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List of domesticated animals

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This page gives a list of domestic animals,[1] also including a list of animals which are or may be undergoing the process of domestication and animals that have an extensive relationship with humans beyond simple predation. This includes species which are semi-domesticated, undomesticated but captive-bred on a commercial scale, or commonly wild-caught, at least occasionally captive-bred, and tameable. In order to be considered fully domesticated, most species have undergone significant genetic, behavioural and/or morphological changes from their wild ancestors; while others have been changed very little from their wild ancestors despite hundreds or thousands of years of potential selective breeding. A number of factors determine how quickly any changes may occur in a species, however, there isn't always a desire to improve a species from its wild form. Domestication is a gradual process, i.e., there is no precise moment in the history of a given species when it can be considered to have become fully domesticated.

Archaeozoology has identified three classes of animal domesticates: (1) commensals, adapted to a human niche (e.g., dogs, cats, guinea pigs); (2) prey animals sought for food (e.g., cows, sheep, pig, goats); and (3) targeted animals for draft and nonfood resources (e.g., horse, camel, donkey).[2]

To sort the tables chronologically by date of domestication, refresh your browser window, as clicking the Date column heading will mix AD and BC dates.

Contents

Domestic animalsEdit

Species and subspecies Wild ancestor Date Location of origin Purpose Image Degree and type of domestication Extent in wild vs captivity Taxon group
Dog (Canis lupus familiaris) Extinct Pleistocene population of Gray wolf (Canis lupus)[3] 13000 BCE[4][5] Europe[5] Pets, hunting, herding, guarding, pest control, transportation, draft, working, show, racing, sport, rescuing, guiding, servicing, fighting, meat, research, fibre   Tame (with exceptions),[6] significant physical changes, probably significant behavioral changes Domestic and feral dogs both very common,[6] ancestor or nearest wild relative less common but not rare 1c Carnivora
Goat (Capra aegagrus hircus) Bezoar ibex (Capra aegagrus aegagrus) 10000 BCE[7][8] Iran milk, meat, fibre, skin, show, racing, fighting, clearing land, pets   Slight physical changes Common in captivity, threatened in wild, feral goats common 1b Bovidae
Domestic pig (Sus scrofa domesticus) Anatolian boar (Sus scrofa libycus),[9] Northern Chinese boar (Sus scrofa moupinensis)[10] 9000 BCE[11][12][13] Near East, China meat, leather, research, show, racing, fighting, truffles, pets   Some physical changes Common in the wild. Much more common in captivity. Feral animals common in some areas. 1a Artiodactyla except Bovidae
Sheep (Ovis aries) Armenian mouflon (Ovis orientalis gmelini) 9000 BCE to 8500 BCE[14] Anatolia, Zagros mountains fibre, meat, milk, leather, pelt, vellum, pets, show, racing, research, guarding, fighting, ornamental   Some physical changes Common in captivity, threatened in the wild 1b Bovidae
Cattle (Bos taurus) Eurasian aurochs (Bos primigenius primigenius) (extinct) 8000 BCE[15][16] Near East meat, milk, leather, hides, working, plowing, draft, vellum, blood, transportation, soil fertilization, fighting, show, racing, pets, horns   Some physical changes Very common in captivity, wild relatives extinct, feral cattle fairly common 1b Bovidae
Zebu (Bos primigenius indicus) Indian aurochs (Bos primigenius namadicus) (extinct) 8000 BCE India meat, milk, leather, hides, working, plowing, draft, vellum, blood, transportation, soil fertilization, fighting, show, racing, pets, horns   Considerable physical changes Wild relatives extinct, common in captivity 1b Bovidae
Cat (Felis catus) African wildcat (Felis silvestris lybica) 8000 BC to 7500 BCE[17][18][19][20] Near East pets, pest control, show, pelt, research   Tame, some physical changes Very abundant in captivity, true wildcats less abundant though not rare. Feral populations very common. 1c Carnivora
Chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) Red junglefowl (Gallus gallus) with some contribution from the Grey junglefowl (Gallus sonneratii) 6000 BCE[21] India and Southeast Asia meat, eggs, feathers, leather, show, racing, ornamental, fighting, pets   Some physical changes, considerable reproductive changes Very common in captivity and the wild 2b Galliformes
Domestic guinea pig (Cavia porcellus) Montane guinea pig (Cavia tschudii) 5000 BCE[22] Peru pets, show, racing, research, meat, lawn mowing   Tame, slight physical changes Somewhat common in captivity and the wild 1d Rodentia
