Jumla District

Jumla District (Nepali: जुम्ला जिल्लाListen ), is one of the ten districts of the Karnali province of Nepal. This district has Jumla as its headquarters, an area of 2,531 square kilometres (977 sq mi); it had populations of 89,427 and 108,921, respectively, in the national censuses of 2001 and 2011.[3] Its territory lies between longitudes 81⁰ 28' and 82⁰ 18' East, and between latitudes 28⁰ 58' and 29⁰ 30' North.[4]

Jumla District
जुम्ला जिल्ला
Aerial view of Sinja Valley
Aerial view of Sinja Valley
Location of Jumla District (dark yellow) in Karnali Province of Nepal.
Location of Jumla District (dark yellow) in Karnali Province of Nepal.
Coordinates: 29°16′31″N 82°11′00″E / 29.275278°N 82.183333°E / 29.275278; 82.183333
Country   Nepal
ProvinceKarnali Province
Admin HQ.Jumla
 • TypeCoordination committee
 • BodyDCC, Jumla
 • Parliamentary constituencies1 seats
 • Provincial constituencies2 seats
 • Total2,531 km2 (977 sq mi)
Highest elevation
4,679 m (15,351 ft)
Lowest elevation
915 m (3,002 ft)
 • Total108,921
 • Density43/km2 (110/sq mi)
 • Ethnic groupsChetri, Bahun, Thakuri
 • Female 50%
Human Development Index
 • Literacy55%
Time zoneUTC+05:45 (NPT)
Postal Codes
21200, 21202, 21204, 21205..., 21209
Telephone Code087
Main Language(s)Nepali
Major highwaysKarnali
Websitedaojumla.moha.gov.np ddcjumla.gov.np
Jumla Bazaar from Twin Otter Aeroplane
Huge crowd filling a large street with mountains in the background
Crowd on last day of Jatra, Krishna Janmashtami in Jumla Bazaar

The Nepali language (then known as Khas language) originated in the Sinja Valley. Sinja was the capital of Khas Kingdom, and the dialect called "Khas Bhasa" is still spoken among that region's people.[5]


Khasa KingdomEdit

Jumla was a part of Khasa kingdom during the 11th to 13th century. After 13th-century, Khasa Kingdom collapsed and divided into Baise Rajya (22 principalities) in the Karnali-Bheri region and the Kingdom of Jumla was one of them.

Kingdom of JumlaEdit

The Jumla Kingdom was one of the many kingdoms that dotted Nepal before its reunification by King Prithvi Narayan Shah of Gorkha and later by his younger son Bahadur Shah. The kingdom was founded around 1404 when Baliraja, who married the daughter of the last ruler of the Yatse (Malla) Kingdom, succeeded his father-in-law.[6] It was one of the most powerful kingdoms in western Nepal, being one of the 22 Baise principalities of the Karnali region which had once been part of the larger Yatse Kingdom. After centuries of intermittent warfare, it appropriated the kingdom of Mustang in 1760.[7] In the late 18th century the Jumla kingdom successfully defended itself against the first attack by King Prithivi Narayan Shah, and legend even has it that he got injured in the battle. Later, with the help of the kingdoms surrounding Jumla, Bahadur Shah attacked again and annexed Jumla for the Gorkha kings in 1789.[8] The Jumla kings were Thakuris (Sijapati, Malla, Shahi) like the Gorkha Kings.

The Jumla Kingdom belonged to the more extensive pre-unification kingdoms in Nepal. At the height of its power it extended from Mustang in the east to present-day Uttarakhand, a state in modern-day India, territory that the Kingdom of Nepal lost to the East India Company in 1816 during the partition of Nepal.[9] The Jumla kings belonged to the Kalyal dynasty, linked to the Mewar clan of Rajasthan, India. There have also been marriages between the Jumla royal family and the Shah's royal family of Nepal. The direct descendants of the erstwhile Jumla royal family include Nepali Film legend Nir Shah, Maya Kumar Shah SP (Retd.) of Nepal Police, former Director-General of Nepal Electricity Authority Harish Chandra Shah, DIGP (Retd) Sher Bahadur Shah, Colonel Nepal Army (Retd.) Bhim Bahadur Shah and AIGP (Retd.) of Nepal Police, Surendra Bahadur Shah.

