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Khas people (Nepali: खस) also called Khas Arya[nb 1] (Nepali: खस आर्य) are an Indo-Aryan[11] ethno-linguistic group native to South Asia, what is now present-day Nepal as well as Kumaon, Garhwal and Himachal regions of North India. The Khas people speak the Khas language. They are also known as Parbatiyas, Parbates and Paharis/Pahades. The term Khas has now become obsolete, as the Khas people have adopted communal identities such as Chhetri and Bahun, Garhwali, Kumaoni, Dogra, Kami, Himachali because of the negative stereotypes associated with the term Khas.[12][13][14]

Khas/Khasia/Parbatiya/Parbate/Pahari
खस/खसिया/पर्वतिया/पर्वते/पहाडी
Total population
34 Million (worldwide)[citation needed]
Regions with significant populations
   Nepal 
 India 
Languages
Khas language and regional dialects (e.g. Doteli language) in Nepal; Kumaoni and Garhwali in Uttarakhand, Western Pahari dialects in Himachal Pradesh
Religion
Mostly Om.svg Hinduism
Related ethnic groups
Pahari people, Kumaoni people, Garhwali people, Other Indo-Aryan peoples

Although the term "Khas" has gained popularity in Nepali identity politics since the 1990s, many castes currently categorized as Khas may not identify themselves as Khas.[citation needed] According to the Constitution of Nepal, Brahmins, Chhetris, Thakuris, and Sanyasis who are citizens of Nepal should be considered as Khas Arya for electoral puposes.[15]

OriginEdit

They have been connected to the Khasas mentioned in the ancient Hindu literature.[16] Historian Bal Krishna Sharma and Dor Bahadur Bista speculates that the Khas people were of Indo-European origin.[17][18] Historian Baburam Acharya speculates that Khas are a sub-clan of Aiḍa, an Arya clan originated at Idavritt (modern day Kashmir).[19][nb 2] Khas were living in the Idavaritt in the 3rd millennium B.C.E. and the original meaning of the term Khas was Raja or Kshatriya (Yoddha).[19] He further speculates that Kashmir has been named from its local residents Khas as Khasmir.[19] In the 2nd millennium B.C.E., one group of Khas migrated towards Iran while the other group migrated east of Sutlej river settling only in the hill regions up to Bheri River.[20] Historian Balkrishna Pokhrel contends that Khas were not the Vedic Aryans but Aryans of latter period like the Gurjara, Darada, Shaka, Pallava and Pisacha.[21] He further asserts that post-Vedic Aryans were akin to Vedic Aryans in terms of language and culture.[21]

HistoryEdit

 
Khas girl in 1900s

Khas are believed to have arrived in the western reaches of Nepal at the beginning of first-millennium B.C.[22] or middle of first-millennium A.D.[23] from the north-west. It is likely that they absorbed people from different ethnic groups during this immigration.[24] They have been connected to the medieval Khasa Malla kingdom.[16] In the initial phase, majority of Khas people became Brahmins and others became Kshatriyas.[23]

Traditionally, the Khas were divided into "Khas Brahmins" (also called Bahuns) and "Khas Rajputs" (also called Chhetris). In the Kumaon and Garhwal regions of Uttarakhand in India, the Khas Brahmins and Khas Rajputs had a lower social status than the other Brahmins and Rajputs. However, in present-day western Nepal, they had the same status as the other Brahmins and Rajputs, possibly as a result of their political power in the Khasa Malla kingdom.[25]

 
Copper Inscription by King of Doti, Raika Mandhata Shahi at Saka Era 1612 (शाके १६१२) (or 1747 Bikram Samvat) in old Khas language using Devanagari script

Until the 19th century, the Gorkhali referred to their country as Khas Desh (Khas country).[26] As they annexed the various neighbouring countries (such as Newar of the Newar people) to the Gorkha kingdom, the terms such as Khas and Newar ceased to be used as the names of countries. The 1854 legal code (Muluki Ain), promulgated by the Nepali Prime Minister Jung Bahadur Rana, himself a Khas,[27] no longer referred to Khas as a country, rather as a jāt (species or community) within the Gorkha kingdom.[28]

The Shah dynasty of the Gorkha Kingdom, as well as the succeeding Rana dynasty, spoke the Khas language (now called the Nepali language). However, they claimed to be Rajputs of western Indian origin, rather than the native Khas Kshatriyas.[29] Since outside Nepal, the Khas social status was seen as inferior to that of the Rajputs, the rulers started describing themselves as natives of the Hill country, rather than that of the Khas country. Most people, however, considered the terms Khas and Parbatiya (Pahari/Pahadi or Hill people) as synonymous.[26]