Donkey (Equus africanus asinus) Nubian wild ass (Equus africanus africanus) 5000 BCE[23][24] Egypt transportation, working, plowing, draft, mount, meat, milk, pets, racing, guarding   Slight physical changes Somewhat common in captivity and as feral animals, wild animals critically endangered, 1e Other mammals
Domestic duck (Anas platyrhynchos domesticus) Mallard duck (Anas platyrhynchos) 4000 BCE China meat, feathers, eggs, pets, show, racing, ornamental, guarding   Considerable physical changes Common in captivity, but more abundant in the wild 2a Anseriformes
Water buffalo, including "river buffalo" (Bubalus bubalis bubalis) and "swamp buffalo" (Bubalus bubalis carabenesis) Wild water buffalo (Bubalus arnee) 4000 BCE India, China working, plowing, draft, mount, fighting, meat, show, racing, milk, pets   Mainly unchanged from wild animal Common in captivity, endangered in the wild 1b Bovidae
Western honey bee (Apis mellifera), including subspecies Italian bee (A. mellifera ligustica), European dark bee (A. mellifera mellifera), Carniolan honey bee (A. mellifera carnica) and Caucasian honey bee (A. mellifera caucasia), Greek bee (A. mellifera cecropia) Western honey bee (Apis mellifera), Italian bee (A. mellifera ligustica), European dark bee (A. mellifera mellifera), Carniolan honey bee (A. mellifera carnica) and Caucasian honey bee (A. mellifera caucasia), Greek bee (A. mellifera cecropia) 4000 BCE (1880s for A.m. ligustica, modern for A.m. mellifera, uncertain for A.m. carnica, A.m. caucasia and A.m. cecropia) Europe, Asia and Africa honey, wax, pollination   Some physical and behavioral changes. Domestication status is a point of contention. See Western honey bee for details. Very common in captivity, feral populations common, wild status unclear[25] 6a Hymenoptera
Dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius) Thomas' camel (Camelus thomasi) (extinct)[26] 4000 BCE Arabia transportation, working, hunting, plowing, draft, mount, show, racing, fighting, milk, meat, pets   Tame, few physical changes Moderately common in captivity, small feral population in original range, significant feral population in Australia, true wild dromedaries may be extinct 1a Artiodactyla except Bovidae
Horse (Equus ferus caballus) Extinct unknown population of wild horse[27] 3500 BCE[28] Kazakhstan transportation, milk, meat, working, guiding, servicing, hunting, execution, plowing, draft, mount, fighting, show, racing, pets   Tame, some physical changes mainly in coloration Common in captivity, very rare in wild, feral populations common 1e Other mammals
Domestic silkmoth (Bombyx mori) Wild silkmoth (Bombyx mandarina) 3000 BCE China silk, animal feed, pets, meat   Tame/held captive, some physical changes, severe psychological changes Fairly common in captivity, wild extent unclear 6b Other insects
Domestic pigeon (Columba livia domestica) Rock pigeon (Columba livia) 3000 BCE Mediterranean Basin show, ornamental, messenger, meat, racing, pets   Artificially selected into many varieties, including meat breeds, racing/messenger breeds, and fancy plumage breeds Relatively common in captivity, very common in the wild, feral pigeons extremely abundant 2c Columbiformes
Domestic goose (Anser anser domesticus and Anser cygnoides domesticus) Greylag goose (Anser anser) and Swan goose (A. cygnoides domesticus) 3000 BCE for A. anser, date uncertain for A. cygnoides.[29] Egypt (A. anser), China (A. cygnoides) meat, feathers, eggs, show, guarding, pets   Considerable physical changes Common in captivity and the wild 2a Anseriformes
Yak (Bos grunniens) Wild yak (Bos mutus) 2500 BCE Tibet, Nepal milk, transportation, working, plowing, mount, racing, fighting, meat, fibre, guarding, pets   Tame, slight physical changes Fairly common in captivity; threatened in the wild. 1b Bovidae
Domestic Bactrian camel (Camelus bactrianus) Wild Bactrian camel (Camelus ferus) 2500 BCE Central Asia (Afghanistan) milk, transportation, working, hunting, plowing, draft, mount, fighting, show, racing, meat, hair, pets   Tame, few physical changes Moderately common in captivity, critically endangered in the wild 1a Artiodactyla except Bovidae
Llama (Lama glama) Guanaco (Lama guanicoe cacsilensis)[30] 2400 BCE[31] Peru, Bolivia transportation, working, draft, pack, meat, show, racing, pets, guarding   Slight physical changes Fairly common in captivity and the wild 1a Artiodactyla except Bovidae
Alpaca (Vicugna pacos) Vicuña (Vicugna vicugna mensalis)[30] 2400 BCE[31] Peru, Bolivia fibre, meat, show, pets, guarding   Considerable physical changes Fairly common in captivity and the wild 1a Artiodactyla except Bovidae
Domestic guineafowl (Numida meleagris) Helmeted guineafowl (Numida meleagris) 2400 BCE[32] Africa meat, eggs, pest control, show, alarming, pets, guarding   Mainly unaltered from wild population Somewhat common in captivity and in the wild 2b Galliformes
Fuegian dog (Lycalopex culpaeus) (extinct) Culpeo (Lycalopex culpaeus) Date uncertain Chile hunting, pets, warmth, guarding Extinct in captivity 1c Carnivora
