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Football at the 1936 Summer Olympics

Football at the 1936 Summer Olympics was won by Italy. After the introduction of the first FIFA World Cup in 1930 (which had, in itself lead to the absence of a football tournament from the 1932 Games programme), competing nations would from now on only be permitted to play their best players if those players were amateur or (where national associations were assisted by interested states to traverse such a rule) where professional players were state-sponsored.[1][2] However, since amateur players were counted as senior squad players, their results would be still counted as senior side's results until 1992.

1936 Men's Olympic Football Tournament
Tournament details
Host countryGermany
DatesAugust 3–15
Teams16 (from 4 confederations)
Venue(s)4 (in 1 host city)
Final positions
Champions Italy (1st title)
Runners-up Austria
Third place Norway
Fourth place Poland
Tournament statistics
Matches played16
Goals scored78 (4.88 per match)
Top scorer(s)Italy Annibale Frossi (7 goals)
1928
1948

VenuesEdit

SquadsEdit

MedalistsEdit

Final tournamentEdit

 
Peruvian goalkeeper Juan Valdivieso reaches out for the football during match between Austria and Peru.

The Italians, winners against the Austrians at the 1934 World Cup now found the Olympic side, with ten changes, a completely different proposition. The Azzurri included players such as Alfredo Foni, Pietro Rava and Ugo Locatelli, who would all play in their World Cup victory in Paris. That they eventually prevailed was due to two incidents: the first when their bespectacled forward Frossi scored, the second when Weingartner, the German referee, was literally restrained from sending off Archille Piccini after fouling two Americans. Italian players held both his arms and covered his mouth in protest. Piccini stayed on the park, Italy won.[3] This was something more than Sweden managed in their tie with Japan the next day in Berlin. Two-nil up within 45 minutes, their loss was recorded by the Swedish commentator, Sven Jerring, calling “Japanese, Japanese, Japanese, Japanese all over” (Japaner, japaner, japaner, ôverallt japaner.) during the final minutes as the Japanese defenders held out to run out as winners 3–2. It marked the first time an Asian side had participated in either the World Cup or Olympic Games football competition and the first time an Asian side emerged victorious. Their neighbours, China, lost 0–2 to Great Britain on the next day. Otherwise there were wins for Peru and the hosts, 9–0 versus Luxembourg.

First roundEdit

Italy  1–0  United States
Frossi   58' Report
Attendance: 9.000
Referee: Carl Weingartner (GER)

Norway  4–0  Turkey
Martinsen   30'70'
Brustad   53'
Kvammen   80'
Report
Attendance: 8.000
Referee: Giuseppe Scarpi (ITA)

Japan  3–2  Sweden
Kawamoto   49'[4]
Ukon   62'
Matsunaga   85'
Report Persson   24'37'
Attendance: 5.000
Referee: Wilhelm Peters (GER)

Germany  9–0  Luxembourg
Urban   16'54'75'
Simetsreiter   32'48'74'
Gauchel   49'89'
Elbern   76'
Report
Attendance: 12.000
Referee: Pál von Hertzka (HUN)

Poland  3–0  Hungary
Gad   12'27'
Wodarz   88'
Report
Attendance: 5.000
Referee: Raffaele Scorzoni (ITA)

Austria  3–1  Egypt
Steinmetz   4'65'
Laudon   7'
Report Sakr   85'
Attendance: 6.000
Referee: Arthur James Jewell (GBR)

Peru  7–3  Finland
Fernández   17'33'47'49'70'
Villanueva   21'67'
Report Kanerva   42' (pen.)
Grönlund   75'
Larvo   80'
Attendance: 2.500
Referee: Rinaldo Barlassina (ITA)

Great Britain  2–0  Republic of China
Dodds   55'
Finch   65'
Report[5]
Attendance: 8,000
Referee: Helmut Fink (GER)

Quarter finalsEdit

 
The Italian squad that won the Gold Medal
 
A ball of the competitions is on display at the German Leather Museum.