Jung Bahadur also re-labeled the Khas jāt as Chhetri in present-day Nepal.[29] Originally, the Brahmin immigrants from the plains considered the Khas as low-caste because of the latter's neglect of high-caste taboos (such as alcohol abstinence).[30] The upper-class Khas people commissioned the Bahun (Brahmin) priests to initiate them into the high-caste Chhetri order and adopted high-caste manners. Other Khas families who could not afford to (or did not care to) pay the Bahun priests also attempted to assume the Chhetri status but were not recognized as such by others. They are now called Matwali (alcohol-drinking) Chhetris.[14]

Because of the adoption of the Chhetri identity, the term Khas is rapidly becoming obsolete.[12] According to Dor Bahadur Bista (1991), "the Khas have vanished from the ethnographic map of Nepal".[14]

CommunitiesEdit

Historian Balkrishna Pokhrel writes the communities or caste in Khas group were Brahman, Chhetri, Gharti, Damai, Kami, Sarki, Hudka, Tamote, Gaine, Badi, etc.[21] The tribal designation Khas refers to in some contexts only to the upper-class Khas group, i.e. Bahun and Chhetri, but in other contexts may also include the low status (generally untouchable) occupational Khas groups such as Kāmi (blacksmiths), Damāi (tailors), and Sārki (shoemakers and leather workers).[31] Khas people are addressed with the term Khayan or Parbatiya[21] or Partyā, Parbaté meaning hill-dweller by Newars.[31] The hill Khas tribe are in large part associated with the Gorkhali warriors.[31]

LanguageEdit

HistoryEdit

The Khas people originally referred to their language as Khas kurā (Khas speech), which was also known as Parbatiya (language of the hill country). The Newar people used the term Khayan Bhaya, Parbatiya[21] and Gorkhali as a name for this language, as they identified it with the Gorkhali conquerors. The Gorkhalis themselves started using this term to refer to their language at a later stage.[32] In an attempt to disassociate himself with his Khas past, the Rana monarch Jung Bahadur decreed that the term Gorkhali be used instead of Khas kurā to describe the language. Meanwhile, the British Indian administrators had started using the term Nepal (after Newar) to refer to the Gorkha kingdom. In the 1930s, the Gorkha government also adopted this term to describe their country. Subsequently, the Khas language also came to be known as Nepali language.[33] It has become a national language of Nepal and lingua franca among the majority of population of North Bengal, Sikkim and Bhutan.[21]

ClassificationEdit

Historian Balkrishna Pokhrel contends that the Khas language belonged to neither to Iranian languages nor to Indian languages but to mid Indo-Iranian languages.[21]

ModernEdit

NepalEdit

Modern-day Khas people are referred as Khas Brahmin (commonly called as Khas Bahun), Khas Rajput (commonly called as Khas Chhetri) and Khas Dalit.[25] Khas people are popularly referred in modern times as Khas Arya.

This term is highly contested and used only by indigenous activists, foreign scholars and donor aid organizations--nowhere in contemporary usage do you find Brahmin or Chettri individuals referring to themselves as "Khas-Arya," except in an ironic fashion which acknowledges the hysteric hate speech which has been directed at their direction since this term was popularized in the past few decades.

IndiaEdit

In Kumaon and Garhwal regions of Uttarakhand in India, too, the term Khas has become obsolete. The Khas (or Khasia) people of Kumaon adopted the self-designation Kumaoni Jiagahari Rajput, after being elevated to the Rajput status by the Chand kings. The term Khas is almost obsolete, and people resent being addressed as Khas because of the negative stereotypes associated with this term.[13]

Notable peopleEdit

Khas Malla dynasty rulersEdit

The list of Khas kings mentioned by Giuseppe Tucci is in the following succession up to Prithvi Malla:[34]