Ferret (Mustela putorius furo) European polecat (Mustela putorius) 1500 BCE[33] Europe pets, hunting, pest control, show, racing   Tame, slight physical changes Common in captivity, somewhat common in the wild. Feral ferrets rare 1c Carnivora
Domestic muscovy duck (Cairina moschata domestica) Muscovy duck (Cairina moschata) 700–600 BCE[31] South America meat, feathers, eggs, show, pets, guarding   Tame, some physical changes Common in captivity, feral populations are rare 2a Anseriformes
Barbary dove (Streptopelia risoria) African collared dove (Streptopelia roseogrisea) 500 BCE North Africa show, pets, meat   Slight physical changes Common in captivity and feral populations 2c Columbiformes
Bali cattle (Bos javanicus domesticus) Javan banteng (Bos javanicus javanicus) Date uncertain Southeast Asia, Bali meat, milk, show, racing, working, plowing, draft   Slight physical changes Common in captivity, endangered in the wild 1b Bovidae
Gayal (Bos frontalis) Gaur (Bos gaurus) Date uncertain Southeast Asia, Northeast India meat   Slight physical changes Somewhat common in captivity, threatened in the wild 1b Bovidae
Domestic turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) South Mexican wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo gallopavo) 180 CE[31] Mexico, United States meat, feathers, eggs, show, pets   Considerable physical changes Common in captivity and wild 2b Galliformes
Goldfish (Carassius auratus) Prussian carp (Carassius gibelio) 300 CE to 400 CE China pets, show, racing, ornamental   Tame/held captive, significant physical changes Very common and abundant in captivity, wild extent is unclear 5a Cyprinidae
Domestic rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) 600 CE[34] Europe pelt, fibre, pets, show, racing, research, meat   Tame, significant physical changes Common in captivity, rare in native habitat, common in introduced range 1e Other mammals
Koi (Cyprinus rubrofuscus) Amur carp (Cyprinus rubrofuscus) 11th Century CE Japan ornamental, show, pets   Tame/held captive, considerable physical changes Fairly common in captivity, threatened in the wild 5a Cyprinidae
Domestic canary (Serinus canaria domestica) Atlantic canary (Serinus canaria) 15th century CE Canary Islands, Europe pets, research, show, mining, fighting   Slight physical changes Common in captivity and wild 2d Passeriformes
Scaly-breasted munia (Lonchura punctulata) Scaly-breasted munia (Lonchura punctulata) date uncertain Southeast Asia pets, research   Slight physical changes Fairly common in captivity and the wild 2d Passeriformes
Society finch (Lonchura striata domestica) White-rumped munia (Lonchura striata) unknown, may have been introduced to Japan sometime around the early 18th century CE[35] Japan pets, research   Slight physical changes Fairly common in captivity and the wild 2d Passeriformes
Fancy mouse House mouse (Mus musculus) 1100 BCE (China), then 17th century CE (Europe)[36] China pets, research, racing, animal feed   Tame, significant physical changes Common in captivity and in the wild 1d Rodentia
Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens) Uncertain species of the genus Betta 19th century CE Thailand fighting, pets   Tame/held captive, very significant physical and slight behavioral changes 5b Other fish
Fancy rat and Lab rat Brown rat (Rattus norvegicus) 19th century CE[37] United Kingdom pets, research, show   Tame, some physical and psychological changes Common in captivity and in the wild 1d Rodentia
Domestic mink (Neovison vison) [38] American mink (Neovison vison) 19th century CE North America fur, hunting, pets Some physical and psychological changes Somewhat common in captivity and in the wild 1c Carnivora
Domesticated red fox (Vulpes vulpes) Red fox (Vulpes vulpes) 1950s CE Soviet Union, Russia pelt, research, pets   Tame, some physical changes Very small domestic population, wild relatives fairly common 1c Carnivora
Domestic hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris) Four-toed hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris) 1980s CE Central and Eastern Africa pets   Slight physical changes Common in the wild. Somewhat rare in captivity 1e Other mammals
Guppy (Poecilia reticulata some strains)[39] Guppy (Poecilia reticulata) Date uncertain Barbados, Brazil, Guyana pets   Held/tame in captivity, significant physical changes Common in captivity 5b Other fish

Semidomesticated, routinely captive-bred, or domestication status unclearEdit

Due to the somewhat unclear outlines of what, precisely, constitutes domestication, there are some species that may or may not be fully domesticated. There are also species that are extensively used or kept as pets by humans, but are not significantly altered from wild-type animals. Most animals on this second table are at least somewhat altered from wild animals by their extensive interactions with humans. Many could not be released into the wild, or are in some way dependent on humans.

