List of domesticated animals

This page gives a list of domesticated animals,[1] also including a list of animals which are or may be currently undergoing the process of domestication and animals that have an extensive relationship with humans beyond simple predation. This includes species which are semi-domesticated, undomesticated but captive-bred on a commercial scale, or commonly wild-caught, at least occasionally captive-bred, and tameable. In order to be considered fully domesticated, most species have undergone significant genetic, behavioural and morphological changes from their wild ancestors, while others have changed very little from their wild ancestors despite hundreds or thousands of years of potential selective breeding. A number of factors determine how quickly any changes may occur in a species, but there is not always a desire to improve a species from its wild form. Domestication is a gradual process, so there is no precise moment in the history of a given species when it can be considered to have become fully domesticated.

Zooarchaeology has identified three classes of animal domesticates:

  1. Pets (dogs, cats, ferrets, hamsters, etc.)
  2. Livestock (cattle, sheep, pigs, goats, etc.)
  3. Beasts of burden (horses, camels, donkeys, etc.)[2]

Domesticated animals edit

Species and subspecies Wild ancestor Date Location of origin Purposes Image Changes from wild ancestor/ Notes Extent in the wild vs. captivity Taxon group
Domestic dog (Canis familiaris)[3] Extinct Pleistocene population of the grey wolf (Canis lupus ssp.)[4] 13,000 BCE[5][6] China,[7][8][9]

Europe[6] in different places in Asia

meat, leather, fiber, hunting, herding, guarding, fighting, racing, working, rescuing, guiding, policing, draft, pack, sport, service, therapy, narcotics detection, truffle harvesting, pest control, research, education, show, pets   Tame (with exceptions),[10] significant physical changes, probably significant behavioral changes as well Domestic and feral dogs both very common,[10] ancestor or nearest wild relative less common, but not rare 1c Carnivora
Domestic goat (Capra hircus) Bezoar ibex (Capra aegagrus aegagrus) 10,000 BCE[11][12][13] Iran milk, meat, fiber, skin, horns, vellum, manure, guarding, fighting, racing, lawn mowing, weed control, clearing land, show, pets   Slight physical changes Common in captivity, threatened in the wild, feral populations common 1b Bovidae
Domestic pig (Sus domesticus) Anatolian boar (Sus scrofa libycus),[14] Northern Chinese boar (Sus scrofa moupinensis)[15] 9000 BCE[16][17][18][19] China, Western Asia meat, leather, tusks, manure, guarding, fighting, racing, truffle harvesting, weed control, research, show, pets   Some physical changes Common in the wild, much more common in captivity, feral populations common in some areas 1a Artiodactyla except Bovidae
Domestic sheep (Ovis aries)[3] Possibly the Armenian mouflon (Ovis gmelini gmelini) 9000 BCE to 8500 BCE[20][21] Anatolia, Iran meat, milk, fiber, leather, hides, pelts, horns, vellum, manure, guarding, fighting, racing, lawn mowing, weed control, research, ornamental, show, pets   Some physical changes Common in captivity, threatened in the wild 1b Bovidae
European cattle or taurine cattle (Bos taurus)[3][22][23] Eurasian aurochs (Bos primigenius primigenius)† 8000 BCE[24][25] China,[26] Western Asia meat, milk, leather, hides, fiber, horns, vellum, blood, dung, working, plowing, guarding, fighting, racing, draft, mount, soil fertilization, lawn mowing, weed control, worship, show, pets   Some physical changes Very common in captivity, wild relatives extinct, feral populations fairly common 1b Bovidae
Zebu, Brahman cattle, indicine cattle or humped cattle (Bos indicus)[3] Indian aurochs (Bos primigenius namadicus)† 8000 BCE Indian Subcontinent meat, milk, leather, hides, horns, vellum, blood, dung, working, plowing, fighting, racing, draft, soil fertilization, lawn mowing, show, pets   Considerable physical changes Common in captivity, wild relatives extinct 1b Bovidae
Domestic cat or house cat (Felis catus)[3] North African wildcat (Felis lybica lybica)[27] 8000–7500 BCE[27] the Near East meat, pelts, pest control, research, show, pets   Tame, some physical changes Very abundant in captivity; true wildcat species less abundant, though not rare, feral populations very common 1c Carnivora
Domestic chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) Bangladesh red junglefowl (Gallus gallus murghi) with some contribution from the grey junglefowl (Gallus sonneratii) 6000 BCE[28] India and Southeast Asia meat, eggs, feathers, leather, manure, guarding, alarming, fighting, racing, pest control, weed control, ornamental, show, pets   Some physical changes, considerable reproductive changes Very common in the wild and in captivity 2b Galliformes
Guinea pig (Cavia porcellus) Montane guinea pig (Cavia tschudii) 5000 BCE Peru meat, manure, racing, lawn mowing, weed control, research, show, pets   Tame, slight physical changes Somewhat common in the wild and in captivity 1d Rodentia
Domestic donkey, domestic ass or burro (Equus asinus) African wild ass (Equus africanus), including subspecies Nubian (E. a. africanus) and Somali wild ass (E. a. somaliensis)[29] 5000 BCE[30][31] Nubia meat, milk, manure, working, plowing, guarding, racing, draft, pack, mount, lawn mowing, weed control, show, pets   Slight physical changes Somewhat common in captivity and as feral populations, wild relatives critically endangered 1e Other mammals