  • Nāgarāja[35][36] also known as Jāveśvara[37]
  • Cāpa, son of Nāgarāja[36]
  • Cāpilla, son of Cāpa[36]
  • Krāśicalla, son of Cāpilla[36]
  • Krādhicalla, son of Krāśicalla[36]
  • Krācalla, son of Krādhicalla[36]
  • Aśokacalla, son of Krācalla[36]
  • Jitārimalla, first son of Aśokcalla[38]
  • Ānandamalla, second son of Aśokcalla[38]
  • Ripumalla (1312–13), son of Ānandamalla[38]
  • Saṃgrāmamalla, son of Ripumalla[38]
  • Ādityamalla, son of Jitārimalla[38]
  • Kalyāṇamalla, son of either Ādityamalla or Saṃgrāmamalla[38]
  • Pratāpamalla, son of Kalyāṇamalla, had no scions[38]
  • Puṇyamalla, [39] of another Khas family of (Purang royalty)[34]
  • Pṛthvīmalla, son of Puṇyamalla[38]

Other KhasEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ See[1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10]
  2. ^ Historian Baburam Acharya speculates that in the 3rd millennium B.C.E., there were two clans of Arya in the northern Indian subcontinent; Aiḍa and Mānava. Aiḍa who were named after their homeland Iḍavritt (modern day Kashmir), settled over Panjab and Ganga-Jamuna plain while Mānava settled over Awadh region. Chandravanshi kings like Bharata and Yudhisthir belonged to Aiḍa while Suryavanshi kings like Ramachandra belonged to Mānava. Later, Aiḍa built dominion over Magadh while Mānava had dominion over Videha.[19]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Khadka, Suman (25 Feb 2015). "Drawing caste lines". The Kathmandu Post. Retrieved 25 January 2018.
  2. ^ "Khas Arya quota provision in civil services opposed". thehimalayantimes.com. 10 November 2017. Retrieved 1 May 2018.
  3. ^ "Nepal's election may at last bring stability". The Economist. Retrieved 1 May 2018.
  4. ^ "The Kathmandu Post -PM briefs international community". kathmandupost.ekantipur.com. Retrieved 6 April 2018.
  5. ^ Times, Nepali. "Quotable quota". www.nepalitimes.com. Retrieved 1 May 2018.
  6. ^ "Next Door Nepal: Another chink in the wall". indianexpress.com. 2 April 2018. Retrieved 1 May 2018.
  7. ^ "Oli in balancing avatar". myrepublica.com. Retrieved 1 May 2018.
  8. ^ "Nepal seeks unity from its first local elections in 20 years". Nikkei Asian Review. Retrieved 1 May 2018.
  9. ^ "Lessons for India From Nepal's History of Banning Cow Slaughter - The Wire". The Wire. Retrieved 1 May 2018.
  10. ^ "What does high caste chauvinism look like?". ekantipur.com. Retrieved 1 May 2018.
  11. ^ Hagen & Thapa 1998, p. 114.
  12. ^ a b William Brook Northey & C. J. Morris 1928, p. 123.
  13. ^ a b K. S. Singh 2005, p. 851.
  14. ^ a b c Dor Bahadur Bista 1991, p. 48.
  15. ^ "Part-8 Federal Legislature – Nepal Law Commission". Retrieved 2019-08-05.
  16. ^ a b John T Hitchcock 1978, pp. 112-119.
  17. ^ Sharma 1999, p. 181.
  18. ^ Dor Bahadur Bista 1991, p. 47.
  19. ^ a b c d Acharya 1975, p. 199.
  20. ^ Acharya 1975, p. 200.
  21. ^ a b c d e f g Pokhrel 1973, p. 229.
  22. ^ Dor Bahadur Bista 1991, p. 15.
  23. ^ a b Sharma 1999, p. 112.
  24. ^ John T Hitchcock 1978, p. 113.
  25. ^ a b John T Hitchcock 1978, pp. 116-119.
  26. ^ a b Richard Burghart 1984, p. 107.
  27. ^ a b Dor Bahadur Bista 1991, p. 37.
  28. ^ Richard Burghart 1984, p. 117.
  29. ^ a b Richard Burghart 1984, p. 119.
  30. ^ Susan Thieme 2006, p. 83.
  31. ^ a b c Whelpton 2005, p. 31.
  32. ^ Richard Burghart 1984, p. 118.
  33. ^ Richard Burghart 1984, pp. 118-119.
  34. ^ a b Tucci 1956, p. 66.
  35. ^ http://therisingnepal.org.np/news/1783
  36. ^ a b c d e f g D.R. Regmi 1965, p. 714.
  37. ^ D.R. Regmi 1965, p. 717.
  38. ^ a b c d e f g h Tucci 1956, p. 50.
  39. ^ Adhikary 1997, p. 81.
  40. ^ a b c Pradhan 2012, p. 22.

BibliographyEdit

External linksEdit