Species and subspecies Wild ancestor Date Location of origin Purpose Image Degree and type of domestication Extent in wild vs captivity Taxon group
Semi-domesticated reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) 3000 BC Fennoscandia, Western Russia (possibly Eastern Russia)[40] meat, milk, transportation, working, draft, mount, hides, racing, leather, antlers, pets   Semidomesticated 1a Artiodactyla except Bovidae
Addax (Addax nasomaculatus) Addax (Addax nasomaculatus) 2500 BC Egypt meat, horns, leather, skin, sacrifice   Held/tame in captivity Small captive population, but endangered in the wild 1b Bovidae
Gemsbok (Oryx gazella) Gemsbok (Oryx gazella) Date uncertain Southern Africa meat, hides, horns   Held/tame in captivity 1b Bovidae
Scimitar oryx (Oryx dammah) Scimitar oryx (Oryx dammah) 2320-2150 BC Egypt meat, hides, horns, sacrifice   Held/tame in captivity Small captive population, but nearly extinct in wild 1b Bovidae
Bubal hartebeest (Alcelaphus buselaphus buselaphus) (extinct) Bubal hartebeest (Alcelaphus buselaphus buselaphus) (extinct) Date uncertain Egypt meat, hides, horns, sacrifice   Extinct in captivity and in the wild 1b Bovidae
Syrian wild ass (Equus hemionus hemippus) (extinct) Syrian wild ass (Equus hemionus hemippus) (extinct) [41] Date uncertain Mesopotamia draught   Extinct in captivity and in the wild 1e Other mammals
Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) 2000 BC Indus Valley Civilization working, transportation, hunting, show, racing, fighting, worship, patrol   Semidomesticated (Captured from wild and tamed) 1e Other mammals
Wood duck (Aix sponsa) Wood duck (Aix sponsa) Date uncertain North America meat, ornamental, pets   Held/tame in captivity 2a Anseriformes
Mandarin duck (Aix galericulata) Mandarin duck (Aix galericulata) Pre-modern China (date uncertain) China meat, ornamental, pets   Held/tame in captivity 2a Anseriformes
Egyptian goose (Alopochen aegyptiacus) Egyptian goose (Alopochen aegyptiacus) Date uncertain Egypt meat, eggs, ornamental, guarding, pets, feathers   Held/tame in captivity common in captivity, feral populations very common 2a Anseriformes
Egyptian mongoose (Herpestes ichneumon) Egyptian mongoose (Herpestes ichneumon) Ancient Egypt (Date uncertain) Egypt pest control, pets   Held/tame in captivity 1c Carnivora
Leopard cat (Prionailurus bengalensis) Leopard cat (Prionailurus bengalensis)[42] 5000 BC China pest control, pets   Held/tame in captivity 1c Carnivora
Asiatic honey bee (Apis cerana), including subspecies Indian honey bee (Apis cerana indica) Asiatic honey bee (Apis cerana), and appropriate subspecies Date uncertain South and Southeast Asia honey, pollination   Held/tame in captivity 6a Hymenoptera
Fallow deer (Dama dama) Fallow deer (Dama dama) 1000 BC Mediterranean Basin meat, hides, antlers   Semidomesticated 1a Artiodactyla except Bovidae
European medicinal leech (Hirudo medicinalis) European medicinal leech (Hirudo medicinalis) 800 BC Europe, Asia bloodletting, surgery   7 Other animals
Cochineal (Dactylopius coccus) Cochineal (Dactylopius coccus) 700–500 BC[31] Chile, Peru, Mexico dye   Held/tame in captivity Very common in the wild 6b Other insects
Indian peafowl (Pavo cristatus) Indian peafowl (Pavo cristatus) 500 BC India show, feathers, meat, ornamental, pets, guarding   Held/tame in captivity Fairly common in the wild 2b Galliformes
Common hill myna (Gracula religiosa) Common hill myna (Gracula religiosa) kept in Ancient Greece, date of captive breeding uncertain Greece pets, talking bird   Held/tame in captivity 2d Passeriformes
Rose-ringed parakeet (Psittacula krameri) Rose-ringed parakeet (Psittacula krameri) Classical antiquity (Date uncertain) Africa, Asia pets, talking bird   Held/tame in captivity 2e Psittaciformes
Red deer (Cervus elaphus) Red deer (Cervus elaphus) ~0 AD China, Russia meat, velvet, hides, leather, antlers   Captive bred 1a Artiodactyla except Bovidae
Roman snail (Helix pomatia) Roman snail (Helix pomatia) 100 AD Europe meat, pets   7 Other animals
Stingless bees (Melipona beecheii), (Melipona scutellaris) Stingless bees (Melipona beecheii), (Melipona scutellaris) 180 AD Mexico, Amazon basin honey, pollination   Semidomesticated 6a Hymenoptera
White cockatoo (Cacatua alba) White cockatoo (Cacatua alba) Tang Dynasty (618–907 AD) China, Indonesia pets, show   Held/tame in captivity 2e Psittaciformes
Sulphur-crested cockatoo (Cacatua galerita) Sulphur-crested cockatoo (Cacatua galerita) Australia pets, show   Held/tame in captivity 2e Psittaciformes
Yellow-crested cockatoo & Citron-crested cockatoo (Cacatua sulphurea & C. S. citrinocristata) Sulphur-crested cockatoo (Cacatua sulphurea & C. S. citrinocristata) Sulawesi, Masalembu Islands, Tukangbesi Islands, Tanah Jampea, Sumbawa, Komodo, Flores, Timor, Lesser Sundas, Sumba pets   Held/tame in captivity 2e Psittaciformes
Japanese and great cormorants (Phalacrocorax capillatus & P. carbo) Japanese and great cormorants (Phalacrocorax capillatus & P. carbo) 960 AD Japan, China fishing   Held/tame in captivity 2f Other birds
Whooper swan (Cygnus cygnus) Whooper swan (Cygnus cygnus) Date uncertain Eurasia meat, ornamental, feathers   Semidomesticated 2a Anseriformes