Italy defeated Japan after Pozzo’s decision to include Biagi, who scored goals. The same day at the Poststadion, Berlin before a crowd that included Goebbels, Göring, Hess and Hitler, Germany were knocked out 2–0 by Norway. Goebbels wrote: "The Führer is very excited, I can barely contain myself. A real bath of nerves." Norway, went on to draw with Italy in the first round of the 1938 FIFA World Cup. Germany lost 2–0 and Hitler, who had never seen a football match before, and had originally planned to watch the rowing, left early in a huff.[6]

The following day at the Hertha Platz, Austria played Peru. The match was highly contested, and the game went into overtime when the Peruvians drew with the Austrians after being two goals behind. Peru 'scored' five goals during extra-time, of which three were disallowed by the referee, and won 4–2.[7][8] The Austrians demanded a rematch on the grounds that Peruvian fans had stormed the field, and because the field did not meet the requirements for a football game.[8][9] Austria further claimed that the Peruvian players had manhandled the Austrian players and that spectators, one holding a revolver, had "swarmed down on the field."[10] Peru was notified of this situation, and they attempted to go to the assigned meeting but were delayed by a German parade.[8] At the end, the Peruvian defense was never heard, and the Olympic Committee and FIFA sided with the Austrians. The rematch was scheduled to be taken under close grounds on August 10, and later re-scheduled to be taken on August 11.[9][10]

As a sign of protest against these actions, which the Peruvians deemed as insulting and discriminatory, the complete Olympic delegations of Peru and Colombia left Germany.[11][12] Argentina, Chile, Uruguay, and Mexico expressed their solidarity with Peru.[10] Michael Dasso, a member of the Peruvian Olympic Committee, stated: "We've no faith in European athletics. We have come here and found a bunch of merchants."[13] The game was awarded to Austria by default.[10] In Peru, angry crowds protested against the decisions of the Olympic Committee by tearing down an Olympic flag, throwing stones at the German consulate, refusing to load German vessels in the docks of Callao, and listening to inflammatory speeches, which included President Oscar Benavides Larrea's mention of "the crafty Berlin decision."[10] To this day, it is not known with certainty what exactly happened at Germany, but it is popularly believed that Adolf Hitler and the Nazi authorities might have had some involvement in this situation.[12]

In the last of the quarter-finals Poland, assisted by their forward, Hubert Gad, played out a nine-goal party to defeat the British side; at one time they were 5–1 to the better. The Casual's Bernard Joy scored two as Britain fought back gamely but they ran out of time. Prior to the Games Daniel Pettit received a letter from the Football Association which dealt mostly with the uniform he would wear. As he explained to the academic Rachel Cutler there was a handwritten PS that said: 'As there is a month to go before we leave for Berlin kindly take some exercise.' Pettit ran around his local park. [6]

Italy  8–0  Japan
Frossi   14'75'80'
Biagi   32'57'81'82'
Cappelli   89'
Report
Attendance: 8.000
Referee: Otto Ohlsson (SWE)

Germany  0–2  Norway
Report Isaksen   7'83'
Attendance: 55.000

Poland  5–4  Great Britain
Gad   33'
Wodarz   43'48'53'
Piec   56'
Report Clements   26'
Shearer   71'
Joy   78'80'
Attendance: 6.000
Referee: Rudolf Eklow (SWE)

Peru  4–2 (a.e.t.) 1  Austria
Alcalde   75'
Villanueva   81'117'
Fernández   119'
Report Werginz   23'
Steinmetz   37'
Attendance: 5.000
Referee: Thoralf Kristiansen (NOR)

1 Due to a pitch invasion, the match was declared null and void, and ordered to be replayed on August 10. Peru objected to the replay decision and withdrew from the tournament.