Gayal (Bos frontalis)[3] Gayal (Bos frontalis) with significant introgression from other Bos species[32] 5000 BCE[33] Southeast Asia, Northeast India meat, milk, horns, dung   Slight physical changes Somewhat common in captivity, threatened in the wild 1b Bovidae
Domestic duck (Anas platyrhynchos domesticus) Common mallard (Anas platyrhynchos platyrhynchos) 4000 BCE China meat, eggs, feathers, manure, guarding, pest control, weed control, ornamental, show, pets   Considerable physical changes Common in captivity, but more abundant in the wild 2a Anseriformes
Domestic water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis)[3] Wild water buffalo (Bubalus arnee) 4000 BCE India, China, the Philippines meat, milk, horns, dung, working, plowing, fighting, racing, draft, mount, lawn mowing, show   Mainly unchanged from the wild animal Common in captivity, endangered in the wild, feral populations common in parts of Australia and South America[34][35] 1b Bovidae
Dromedary or Arabian camel (Camelus dromedarius)[36] Unknown 4000 BCE Arabia, the Horn of Africa meat, milk, urine, racing, hunting, pack, mount, show, pets   Tame, few physical changes Moderately common in captivity, small feral population in original range, significant feral population in Australia, truly wild dromedaries may be extinct 1a Artiodactyla except Bovidae
Western honey bee (Apis mellifera) including subspecies German (A. m. mellifera), Italian (A. m. ligustica), Carniolan (A. m. carnica), Caucasian (A. m. caucasia), Greek (A. m. cecropia), Saharan (A. m. sahariensis) and Egyptian honey bees (A. m. lamarckii) - 4000 BCE (the modern era for A. m. mellifera, the 1880s for A. m. ligustica, uncertain for A. m. carnica, A. m. caucasia, A. m. cecropia, A. m. sahariensis and A. m. lamarckii) Europe (including Germany, Italy, Greece, Slovenia and the United Kingdom), Georgia, North Africa honey, wax, propolis, bee brood, royal jelly, venom, pollen, pollination, research   Some physical and behavioral changes, actual domestication status is still a point of contention[37] Very common in captivity, feral populations common, extent of status in the wild unclear; see Western honey bee for details 6a Hymenoptera
Domestic horse (Equus caballus) Extinct unknown population of the wild horse (Equus ferus), possibly the tarpan or European wild horse (E. f. ferus)†[38] 3500 BCE[39] Kazakhstan milk, meat, hair, manure, working, plowing, fighting, racing, servicing, guiding, draft, pack, mount, execution, lawn mowing, weed control, show, pets   Tame, some physical changes, mainly in colouration Common in captivity, very rare in the wild, feral populations common 1e Other mammals
Bali cattle (Bos javanicus domesticus) Banteng (Bos javanicus) [40] 3500 BCE[40] Bali, Indonesia meat, milk, horns, dung, working, plowing, draft, show   Slight physical changes Common in captivity, endangered in the wild 1b Bovidae
Domestic silkmoth (Bombyx mori) Wild silkmoth (Bombyx mandarina) 3000 BCE China silk, animal feed, pets   Tame/held in captivity, some physical changes Fairly common in captivity, extent of status in the wild unclear 6b Other insects
Domestic pigeon (Columba livia domestica) Rock dove (Columba livia) 3000 BCE the Mediterranean Basin meat, manure, racing, messenger, ornamental, show, pets   Artificially selected and bred into many varieties including meat breeds, racing/messenger breeds and fancy plumage breeds Relatively common in captivity, very common in the wild, feral populations extremely abundant 2c Columbiformes
Domestic goose and domestic swan goose (Anser anser domesticus and Anser cygnoides domesticus) Greylag goose (Anser anser) and swan goose (A. cygnoides) 3000 BCE for A. anser, date uncertain for A. cygnoides[41] Egypt (A. anser), China (A. cygnoides) meat, eggs, feathers, manure, guarding, alarming, pest control, weed control, show, pets   Considerable physical changes Common in the wild and in captivity 2a Anseriformes
Domestic yak (Bos grunniens)[3] Wild yak (Bos mutus) 2500 BCE Tibet, Nepal meat, milk, fiber, horns, dung, working, plowing, guarding, fighting, racing, pack, mount, show, pets   Tame, slight physical changes Fairly common in captivity; threatened in the wild 1b Bovidae
Domestic Bactrian camel (Camelus bactrianus) Wild Bactrian camel (Camelus ferus) 2500 BCE Central Asia (Afghanistan) meat, milk, hair, dung, pack, mount, show, pets   Tame, few physical changes Moderately common in captivity, critically endangered in the wild 1a Artiodactyla except Bovidae
Llama (Lama glama)[3] Guanaco (Lama guanicoe cacsilensis)[42] 2400 BCE[43] Peru, Bolivia meat, fiber, manure, working, guarding, racing, draft, pack, lawn mowing, weed control, show, pets   Slight physical changes Fairly common in the wild and in captivity 1a Artiodactyla except Bovidae
Alpaca (Lama pacos)[3] Vicuña (Lama vicugna mensalis)[42] 2400 BCE[43] Peru, Bolivia meat, milk, fiber, manure, guarding, lawn mowing, weed control, show, pets   Considerable physical changes Fairly common in the wild and in captivity 1a Artiodactyla except Bovidae