Mute swan (Cygnus olor) Mute swan (Cygnus olor) 1000-1500 Europe meat, ornamental, feathers, guarding   Semidomesticated 2a Anseriformes
House cricket (Acheta domesticus) House cricket (Acheta domesticus) 12th century Southwestern Asia, China, Japan animal feed, meat, fighting, pets   Held in captivity Somewhat common in captivity, very common in wild 6b Other insects
Common (Coturnix coturnix) and Japanese quail (C. japonica) Common (Coturnix coturnix) and Japanese quail (C. japonica) 1100–1900 Eurasia, Japan meat, eggs, pets   Domesticated in captivity 2b Galliformes
Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) 1200–1500 Europe, Asia meat   Held/tame in captivity 5a Cyprinidae
Java sparrow (Lonchura oryzivora) Java sparrow (Lonchura oryzivora) Ming Dynasty (1368–1644 AD) China pets   Non-wild coloration pied and fancy colored Javas from long Asian captivity lines are hand tamable Threatened in wild 2d Passeriformes
Northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) Northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) Date uncertain United States meat, eggs, pets   Captive bred Plumage changes 2b Galliformes
European goldfinch (Carduelis carduelis) European goldfinch (Carduelis carduelis) Date uncertain Europe pets, singing   Captive bred 2d Passeriformes
Pekin robin (Leiothrix lutea) Red-billed leiothrix (Leiothrix lutea) Date uncertain China, Japan pets, singing   Captive bred 2d Passeriformes
Indian gray mongoose (Herpestes edwardsii) Indian gray mongoose (Herpestes edwardsii) Date uncertain India fighting, pest control, pets   Held/tame in captivity 1c Carnivora
Capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) Capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) Date uncertain Brazil meat, pelt, pets, lawn mowing   Held/tame in captivity 1d Rodentia
Gambian pouched rat (Cricetomys gambianus) Gambian pouched rat (Cricetomys gambianus) At least 1997 [43] but possibly early 1990s Sub-Saharan Africa meat, pets, landmine detection, TB detection, biological pest control   Held/tame in captivity 1d Rodentia
Indian palm squirrel (Funambulus palmarum) Indian palm squirrel (Funambulus palmarum) Date uncertain India pets   Easy to tame 1d Rodentia
Black and Grey francolin (Francolinus francolinus and F. pondicerianus) Black and Grey francolin (Francolinus francolinus and F. pondicerianus) Date uncertain India, Pakistan meat, pets, fighting   Held/tame in captivity 2b Galliformes
Golden pheasant (Chrysolophus pictus) Golden pheasant (Chrysolophus pictus) Date uncertain China meat, ornamental, pets   Held/tame in captivity 2b Galliformes
Common pheasant (Phasianus colchicus) Common pheasant (Phasianus colchicus) Date uncertain Asia meat, eggs, pets   Held/tame in captivity 2b Galliformes
Sika deer (Cervus nippon) Sika deer (Cervus nippon) Date uncertain Japan, China meat, antlers   Held/tame in captivity 1a Artiodactyla except Bovidae
Common eland (Taurotragus oryx) Common eland (Taurotragus oryx) Date uncertain Zimbabwe, South Africa, Kenya meat, milk, leather, hides, horns   Held/tame in captivity 1b Bovidae
American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis), American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) Date uncertain United States pets, meat, hides   once uncommon in the wild, captive breeding has led to the species recovering across much of its range 3c Other reptiles
Moose (Alces alces) Moose (Alces alces) Date uncertain Russia, Finland, Sweden research, milk, antlers, mount, draft, transportation, working, meat   Held/tame in captivity 1a Artiodactyla except Bovidae
North African (Struthio camelus camelus) and Masai ostrich (S. c. massaicus) North African (Struthio camelus camelus) and Masai ostrich (S. c. massaicus) Date uncertain North Africa, West Africa; East Africa meat, eggs, feathers, leather, oil, mount, racing, guarding   Semidomesticated 2f Other birds
South African ostrich (Struthio camelus australis) South African ostrich (Struthio camelus australis) 19th century South Africa meat, eggs, feathers, leather, oil, mount, racing, guarding   Semidomesticated 2f Other birds
Somali ostrich (Struthio molybdophanes) Somali ostrich (molybdophanes) Date uncertain Kenya meat, eggs, feathers, mount, racing   Semidomesticated 2f Other birds
Budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus) Budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus) 1850s Australia pets, show, talking bird   Plumage changes, some breeds are physically larger Fairly common in the wild and in captivity 2e Psittaciformes
Cockatiel (Nymphicus hollandicus) Cockatiel (Nymphicus hollandicus) 1870s Australia pets, show, talking bird   Held/tame in captivity Common in the wild and in captivity 2e Psittaciformes
Major Mitchell's cockatoo (Lophochroa leadbeateri) Major Mitchell's cockatoo (Lophochroa leadbeateri) Australia pets, show   Held/tame in captivity 2e Psittaciformes
Elk (Cervus canadensis) Elk (Cervus canadensis) late 1800s North America meat, velvet, hides, leather, antlers   Captive bred 1a Artiodactyla except Bovidae
Stoat (Mustela erminea) Stoat (Mustela erminea) 1800s Eurasia fur, pest control, pets   Held/tame in captivity 1c Carnivora
