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Cyprinus rubrofuscus, the Amur carp, is a species of cyprinid fish. It is widespread in Eastern Asia where native to Laos, Vietnam and China from the Amur to Red River drainages. It has also been introduced outside its native range.[1] It is the wild form of the well known koi. It is known for its muddy flavor and boniness, hence, it is not commonly eaten by locals except when stewed.[2]

Cyprinus rubrofuscus
Cyprinus rubrofuscus Bleeker.jpg
Scientific classification edit
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii
Order: Cypriniformes
Family: Cyprinidae
Subfamily: Cyprininae
Genus: Cyprinus
C. rubrofuscus
Binomial name
Cyprinus rubrofuscus
  • Cyprinus carpio haematopterus Temminck & Schlegel, 1846
  • Cyprinus viridiviolaceus Lacépède, 1803

In the past, it was considered a subspecies of the common (or European) carp, often under the scientific name C. carpio haematopterus (a synonym), but the two differ in genetics[3][4] and meristics, leading recent authorities to recognize them as separate species.[1][2] Although earlier studies also have found minor differences between northern ("haematopterus") and southern ("viridiviolaceus") populations in Eastern Asia in both meristics[5] and genetics,[3] later studies have found that they are not monophyletic.[6] However, any phylogenetic structure is difficult to establish because of widespread translocations of carp between different regions.[6] The parent species of the domesticated koi carp is an East Asian carp, possibly C. rubrofuscus (not C. carpio).[7][8]


  1. ^ a b c d Allen, D. & Freyhof, J. (2012). "Cyprinus rubrofuscus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2016.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 7 November 2016.
  2. ^ a b Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2016). "Cyprinus rubrofuscus" in FishBase. November 2016 version.
  3. ^ a b Zhou, J., Wu, Q., Wang, Z. and Ye, Y. (2004). Molecular Phylogenetics of Three Subspecies of Common carp Cyprinus Carpio, based on sequence analysis of cytochrome b and control region of mtDNA. Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research 42(4): 266–269.
  4. ^ Xu, P., Zhang, X., Wang, X., et al. (2014). Genome sequence and genetic diversity of the common carp, Cyprinus carpio. Nature Genetics 46: 1212–1219 doi:10.1038/ng.3098
  5. ^ Kirpitchnikov, V.S., and Billard, R. (1999). Genetics and Breeding of Common Carp. p. 5. INRA. ISBN 978-2-7380-0869-5
  6. ^ a b Wang, C., Liu, H., Liu, Z., Wang, J., Zou, J., and Li, X. (2010). Mitochondrial genetic diversity and gene flow of common carp from main river drainages in China. Freshwater Biology 55(9): 1905–1915.
  7. ^ Freyhof, J. & Kottelat, M. (2008). "Cyprinus carpio". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2016.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 7 November 2016.
  8. ^ Craig, J.F., eds. (2015). Freshwater Fisheries Ecology. p. 297. Wiley-Blackwell. ISBN 978-1-118-39442-7.