Semi finalsEdit

Italy  2–1 (a.e.t.)  Norway
Negro   15'
Frossi   96'
Report Brustad   58'
Attendance: 95.000
Referee: Pál von Hertzka (HUN)

Austria  3–1  Poland
Kainberger   14'
Laudon   55'
Mandl   88'
Report Gad   73'

Bronze medal matchEdit

Norway  3–2  Poland
Brustad   15'21'84' Report Wodarz   5'
Peterek   24' (pen.)
Attendance: 95.000
Referee: Alfred Birlem (GER)

The Final (Gold medal match)Edit

Italy now overcame Austria in a match refereed by Dr Peco Bauwens; the Austrians having defeated Poland to attend the final. Not that there was much in it; Frossi again scoring for the Azzurri and getting the winner just as extra-time got underway.

Italy  2–1 (a.e.t.)  Austria
Frossi   70'92' Report Kainberger   79'
Attendance: 85,000
Referee: Peco Bauwens (Germany)

BracketEdit

 
Round of 16Quarter-finalsSemi-finalsFinal
 
              
 
3 August – Berlin
 
 
  Italy 1
 
7 August – Berlin
 
  United States 0
 
  Italy 8
 
4 August – Berlin
 
  Japan 0
 
  Japan 3
 
10 August – Berlin
 
  Sweden 2
 
  Italy (a.e.t.)2
 
3 August – Berlin
 
  Norway1
 
  Norway 4
 
7 August – Berlin
 
  Turkey 0
 
  Norway 2
 
4 August – Berlin
 
  Germany 0
 
  Germany 9
 
15 August – Berlin
 
  Luxembourg 0
 
  Italy (a.e.t.)2
 
5 August – Berlin
 
  Austria 1
 
  Austria 3
 
8 August – Berlin
 
  Egypt 1
 
  Austria 2
 
6 August – Berlin
 
  Peru (a.e.t.)42
 
  Peru 7
 
11 August – Berlin
 
  Finland 3
 
  Austria 3
 
5 August – Berlin
 
  Poland 1 Third place
 
  Poland 3
 
8 August – Berlin13 August – Berlin
 
  Hungary 0
 
  Poland 5   Norway 3
 
6 August – Berlin
 
  Great Britain4   Poland 2
 
  Great Britain 2
 
 
  Republic of China 0
 
2 Withdrew.

GoalscorersEdit

7 goals
6 goals
5 goals
4 goals
3 goals
2 goals
1 goal

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Politika, October 18, 1935, p. 11 Archived May 13, 2018, at the Wayback Machine (in Serbian)
  2. ^ "Football at the 1936 Berlin Summer Games". Sports Reference. Retrieved 7 October 2018.
  3. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2006-08-30. Retrieved 2006-09-26.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  4. ^ This goal belongs to Taizo Kawamoto according to this website Archived 2016-03-19 at the Wayback Machine
  5. ^ English football statistics said that in this game played Daniel Pettit (instead of John Sutcliffe)
  6. ^ a b "Hitler, huffs and Kanu's 'beautiful moment' - Special reports - guardian.co.uk". www.theguardian.com. Archived from the original on 2016-09-16.
  7. ^ Doyle, Paul (24 November 2011). "The forgotten story of … football, farce and fascism at the 1936 Olympics - Paul Doyle". the Guardian. Archived from the original on 25 September 2015.
  8. ^ a b c "Las épocas doradas del fútbol peruano y las Olimpiadas de 1936" (PDF). Beta.upc.edu.pe (in Spanish). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-04-27. Retrieved 2009-02-14.
  9. ^ a b "Controversia Berlín 36. Un mito derrumbado" (in Spanish). Larepublica.com.pe. Archived from the original on 2009-03-22. Retrieved 2009-02-15.
  10. ^ a b c d e "Sport: Olympic Games (Concl'd)". Time.com. 1936-08-24. Archived from the original on 2009-06-29. Retrieved 2010-01-24.
  11. ^ "BERLIN, 1936...¡ITALIA CAMPIONE!". archive.org. 4 July 2007. Archived from the original on 4 July 2007.
  12. ^ a b "Las Olimpiadas de Berlín". futbolperuano.com (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 2007-08-23. Retrieved 2007-08-21.
  13. ^ "Sport: Olympic Games (Concl'd)". Time. 1936-08-24. Archived from the original on 2010-11-21. Retrieved 2010-05-02.

External linksEdit