European mink (Mustela lutreola) European mink (Mustela lutreola) 1800s Europe fur   Held/tame in captivity 1c Carnivora
Coypu (Myocastor coypus) Coypu (Myocastor coypus) late 19th to early 20th century Argentina fur, meat, aquatic weed control, pets   Captive bred 1d Rodentia
Domestic skunk (Mephitis mephitis) Striped skunk (Mephitis mephitis) 19th century North America pets, pest control   Tame when captive-bred 1c Carnivora
Common fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster) Common fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster) 1910s Australia, South Africa research, animal feed   6b Other insects
Chinese hamster (Cricetulus griseus) Chinese hamster (Cricetulus griseus) 1920s China research, biotechnology, pets   Held/tame in captivity 1d Rodentia
Rosy-faced, yellow-collared, and Fischer's lovebirds (Agapornis roseicollis, A. personatus & A. fischeri) Rosy-faced, yellow-collared and Fischer's lovebirds (Agapornis roseicollis, A. personatus & A. fischeri) 1920s Africa pets   Held/tame in captivity 2e Psittaciformes
Rainbowfish (Melanotaeniidae) Various rainbowfish spp. (Melanotaeniidae spp.) 1920s northern and eastern Australia, New Guinea, islands in Cenderawasih Bay, and the Raja Ampat Islands in Indonesia pets, pest control   Held/tame in captivity 5b Other fish
Golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) Golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) 1930s Syria, Turkey pets, research   Domesticated 1d Rodentia
Turkish hamster (Mesocricetus brandti) Turkish hamster (Mesocricetus brandti) 20th century Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Iran, Russia, Turkey pets, research Domesticated 1d Rodentia
European water vole (Arvicola amphibius) European water vole (Arvicola amphibius) 20th century Europe, Russia, West Asia and Kazakhstan pets   Domesticated 1d Rodentia
Common vole (Microtus arvalis) Common vole (Microtus arvalis) 20th century Eurasia pets   Domesticated 1d Rodentia
Long-tailed chinchilla (Chinchilla lanigera) Long-tailed chinchilla (Chinchilla lanigera) 1930s Andes pets, fur, research   Held/tame in captivity 1d Rodentia
Short-tailed chinchilla (Chinchilla chinchilla) Short-tailed chinchilla (Chinchilla chinchilla) 1930s Andes fur   Raised in captivity Critically endangered in the wild 1d Rodentia
Water flea (Daphnia magna) Water flea (Daphnia magna) 1930s North America, Eurasia, Africa research, animal feed   Held/tame in captivity 6c Other arthropods
African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis) African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis) 1950s South Africa pets, research   4a Anura
Sea-monkey (Artemia nyos) Brine shrimp (Artemia spp., esp. A. salina) 1950s United States pets   Domesticated 6c Other arthropods
Ball python (Python regius) Ball python (Python regius) 1960s Africa pets   Captive bred 3a Serpentes
Dwarf hamsters (Phodopus spp.) Campbell's dwarf, Djungarian and Roborovski hamsters (Phodopus campbelli, P. sungorus and P. roborovskii) 1960s Europe pets, research   Held/tame in captivity 1d Rodentia
Zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata) Zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata) 20th century Australia pets, show   Plumage changes, some breeds are physically larger 2d Passeriformes
Axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) Axolotl 20th century Mexico research, pets   Slight physical changes Critically endangered in the wild 4b Other amphibians
Palm cockatoo (Probosciger aterrimus) Palm cockatoo (Probosciger aterrimus) Australia pets   Held/tame in captivity 2e Psittaciformes
Leopard gecko (Eublepharis macularius) Leopard gecko (Eublepharis macularius) 20th century Pakistan pets   Slight physical modification Somewhat common in captivity 3b Lacertilia
American bison (Bison bison) American bison (Bison bison) 20th century North America meat, leather, hides   Semidomesticated 1b Bovidae
Companion parrot (Order Psittaciformes) Many species (Order Psittaciformes) 1980s and 1990s Australia, Europe, Africa, Asia, North America, South America pets, companion, talking bird, ornamental   Held/tame in captivity 2e Psittaciformes
Turquoise parrot (Neophema pulchella) Turquoise parrot (Neophema pulchella) 20th century Australia pets, show   Held/tame in captivity 2e Psittaciformes
Dyeing dart frog (Dendrobates tinctorius) Dyeing dart frog (Dendrobates tinctorius) Mid-to-late 20th century Guyana, Suriname, Brazil, French Guiana pets   Slight physical changes; loss of toxicity 4a Anura
Green and black poison dart frog (Dendrobates auratus) Green and black poison dart frog (Dendrobates auratus) Mid-to-late 20th century Nicaragua; Costa Rica; Panama; Colombia pets   Slight physical changes; loss of toxicity 4a Anura
Diamond dove (Geopelia cuneata) Diamond dove (Geopelia cuneata) Date uncertain Australia pets   Held/tame in captivity 2c Columbiformes
Common kingsnake (Lampropeltis getula) Common kingsnake (Lampropeltis getula) Date uncertain Texas, New Mexico, Chihuahua pets   Held/tame in captivity 3a Serpentes
Milk snake (Lampropeltis triangulum ) Milk snake (Lampropeltis triangulum ) Date uncertain Texas, New Mexico, Chihuahua pets   Held/tame in captivity 3a Serpentes