Domestic guineafowl (Numida meleagris domesticus) West African helmeted guineafowl (Numida meleagris galeatus) 2400 BCE[44] West Africa meat, eggs, manure, guarding, alarming, pest control, show, pets   Mainly unaltered from the wild population Somewhat common in the wild and in captivity 2b Galliformes
Fuegian dog or Yaghan dog†[45] Culpeo or Andean fox (Lycalopex culpaeus) date uncertain[46] Argentina, Chile hunting, guarding, warmth, pets   Tame, slight physical changes Extinct in captivity, but common in the wild 1c Carnivora
Domestic ferret (Mustela furo) European polecat (Mustela putorius) 1500 BCE[47] North Africa hunting, racing, pest control, show, pets   Tame, slight physical changes Common in captivity, somewhat common in the wild, feral populations rare 1c Carnivora
Domestic Muscovy duck (Cairina moschata domestica) Wild Muscovy duck (Cairina moschata sylvestris) 700–600 BCE[43] South America meat, eggs, feathers, manure, guarding, pest control, show, pets   Tame, some physical changes Common in captivity, feral populations rare 2a Anseriformes
Barbary dove or ringed turtle dove (Streptopelia risoria) African collared dove (Streptopelia roseogrisea) 500 BCE North Africa meat, show, pets   Slight physical changes Common in both captivity and feral populations 2c Columbiformes
Domestic turkey (Meleagris gallopavo domesticus) South Mexican wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo gallopavo) 180 CE[43] Mexico meat, eggs, feathers, manure, guarding, pest control, show, pets   Considerable physical changes Common in the wild and in captivity 2b Galliformes
Goldfish (Carassius auratus) Prussian carp (Carassius gibelio) 300 CE to 400 CE China racing, pest control, ornamental, show, pets   Tame, significant physical changes Very common and abundant in captivity, extent of status in the wild unclear 5a Cyprinidae
Domestic rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus domesticus) Iberian rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus algirus)[48] 600 CE[49] Europe meat, fiber, pelts, manure, racing, lawn mowing, weed control, research, show, pets   Tame, significant physical changes Common in captivity, rare in native habitat, common in introduced range 1e Other mammals
Koi (Cyprinus rubrofuscus) Amur carp (Cyprinus rubrofuscus) the 11th century CE Japan ornamental, show, pets   Tame, considerable physical changes Fairly common in captivity, threatened in the wild 5a Cyprinidae
Japanese quail (C. japonica) or Domesticated quail Common quail (C. coturnix) the 11~12th century CE Japan meat, eggs, research, pets   considerable physical changes Common in the wild and in captivity 2b Galliformes
Domestic canary (Serinus canaria domestica) Wild canary (Serinus canaria canaria) the 15th century CE the Canary Islands, Europe coal mining, fighting, research, show, pets   Slight physical changes Common in the wild and in captivity 2d Passeriformes
Society finch or Bengalese finch (Lonchura striata domestica) White-rumped munia or striated finch (Lonchura striata swinhoei) with some contribution from the Indian silverbill or white-throated munia (Euodice malabarica) unknown, may have been introduced to Japan sometime around the early 18th century CE[50] Japan pets, show, research   Slight physical changes Fairly common in captivity; common in the wild 2d Passeriformes
Fancy mouse a.k.a. laboratory mouse (Mus musculus domestica) Western European house mouse (Mus musculus domesticus) 1100 BCE (China), then the 17th century CE (Europe)[51] China animal feed, racing, research, show, pets   Tame, significant physical changes Common in the wild and in captivity 1d Rodentia
Fancy rat a.k.a. laboratory rat (Rattus norvegicus domestica) Brown rat (Rattus norvegicus) the 19th century CE[52] the United Kingdom animal feed, research, show, pets   Tame, some physical and psychological changes Common in the wild and in captivity 1d Rodentia
Domestic mink (Neogale vison domesticus)[53] American mink (Neogale vison) the 19th century CE North America fur, hunting, pest control, pets
 
Some physical and psychological changes Somewhat common in the wild and in captivity 1c Carnivora
Domesticated silver fox (Vulpes vulpes amicus) American red fox (Vulpes vulpes fulva)[54][55][56] the 1800s and the 1950s Prince Edward Island; introduced to the Soviet Union (Russia) fur, pelts, research, pets   Tame, some physical changes Very small domestic population, wild relatives fairly common 1c Carnivora
Domesticated hedgehogs (Atelerix albiventris, A. algirus, Hemiechinus auritus and H. collaris) Four-toed (Atelerix albiventris), Algerian (A. algirus), long-eared (Hemiechinus auritus), and Indian long-eared hedgehog (H. collaris) the 1980s Central and Eastern Africa pets   Slight physical changes Common in the wild, somewhat rare in captivity 1e Other mammals

Tame, partially domesticated, and widely captive-bred animals edit

Due to the somewhat unclear outlines of what precisely constitutes domestication, there are some species that may or may not be fully domesticated. There are also some species that are extensively commercially used by humans, but are not significantly altered from wild-type animals. Many animals on this second table are at least somewhat altered from wild-type animals due to their extensive interactions with humans, albeit not to the point that they are regarded as distinct forms (therefore, no separate wild ancestors are noted) or would be unable to survive if reintroduced to the wild.