Kings of JumlaEdit

The kings of Jumla, post-1400:[10]

  • Baliraja 1404-1445
  • Vaksaraja 1445-? (son)
  • Vijayaraja (son)
  • Visesaraja fl. 1498 (son)
  • Vibhogaraja (?)
  • Matiraja (?)
  • Sahiraja (?)
  • Bhanasahi c. 1529-90 (son)
  • Saimalsahi c. 1590-1599 (son)
  • Vasantaraja 1599-1602 (son)
  • Visekaraja 1599-1602 (brother)
  • Vikramasahi 1602-c. 1635 (brother)
  • Bahadurasahi c. 1635-65 (son)
  • Virabhadrasahi 1665-75
  • Prithvipatisahi 1676-1719 (son)
  • Surathasahi 1719-40 (son)
  • Sudarasanasahi 1740-c. 1758 (son)
  • Suryabhanasahi c. 1758-89 (son)

Geography and climateEdit

Geographically, Jumla is a Himalayan mountainous region of which elevations ranges from 915 metres (3,002 ft) to 4,679 metres (15,351 ft). The Higher Himalayan Region consists of Patarasi and Kanjirowa Himalayan ranges. The major rivers in Jumla are Hima, Tila and Jawa.[4]

Climate Zone[11] Elevation Range % of Area
Temperate 2,000 to 3,000 meters
6,400 to 9,800 ft.
Subalpine 3,000 to 4,000 meters
9,800 to 13,100 ft.
Alpine 4,000 to 5,000 meters
13,100 to 16,400 ft.
Nival above 5,000 meters 7.3%
Trans-Himalayan 3,000 to 6,400 meters
9,800 to 21,000 ft.


At the time of the 2011 Nepal census, Jumla District had a population of 108,921. Of these, 98.6% spoke Nepali and 0.6% Tamang as their first language.[12]

Khas Chhetri is the largest community in the district which is 60.2% of the population. Hill Brahmins are 10.9%, Thakuri and Kami are 7.4%, Sarki 7.05%, Damai 2.5%, Sanyasi and Tamang are 1.1% of the population.[12]

Historical population
Census yearPop.±% p.a.
1981 68,797—    
1991 75,964+1.00%
2001 89,427+1.65%
2011 108,921+1.99%
2021 119,377+0.92%
Source: Citypopulation[13]


On 10 March 2017 Government of Nepal restricted old administrative structures and announced 744 new local level units (9 added later) as per the new constitution of Nepal 2015,[14]

According to new structure Jumla district is divided into 1 municipality (urban) and 7 rural municipality:


Note: UM=Urban Municipality, RM=Rural Municipality


  1. ^ "District Administration Office Jumla".
  2. ^ General Bureau of Statistics, Kathmandu, Nepal, Nov. 2012
  3. ^ Districts of Nepal
  4. ^ a b District profile of Jumla
  5. ^ The origin of Nepali language is Sinja of Jumla, retrieved Feb 25, 2018
  6. ^ Ram Niwas Pandey (1998) The making of modern Nepal: A study of history, art, the culture of Western Nepal. Nirala Press.
  7. ^ Rishikesh Shaha (1997) Ancient and medieval Nepal. New Delhi: Manohar, p. 67.
  8. ^ Rishikesh Shaha (1996) Modern Nepal: A political history 1769-1955, Vol. I. New Delhi: Manohar, p. 53.
  9. ^ Rishikesh Shaha (1996) Modern Nepal: A political history 1769-1955, Vol. I. New Delhi: Manohar, p. 139.
  10. ^ Ram Niwas Pandey (1998) The making of modern Nepal: A study of history, art, culture of Western Nepal. Nirala Press.
  11. ^ The Map of Potential Vegetation of Nepal - a forestry/agroecological/biodiversity classification system (PDF), Forest & Landscape Development and Environment Series 2-2005 and CFC-TIS Document Series No.110., 2005, ISBN 87-7903-210-9, retrieved Nov 22, 2013
  12. ^ a b 2011 Nepal Census, Social Characteristics Tables
  13. ^ "NEPAL: Administrative Division". www.citypopulation.de.
  14. ^ "New local level structure comes into effect from today". www.thehimalayantimes.com. The Himalayan Times. 10 March 2017. Retrieved 17 July 2018.

External linksEdit

Coordinates: 29°16′31″N 82°11′00″E / 29.27528°N 82.18333°E / 29.27528; 82.18333