Grey-banded kingsnake (Lampropeltis alterna) Grey-banded kingsnake (Lampropeltis alterna) Date uncertain Texas, New Mexico, Chihuahua pets   Held/tame in captivity 3a Serpentes
Corn snake (Pantherophis gutttatus) Corn snake (Pantherophis guttatus) 1960s United States pets   Slight physical changes Somewhat common in captivity, common in the wild 3a Serpentes
Muskox (Ovibos moschatus) Muskox (Ovibos moschatus) 1960s United States wool, meat, milk   Held/tame in captivity 1b Bovidae
Madagascar hissing cockroach (Gromphadorhina portentosa) Madagascar hissing cockroach (Gromphadorhina portentosa) 1960s Madagascar pets   6b Other insects
Eastern bearded dragon (Pogona barbata) Eastern bearded dragon (Pogona barbata) Date uncertain Australia pets   Slight physical changes 3b Lacertilia
Central bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps) Central bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps) 1970s Australia pets   Slight physical changes 3b Lacertilia
Eclectus parrot (Eclectus roratus) Eclectus parrot (Eclectus roratus) 1980s Australia, Indonesia, New Guinea, Solomon Islands pets   Held/tame in captivity 2e Psittaciformes
Salmon-crested cockatoo (Cacatua moluccensis) Salmon-crested cockatoo (Cacatua moluccensis) 1980s Maluku Islands pets, show, talking bird   Held/tame in captivity 2e Psittaciformes
Yellow-bellied glider (Petaurus australis) Yellow-bellied glider (Petaurus australis) Date uncertain Australia pets   1e Other mammals
Sugar glider (Petaurus breviceps) Sugar glider (Petaurus breviceps) 1980s Australia pets   1e Other mammals
Lawson's dragon (Pogona henrylawsoni) Lawson's dragon (Pogona henrylawsoni) 1980s Australia pets   Held/tame in captivity 3b Lacertilia
Buff-tailed bumblebee (Bombus terrestris) Buff-tailed bumblebee (Bombus terrestris) 1980s Europe wax, pollination   Held/tame in captivity 6a Hymenoptera
Greater rhea (Rhea americana) Greater rhea (Rhea americana) 1990s South America meat, eggs, feathers, leather, oil   Semidomesticated 2f Other birds
Emu (Dromaius novaehollandiae) Emu (Dromaius novaehollandiae) 1990s Australia meat, eggs, feathers, leather, oil, guarding   Semidomesticated 2f Other birds
Giant eland (Taurotragus derbianus) Giant eland (Taurotragus derbianus) Date uncertain West Africa meat, leather, hides, horns, milk   Held/tame in captivity 1b Bovidae
Fringe-eared oryx (Oryx beisa callotis) Fringe-eared oryx (Oryx beisa callotis) Date uncertain Kenya meat, leather, hides, horns   Held/tame in captivity 1b Bovidae
Common degu (Octodon degus) Commmon degu (Octodon degus) 1990s Chilean Andes pets, research   1d Rodentia
Mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus) et al. Mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus) and others of the genus 1990s Mongolia pets, research   Held/tame in captivity 1d Rodentia
Green iguana (Iguana iguana) Green iguana (Iguana iguana) 1990s South America pets, meat, leather   Captive bred 3b Lacertilia
Carpet python (Morelia spilota) Carpet python (Morelia spilota) Date uncertain New Guinea, Indonesia, Australia pets   Captive bred 3a Serpentes
Green tree python (Morelia viridis) Green tree python (Morelia viridis) mid-1990s New Guinea, Indonesia, Australia pets   Captive bred 3a Serpentes
Red-tailed black cockatoo (Calyptorhynchus banksii) Red-tailed black cockatoo (Calyptorhynchus banksii) late 1990s Australia pets   Held/tame in captivity 2e Psittaciformes
Pin-tailed parrotfinch (Erythrura prasina) Pin-tailed parrotfinch (Erythrura prasina) date uncertain Malaysia, Brunei, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Burma, and Thailand pets   Held/tame in captivity 2d Passeriformes
Gouldian finch (Erythrura gouldiae) Gouldian finch (Erythrura gouldiae) late 1990s Australia pets, show   Held/tame in captivity 2d Passeriformes
Australian green tree frog (Litoria caerulea) Australian green tree frog late 20th century Australia pets   4a Anura
Argentine and Cranwell's horned frogs (Ceratophrys ornata & C. cranwelli) Argentine and Cranwell's horned frogs (Ceratophrys ornata & C. cranwelli) late 20th century Argentina pets   4a Anura
Crucian carp (Carassius carassius) Crucian carp (Carassius carassius) 2000s England, Russia meat, pets   Domesticated 5a Cyprinidae
King quail (Excalfactoria chinensis) King quail (Excalfactoria chinensis) Date uncertain Asia, Australia pets   Held/tame in captivity 2b Galliformes
Small-billed tinamou (Crypturellus parvirostris) Small-billed tinamou (Crypturellus parvirostris) Date uncertain South America meat, eggs   Held/tame in captivity 2f Other birds
Southern screamer (Chauna torquata) Southern screamer (Chauna torquata) Date uncertain South America guarding   Held/tame in captivity 2a Anseriformes
Red-legged seriema (Cariama cristata) Red-legged seriema (Cariama cristata) Date uncertain South America guarding   Held/tame in captivity 2f Other birds
Secretarybird (Sagittarius serpentarius) Secretarybird (Sagittarius serpentarius)[44] Date uncertain South Africa pest control   Held/tame in captivity 2f Other birds
Glossy ibis (Plegadis falcinellus) Glossy ibis (Plegadis falcinellus) Date uncertain Europe, Asia, Africa, Australia, and the Atlantic and Caribbean regions of the Americas meat, eggs, pest control   Held/tame in captivity 2f Other birds