Species and subspecies Date Location of origin Purpose Image Changes from wild ancestor/ Notes Extent in the wild vs. captivity Taxon group
Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) including subspecies Sri Lankan (E. m. maximus), Indian (E. m. indicus), Sumatran (E. m. sumatranus), Bornean (E. m. borneensis) and formerly Syrian elephants (E. m. asurus)†[57][58][59] 2000 BCE (uncertain for E. m. maximus, E. m. sumatranus, E. m. borneensis and E. m. asurus)† India, Sri Lanka, Sumatra, Nepal, Borneo, China, Indochina, formerly Iran dung, working, hunting, fighting, racing, transportation, mount, patrol, worship, show   Individuals taken from the wild and tamed on a wide scale Syrian subspecies extinct in the wild and in captivity; other subspecies somewhat common in captivity, but endangered in the wild[60][61] 1e Other mammals
Domestic reindeer (Rangifer tarandus domesticus) 3000 BCE Fennoscandia, Western Russia (possibly Eastern Russia),[62]
China, Mongolia
meat, milk, leather, hides, antlers, transportation, mount, pets   1a Artiodactyla except Bovidae
Common (S. camelus) and Somali ostriches (S. molybdophanes) date uncertain Africa, Mesopotamia meat, eggs, feathers, sacrifices   2f Palaeognathae
Scimitar-horned oryx (Oryx dammah) 2320–2150 BCE Egypt meat, hides, horns, sacrifices   Small captive population, but nearly extinct in the wild 1b Bovidae
Caracal (Caracal caracal)[63] date uncertain, possibly 200 BCE Egypt, India, Southern Africa hunting, pest control, pets   1c Carnivora
Cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) including subspecies Southeast African (A. j. jubatus), Northeast African (A. j. soemmeringii) and Asiatic cheetahs (A. j. venaticus)[64][65] 1500 BCE Egypt, India, the Middle East, South Africa hunting, tourism, pets   1c Carnivora
Bubal hartebeest (Alcelaphus buselaphus buselaphus)† date uncertain Egypt meat, hides, horns, sacrifices   Historically farmed Extinct in the wild and in captivity 1b Bovidae
Mandarin duck (Aix galericulata) pre-modern China (date uncertain) China pest control, ornamental, pets   2a Anseriformes
Egyptian goose (Alopochen aegyptiacus) date uncertain Egypt meat, eggs, feathers, guarding, ornamental, pets   Common in the wild and in captivity, feral populations very common 2a Anseriformes
Leopard cat (Prionailurus bengalensis)[66] 5000 BCE China pest control, pets   1c Carnivora
Common genet (Genetta genetta)[67] date uncertain Africa pest control, pets   1c Carnivora
Eastern honey bee (Apis cerana) including subspecies Chinese (A. c. cerana), Indian (A. c. indica) and Japanese honey bees (A. c. japonica) date uncertain South Asia, Thailand, Japan, China honey, wax, pollination   6a Hymenoptera
European fallow (Dama dama) and Persian fallow deer (D. mesopotamica)[68] 1000 BCE the Mediterranean Basin, the Levant meat, hides, antlers, pets   1a Artiodactyla except Bovidae
European medicinal leech (Hirudo medicinalis)[69][70] 800 BCE Europe, Asia bloodletting, surgery, therapy, research, saliva, pets   Captive-bred 7b Annelida
Cochineal (Dactylopius coccus) 700–500 BCE[43] Chile, Peru, Mexico dye   Very common in the wild 6b Other insects
Indian (Pavo cristatus) and green peafowl (P. muticus) 500 BCE (uncertain for P. muticus) India, Java meat, feathers, ornamental, guarding, pest control, pets   Fairly common in the wild 2b Galliformes
Common hill myna (Gracula religiosa) kept in ancient Greece, date of captive breeding uncertain Greece pets, talking bird   2d Passeriformes
Rose-ringed parakeet (Psittacula krameri) including subspecies African (P. k. krameri) and Indian rose-ringed parakeets (P. k. manillensis) classical antiquity (date uncertain) West Africa, India pets, talking bird   Captive-bred, plumage colour changes 2e Psittaciformes
Red deer (Cervus elaphus)[71][72] including subspecies Caspian (C. e. maral), Norwegian (C. e. atlanticus) and Scottish red deer (C. e. scoticus) ~1 CE China, Russia, Europe (including the United Kingdom), Iran meat, milk, leather, hides, antlers, velvet, pets   Captive-bred 1a Artiodactyla except Bovidae
Roman snail (Helix pomatia) 100 CE Europe meat, eggs, shells, slime, pets   Captive-bred 7a Mollusca
Stingless bees (Melipona beecheii), (M. scutellaris), (M. bicolor), (M. quadrifasciata) and (M. subnitida) 180 CE Mexico, the Amazon Basin honey, wax, propolis, pollination, pets   6a Hymenoptera
White (Cacatua alba), sulphur-crested (C. galerita), Salmon-crested (Cacatua moluccensis), blue-eyed (C. ophthalmica), and Red-vented cockatoos (C. haematuropygia); long-billed (C. tenuirostris), western (C. pastinator), little (C. sanguinea) and Tanimbar corellas (C. goffiniana) the Tang dynasty (618–907 CE) (C. alba) China, Australia, Indonesia, New Guinea pets, show   Captive-bred 2e Psittaciformes
Great (Phalacrocorax carbo) and Japanese cormorants (P. capillatus) 960 CE China, Japan fishing   2g Other birds
Mute swan (Cygnus olor) 1000-1500 CE Europe (including the United Kingdom) meat, feathers, ornamental, guarding, pets   2a Anseriformes
House cricket (Acheta domesticus) the 12th century CE Southwestern Asia, China, Japan meat, animal feed, fighting, pets   Somewhat common in captivity, very common in the wild 6b Other insects
Common quail (Coturnix coturnix) 1100–1900 CE Eurasia meat, eggs, research, pets   2b Galliformes
Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) 1200–1500 CE Europe, Asia meat, eggs, pets   5a Cyprinidae
