's Religion & Public Life Project. 2012-12-18. Retrieved 2021-02-18.
  95. ^ Congress, Library of; Subcommittee, American Library Association Committee on Resources of American Libraries National Union Catalog (1971). The National Union Catalog, Pre-1956 Imprints: A Cumulative Author List Representing Library of Congress Printed Cards and Titles Reported by Other American Libraries. Mansell. ISBN 978-0-7201-0003-7.
  96. ^ Religion 101 (2012-11-28). "Hindu Demographics & Denominations (Part One)". Religion 101. Archived from the original on 21 August 2019. Retrieved 2021-02-18.

SourcesEdit

External linksEdit