Puna ibis (Plegadis ridgwayi) Puna ibis (Plegadis ridgwayi) Date uncertain Peru meat, eggs, pest control   Held/tame in captivity 2f Other birds
Red-necked wallaby (Macropus rufogriseus) Red-necked wallaby (Macropus rufogriseus)[45] 2000s Tasmania lawn mowing, pets   Held/tame in captivity 1e Other mammals
Lowland paca (Cuniculus paca) Lowland paca (Cuniculus paca) Date uncertain Mexico, Argentina meat, pets   Held/tame in captivity 1d Rodentia
Steppe lemming (Lagurus lagurus) Steppe lemming (Lagurus lagurus) Date uncertain Eurasian Steppe pets   1d Rodentia
Norway lemming (Lemmus lemmus) Norway lemming (Lemmus lemmus) 20th century Northern Fennoscandia pets   1d Rodentia
Pale and lesser gerbils (Gerbillus perpallidus, G. gerbillus) Pale and lesser gerbils (Gerbillus perpallidus, G. gerbillus) Date uncertain Egypt pets   1d Rodentia
Northeastern spinytail iguana (Ctenosaura acanthura) Northeastern spinytail iguana (Ctenosaura acanthura) Date uncertain Mexico pets, meat   Captive bred 3b Lacertilia
Black spiny-tailed iguana (Ctenosaura similis) Black spiny-tailed iguana (Ctenosaura similis) Date uncertain Central America pets, meat   Captive bred 3b Lacertilia
Crimson, eastern and western rosellas (Platycercus elegans, P. eximius & P. icterotis) Crimson, eastern and western rosellas (Platycercus elegans, P. eximius & P. icterotis) Date uncertain Australia pets   Semidomesticated 2e Psittaciformes
Red-eared, yellow-bellied, and Cumberland sliders (Trachemys scripta elegans, T. s. scripta, T. s. troostii) Red-eared, yellow-bellied, and Cumberland sliders (Trachemys scripta elegans, T. s. scripta, T. s. troostii) Date uncertain United States, especially the southeastern United States pets, meat   Easy to domesticate Fairly common in captivity, common in the wild 3c Other reptiles
Crimson finch (Neochmia phaeton) Crimson finch (Neochmia phaeton) Date uncertain New Guinea and northern Australia pets, show   2d Passeriformes
Star finch (Neochmia ruficauda) Star finch (Neochmia ruficauda) Date uncertain Australia pets, show   Held/tame in captivity 2d Passeriformes
Edible-nest swiftlet (Aerodramus fuciphagus) Edible-nest swiftlet (Aerodramus fuciphagus)[46] Date uncertain Indonesia nests   Held/tame in captivity 2f Other birds
Tarantula (Brachypelma spp. et al.) Mexican redknee tarantula (Brachypelma smithi) and others Date uncertain Mexico pets, research   Common in captivity, getting rare in the wild. 6c Other arthropods
Crested gecko (Rhacodactylus ciliatus) Crested gecko (Rhacodactylus ciliatus) Date uncertain New Caledonia pets   Captive bred Somewhat common in captivity, nearly extinct in wild 3b Lacertilia
African bush elephant (Loxodonta africana) African bush elephant (Loxodonta africana)[47] Date uncertain South Africa, Zimbabwe, Zambia, Namibia, Botswana mount, tourism, mine detection, patrol   Semidomesticated (Captured from wild and tamed) 1e Other mammals
Southern white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum simum) Southern white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum simum)[48] Date uncertain South Africa horns   Held/tame in captivity 1e Other mammals
Crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous) Crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous)[49] Date uncertain South America pest control, pets   Easy to domesticate 1c Carnivora
Dingo (Canis lupus dingo) Dingo (Canis lupus dingo)[50] Date uncertain Australia guarding, pest control, warmth, hunting, pets   Held/tame in captivity 1c Carnivora
Common kusimanse (Crossarchus obscurus) Common kusimanse (Crossarchus obscurus) Date uncertain West Africa pets   Captive bred 1c Carnivora
Kissing gourami (Helostoma temminckii) Kissing gourami (Helostoma temminckii) Date uncertain Thailand, Indonesia meat, pets   Domesticated 5b Other fish
Piranha (Pygocentrus nattereri and Pygocentrus piraya) Red-bellied piranha (Pygocentrus nattereri) and San Francisco piranha (Pygocentrus piraya) Date uncertain South America meat, pets, research, fighting   Semidomesticated Fairly common in captivity, common in the wild 5b Other fish
Sugarbag bee (Tetragonula carbonaria) Sugarbag bee (Tetragonula carbonaria) Date uncertain Australia honey, pollination   Held/tame in captivity 6a Hymenoptera
Dubia roach (Blaptica dubia) Dubia roach (Blaptica dubia) Date uncertain Central and South America animal feed, pets   6b Other insects
Mealworm and Superworm (Tenebrio molitor and Zophobas morio) Larvae of darkling beetles (Tenebrio molitor and Zophobas morio) Date uncertain Europe animal feed, meat   Captive bred 6b Other insects
Red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum) Red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum) Date uncertain United States research   Captive bred 6b Other insects
Waxworm (Achroia grisella and Galleria mellonella) Larvae of lesser and greater wax moths (Achroia grisella and Galleria mellonella) Date uncertain Europe ? animal feed, bait, research, meat   Captive bred 6b Other insects

Taxonomical groupingsEdit

The categories used in Taxon group column are:

ReferencesEdit

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