Java sparrow (Lonchura oryzivora) the Ming dynasty (1368–1644 CE) China pets   Non-wild coloration pied and fancy colored Java sparrows from long Asian captivity lines are hand tamable Threatened in the wild 2d Passeriformes
Siamese fighting fish or betta (Betta splendens); Spotted betta (B. picta) the 19th century CE (uncertain for B. picta) Thailand, Malaysia, Borneo fighting, show, pets   Very significant physical and slight behavioral changes Common in captivity 5b Other fish
Northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) including subspecies masked bobwhite (C. v. ridgwayi) date uncertain the United States, Sonora meat, eggs, feathers, pets   Captive-bred, plumage changes 2b Galliformes
European goldfinch (Carduelis carduelis) date uncertain Europe pets, singing   Captive-bred 2d Passeriformes
Indian grey mongoose (Urva edwardsii) date uncertain India pest control, fighting, pets   1c Carnivora
Gambian pouched (Cricetomys gambianus) and Emin's pouched rats (C. emini) at least 1997,[73] but possibly the early 1990s (uncertain for C. emini) Sub-Saharan Africa meat, landmine detection, tuberculosis detection, pest control, pets   1d Rodentia
Golden (Chrysolophus pictus) and Lady Amherst's pheasants (C. amherstiae) date uncertain China ornamental, pest control, pets   2b Galliformes
Common (Phasianus colchicus) and green pheasants (P. versicolor) date uncertain Asia, Japan meat, eggs, ornamental, pest control, pets   2b Galliformes
Sika deer (Cervus nippon)[74] date uncertain China, Taiwan, Japan meat, hides, antlers, tourism, pets   1a Artiodactyla except Bovidae
Common (Taurotragus oryx) and Giant eland (T. derbianus) date uncertain Zimbabwe, South Africa, Kenya meat, milk, leather, hides, horns   1b Bovidae
American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis)[75] date uncertain the southeastern United States meat, hides, teeth, blood, pets   Captive-bred Once uncommon in the wild; captive breeding has led to the species both recovering across and repopulating much of its range. 3d Other reptiles
Eurasian elk or moose (Alces alces)[76] including subspecies Alaskan moose (A. a. gigas) date uncertain Russia, Finland, Sweden, Alaska meat, milk, hides, antlers, working, draft, mount, transportation, research, pets   1a Artiodactyla except Bovidae
Budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus) the 1850s Australia pets, show, talking bird   Captive-bred, plumage colour/pattern changes, some breeds are physically larger Fairly common in the wild and in captivity 2e Psittaciformes
Cockatiel (Nymphicus hollandicus) the 1870s Australia pets, show, talking bird   Captive-bred, plumage colour/pattern changes Common in the wild and in captivity 2e Psittaciformes
Elk or wapiti (Cervus canadensis) date uncertain North America, Russia, China meat, leather, hides, antlers, velvet, pets   Captive-bred 1a Artiodactyla except Bovidae
European mink (Mustela lutreola) the 1800s Europe, Russia fur   1c Carnivora
Coypu or nutria (Myocastor coypus) the late 19th to the early 20th century CE Argentina meat, fur, aquatic weed control, pets   Captive-bred 1d Rodentia
Guppy (Poecilia reticulata);[77] Cauca (P. caucana), sailfin (P. latipinna), shortfin (P. mexicana), liberty (P. salvatoris), common (P. sphenops), and Yucatán mollies (P. velifera); Endler's livebearer (P. wingei) date uncertain Barbados, Brazil, El Salvador, Guyana, Mexico, Venezuela bait, pest control, research, pets   5b Other fish
Lesser fruit fly, vinegar fly or pomace fly (Drosophila melanogaster) the 1910s Australia, South Africa research, animal feed   Captive-bred 6b Other insects
Chinese hamster (Cricetulus griseus) the 1920s China research, biotechnology, pets   1d Rodentia
Rosy-faced (Agapornis roseicollis), yellow-collared (A. personatus), Fischer's (A. fischeri), black-cheeked (A. nigrigenis), black-winged (A. taranta), and red-headed lovebirds (A. pullarius) the 1920s (uncertain for A. personatus, A. fischeri, A. nigrigenis, A. taranta and A. pullarius) Africa, Madagascar pets   Captive-bred, plumage colour/pattern changes in rosy-faced lovebird 2e Psittaciformes
Rainbowfishes (Melanotaeniidae; various species and subspecies) the 1920s northern and eastern Australia, New Guinea, islands in Cenderawasih Bay and the Raja Ampat Islands in Indonesia pest control, pets   5b Other fish
Golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) the 1930s Syria, Turkey pets, research   1d Rodentia
Turkish hamster (Mesocricetus brandti) the 20th century CE Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Iran, Russia, Turkey pets, research   1d Rodentia
Long-tailed chinchilla (Chinchilla lanigera) the 1930s the Andes fur, research, pets   1d Rodentia
Short-tailed chinchilla (Chinchilla chinchilla) the 1930s the Andes fur   Raised in captivity Critically endangered in the wild 1d Rodentia
Water flea (Daphnia magna) the 1930s North America, Eurasia, Africa research, animal feed   6c Other arthropods
African (Xenopus laevis) and western clawed frogs (X. tropicalis) the 1950s (uncertain for X. tropicalis) Southern Africa, West Africa research, pets   Captive-bred 4a Anura
Sea-monkey (Artemia nyos) the 1950s the United States pets, research   Captive-bred 6c Other arthropods
Ball (Python regius), Borneo (P. breitensteini), Sumatran short-tailed (P. curtus) and Brongersma's short-tailed pythons (P. brongersmai) the 1960s (uncertain for P. breitensteini, P. curtus and P. brongersmai) Africa, Sumatra, Borneo, Malaysia pets   Captive-bred 3a Serpentes
Burmese python (Python bivittatus) including subspecies dwarf Burmese python (P. b. progschai)[78][79] date uncertain Myanmar, Thailand, Bali, Java, Sulawesi meat, skins, medicine, pets   Captive-bred 3a Serpentes
Campbell's dwarf (Phodopus campbelli), winter white dwarf (P. sungorus) and Roborovski dwarf hamsters (P. roborovskii) the 1960s Mongolia, Russia, China pets, research   1d Rodentia
Axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum); tiger (A. tigrinum) and barred tiger salamanders (A. mavortium) the 20th century CE (uncertain for A. tigrinum and A. mavortium) Mexico, the United States research, pets   Slight physical changes A. mexicanum Critically endangered in the wild; A. tigrinum and A. mavortium less threatened 4b Other amphibians
Common leopard gecko (Eublepharis macularius) the 20th century CE (uncertain for E. m. afghanicus) Pakistan, Afghanistan pets   Slight physical changes Somewhat common in captivity 3b Lacertilia
American bison (Bison bison) including subspecies wood bison (B. b. athabascae) the 20th century CE (uncertain for B. b. athabascae) North America meat, leather, hides, fiber, horns, guarding, pets   1b Bovidae
Companion parrots (Psittaciformes; various species and subspecies)[80][81] the 1980s and 1990s Australia, Africa, Asia, North America, Central America, South America, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, New Caledonia, Fiji pets, show, talking bird, ornamental, guarding, education, therapy   Captive-bred, plumage colour changes in some species (e.g. grey parrot, turquoise-fronted amazon, green-cheeked parakeet and others) 2e Psittaciformes
Poison dart frogs (Dendrobatidae spp.) the mid- to late 20th century CE Guyana, Suriname, Brazil, French Guiana, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama, Colombia, Venezuela pets   Slight physical changes; loss of toxicity 4a Anura
Common (Lampropeltis getula), grey-banded (L. alterna), and Thayer's kingsnakes (L. mexicana thayeri); Milk snake (L. triangulum) date uncertain Arizona, Florida, Mexico, California pets   3a Serpentes
Corn (Pantherophis gutttatus) and western rat snakes (P. obsoletus) the 1960s (uncertain for P. obsoletus) the United States pets   Slight physical changes Somewhat common in captivity, common in the wild 3a Serpentes
Madagascar hissing (Gromphadorhina portentosa) and wide-horned hissing cockroaches (G. oblongonota) the 1960s (uncertain for G. oblongonota) Madagascar pets   Captive-bred 6b Other insects
Central bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps) and related species the 1970s Australia pets   Slight physical changes 3b Lacertilia
Silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix)[82] the 1970s China meat, algae control   5a Cyprinidae
Sugar glider (Petaurus breviceps)[83] the 1980s Australia pest control, pets   1e Other mammals
Buff-tailed (Bombus terrestris) and common eastern bumblebees (B. impatiens) the 1980s (uncertain for B. impatiens) Europe (including the United Kingdom), North America wax, pollination   6a Hymenoptera
Greater (Rhea americana) and Darwin's rheas (R. pennata)[84] the 1990s (uncertain for R. pennata) South America meat, eggs, feathers, leather, oil, pets   2f Palaeognathae
Australian emu (Dromaius novaehollandiae novaehollandiae) the 1990s Australia meat, eggs, feathers, leather, oil, guarding, pets   2f Palaeognathae
Fringe-eared oryx (Oryx beisa callotis) date uncertain Kenya meat, leather, hides, horns   1b Bovidae
Common degu (Octodon degus) the 1990s the Chilean Andes pets, research   1d Rodentia
Mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus); Persian (M. persicus), Libyan (M. libycus), Shaw's (M. shawi), Tristram's (M. tristrami) and Sundevall's jirds (M. crassus) the 1990s (uncertain for M. persicus, M. libycus, M. shawi, M. tristrami and M. crassus) Mongolia, Algeria, Iran, Libya, Turkey, Egypt pets, research   1d Rodentia
Green (Iguana iguana) and Lesser Antillean iguanas (I. delicatissima) the 1990s (uncertain for I. delicatissima) South America, the Lesser Antilles meat, leather, pets   Captive-bred 3b Lacertilia
Carpet python (Morelia spilota) including subspecies diamond python (M. s. spilota); eastern (M. s. mcdowelli), Murray Darling (M. s. metcalfei), Torresian (M. s. variegata) and jungle carpet pythons (M. s. cheynei) date uncertain Indonesia, Australia, New Guinea pets   Captive-bred 3a Serpentes
Southern green tree (Morelia viridis), southwestern carpet (M. imbricata), rough-scaled (M. carinata) and Bredl's pythons (M. bredli) the mid-1990s (uncertain for M. carinata and M. bredli) Indonesia, Australia, New Guinea pets   Captive-bred 3a Serpentes
Red-tailed black (Calyptorhynchus banksii), yellow-tailed black (C. funereus) and glossy black cockatoos (C. lathami) the late 1990s (uncertain for C. funereus and C. lathami) Australia pets, education   Captive-bred 2e Psittaciformes
Gouldian finch (Chloebia gouldiae) the late 1990s Australia pets, show   2d Passeriformes
Australian green (Ranoidea caerulea), orange-eyed (R. chloris), leaf green (R. phyllochroa), mountain stream (R. barringtonensis), magnificent (R. splendida), Blue Mountains (R. citropa) and dainty green tree frogs (R. gracilenta); growling grass frog (R. raniformis) the late 20th century CE (uncertain for R. chloris, R. phyllochroa, R. barringtonensis, R. splendida, R. citropa, R. gracilenta and R. raniformis) Australia research, pets   Captive-bred 4a Anura
Argentine (Ceratophrys ornata), Brazilian (C. aurita), Venezuelan (C. calcarata), Surinam (C. cornuta), Caatinga (C. joazeirensis), Pacific (C. stolzmanni) and Cranwell's horned frogs (C. cranwelli) the late 20th century CE (uncertain for C. aurita, C. calcarata, C. cornuta, C. joazeirensis, C. stolzmanni and C. cranwelli) Argentina, Brazil, Venezuela, Suriname, Ecuador pets   Captive-bred 4a Anura
Crucian (Carassius carassius), Japanese white crucian (C. cuvieri) and Prussian carp (C. gibelio); ginbuna (C. langdorfii)[85] the 2000s (uncertain for C. cuvieri, C. gibelio and C. langdorfii) England, Russia, Japan meat, research, pets   5a Cyprinidae
King quail (Synoicus chinensis) date uncertain Asia, Australia pets   2b Galliformes
Common (Corvus corax), white-necked (C. albicollis) and Australian ravens (C. coronoides); carrion (C. corone), hooded (C. cornix), American (C. brachyrhynchos), pied (C. albus) and house crows (C. splendens); rook (C. frugilegus)[86][87][88][89][90][91][92] date uncertain Europe, Africa, India, Australia, North America pest control, research, show, pets   2d Passeriformes
Oriental darter (Anhinga melanogaster)[93] date uncertain India fishing   2g Other birds
Southern (Chauna torquata) and northern screamers (C. chavaria) date uncertain South America guarding   2a Anseriformes
Horned screamer (Anhima cornuta)[94] date uncertain South America guarding   2a Anseriformes
Red-legged seriema (Cariama cristata) date uncertain South America guarding   2g Other birds
Golden (Aquila chrysaetos),[95]eastern imperial (A. heliaca), Spanish imperial (A. adalberti), wedge-tailed (A. audax), steppe (A. nipalensis), tawny (A. rapax), Bonelli's (A. fasciata) and Verreaux's eagles (A. verreauxii); African hawk-eagle (A. spilogaster) date uncertain Europe, North America, Kazakhstan, Mongolia, Africa, Australia falconry, intercepting, pest control, show, pets   2g Other birds
Bald (Haliaeetus leucocephalus)[96][97] and white-tailed eagles (H. albicilla); African fish eagle (H. vocifer); white-bellied sea (H. leucogaster) and Steller's sea eagles (H. pelagicus) date uncertain North America, Europe, Russia, Africa, Australia falconry, intercepting, pest control, show, pets   2g Other birds
Harris's hawk (Parabuteo unicinctus harrisi)[98] date uncertain the United States falconry, pest control, show, pets   2g Other birds
Northern (Accipiter gentilis),[99] crested (A. trivirgatus) and African goshawks (A. tachiro); Cooper's (A. cooperii) and sharp-shinned hawks (A. striatus); Eurasian (A. nisus), Ovambo (A. ovampensis), collared (A. cirrocephalus), Japanese (A. gularis) and black sparrowhawks (A. melanoleucus); besra (A. virgatus); shikra (A. badius) date uncertain Europe, Asia, Africa, North America falconry, pest control, show, pets   2g Other birds
Eurasian eagle-owl (Bubo bubo)[100] including subspecies Western Siberian (B. b. sibiricus), Eastern Siberian (B. b. yenisseensis) and Turkmenian eagle-owls (B. b. omissus) date uncertain Europe, Russia, Turkmenistan pest control, show, pets   2g Other birds
Tawny owl (Strix aluco)[101] date uncertain Europe (including the United Kingdom) pest control, show, pets   2g Other birds
Puna ibis (Plegadis ridgwayi) date uncertain Peru meat, eggs, pest control   2g Other birds
Celebes warty pig (Sus celebensis)[102] date uncertain Sulawesi meat, tusks, pets   Historically farmed 1a Artiodactyla except Bovidae
Red-necked wallaby (Notamacropus rufogriseus),[103] the 2000s Tasmania, South Australia, Western Australia, New South Wales lawn mowing, research, tourism, pets   1e Other mammals
Red kangaroo (Osphranter rufus)[104] date uncertain Australia meat, leather, tourism, pets   1e Other animals
Tiger (Dasyurus maculatus), eastern (D. viverrinus), western (D. geoffroii) and northern quolls (D. hallucatus)[105][106][107][108] date uncertain Australia pest control, pets   1e Other mammals
Smooth-coated otter (Lutrogale perspicillata)[109] date uncertain Bangladesh fishing, pets   1c Carnivora
Beech marten (Martes foina)[110][111] and sable (M. zibellina) date uncertain Europe, Russia, India fur, pest control, pets   1c Carnivora
Fisher or Pennant's marten (Pekania pennanti) date uncertain North America fur, pest control, research, pets   1c Carnivora
Least (Mustela nivalis), Siberian (M. sibirica)[112] and yellow-bellied weasels (M. kathiah); European polecat (M. putorius)[113][114] date uncertain Europe, Russia, India pest control, pets   1c Carnivora
Lesser grison (Galictis cuja) date uncertain South America hunting, pest control, pets   1c Carnivora
Patagonian weasel (Lyncodon patagonicus) date uncertain Argentina, Chile pest control, pets   1c Carnivora
Common raccoon (Procyon lotor)[115] date uncertain North America pest control, show, pets   1c Carnivora
Ringtail (Bassariscus astutus)[116] date uncertain North America, Central America pest control, pets   1c Carnivora
Mountain paca (Cuniculus taczanowskii) date uncertain Mexico, Argentina, Ecuador meat, pets   1d Rodentia
Malayan (Hystrix brachyura),[117]Sunda (H. javanica), Indian crested (H. indica), African crested (H. cristata), Cape (H. africaeaustralis) and Philippine porcupines (H. pumila) date uncertain Vietnam, China, Indonesia, the Philippines, India, Africa meat, quills, pets   1d Rodentia
Steppe lemming (Lagurus lagurus) date uncertain the Eurasian steppe pets   1d Rodentia
Lesser Egyptian (Gerbillus gerbillus), greater Egyptian (G. pyramidum), pale (G. perpallidus) and pleasant gerbils (G. amoenus) date uncertain Egypt, Libya pets   1d Rodentia
Eurasian harvest mouse (Micromys minutus)[118] date uncertain Europe pest control, pets   1d Rodentia
Chinese cobra (Naja atra)[119] date uncertain China venom, skins, pets   Captive-bred 3a Serpentes
Crimson rosella (Platycercus elegans) including subspecies Adelaide (P. e. adelaidae) and yellow rosellas (P. e. flaveolus) date uncertain Australia pets   Captive-bred 2e Psittaciformes
Western (Platycercus icterotis), green (P. caledonicus), pale-headed (P. adscitus) and northern rosellas (P. venustus) date uncertain Australia pets   Captive-bred 2e Psittaciformes
Eastern rosella (Platycercus eximius) including subspecies golden-mantled rosella (P. e. elecica) date uncertain Australia pets   Captive-bred 2e Psittaciformes
Hispaniolan (Trachemys decorata), Colombian (T. callirostris), Cuban (T. decussata), D'Orbigny's (T. dorbigni), Nicaraguan (T. emolli), ornate (T. ornata), Jamaican (T. terrapen) and Meso-American sliders (T. venusta) date uncertain Hispaniola (Haiti and the Dominican Republic), Colombia, Cuba, Brazil, Uruguay, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Mexico, Jamaica pets   Captive-bred 3c Testudines
Pond slider (Trachemys scripta) including subspecies yellow-bellied (T. s. scripta), red-eared (T. s. elegans) and Cumberland sliders (T. s. troostii) date uncertain the south-central and southeastern United States meat, pets   Easy to tame Fairly common in captivity, common in the wild 3c Testudines
Chinese softshell turtle (Pelodiscus sinensis)[120] date uncertain China meat, pets   Captive-bred 3c Testudines
Chinese pond (Mauremys reevesii) and yellow pond turtles (M. mutica)[121] date uncertain China meat, pets   Captive-bred 3c Testudines
Common snapping turtle (Chelydra serpentina)[122] date uncertain Florida meat, pets   Captive-bred 3c Testudines
Keeled box (Cuora mouhotii)[123] and Golden coin turtles (C. trifasciata) date uncertain China meat, pets   Captive-bred 3c Testudines
Wattle-necked softshell turtle (Palea steindachneri) date uncertain China meat, pets   Captive-bred 3c Testudines
Arrau turtle (Podocnemis expansa)[124] date uncertain Brazil meat, pets   Captive-bred 3c Testudines
Saltwater (Crocodylus porosus), Nile (C. niloticus), West African (C. suchus), mugger (C. palustris), American (C. acutus), Cuban (C. rhombifer), Morelet's (C. moreletii), Orinoco (C. intermedius), freshwater (C. johnsoni), Siamese (C. siamensis), Philippine (C. mindorensis) and New Guinea crocodiles (C. novaeguineae)[125][126][127][128][129][130] date uncertain Florida, Cuba, Mexico, Colombia, Venezuela, Peru, Africa, Iran, India, Thailand, Myanmar, Sumatra, Borneo, the Philippines, Australia, Papua New Guinea meat, hides, teeth, blood, fat, guarding, tourism, show, pets   Captive-bred 3d Other reptiles
Crimson (Neochmia phaeton) and red-browed finches (N. temporalis) date uncertain New Guinea, Australia pets, show   2d Passeriformes
Star finch (Bathilda ruficauda) date uncertain Australia pets, show   2d Passeriformes
Grey partridge (Perdix perdix) date uncertain Hungary, the United Kingdom meat, eggs, feathers, pets   2b Galliformes
Red-legged (Alectoris rufa), chukar (A. chukar), Philby's (A. philbyi), Arabian (A. melanocephala) and Barbary partridges (A. barbara) date uncertain France, Afghanistan, North Africa, Yemen, Oman meat, eggs, feathers, pets   2b Galliformes
Chinese bamboo partridge (Bambusicola thoracicus) date uncertain China, India meat, eggs, feathers, pets   2b Galliformes
Himalayan monal (Lophophorus impejanus) date uncertain Nepal meat, eggs, feathers, ornamental, pets   2b Galliformes
Scaled (Callipepla squamata), elegant (C. douglasii), Gambel's (C. gambelii) and California quails (C. californica)[131] date uncertain Mexico, Utah, California meat, eggs, feathers, pets   2b Galliformes
Montezuma quail (Cyrtonyx montezumae) date uncertain Mexico meat, eggs, feathers, pets   2b Galliformes
Vulturine guineafowl (Acryllium vulturinum) date uncertain Ethiopia meat, pest control, pets   2b Galliformes
Harlequin (Coturnix delegorguei), rain (C. coromandelica) and stubble quails (C. pectoralis) date uncertain Africa, India, Australia meat, eggs, feathers, pets   2b Galliformes
Edible-nest swiftlet (Aerodramus fuciphagus)[132] date uncertain Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, the Philippines, Singapore nests   2g Other birds
Tarantulas (Theraphosidae, various species and subspecies)[133] date uncertain North America, Central America, South America, Europe, Africa, Asia, Australia, Papua New Guinea research, venom, pets   Captive-bred Common in captivity, becoming rare in the wild 6c Other arthropods
Crested (Correlophus ciliatus) and suras geckos (C. sarasinorum) date uncertain New Caledonia pets   Captive-bred Somewhat common in captivity, nearly extinct in the wild 3b Lacertilia
Roan (Hippotragus equinus)[134] and sable antelopes (H. niger)[135] date uncertain South Africa meat, horns   1b Bovidae
Greater kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros),[136] nyala (T. angasii),[137] and Cape bushbuck (T. sylvaticus) date uncertain South Africa meat, hides, horns, pets   1b Bovidae
Blue (Connochaetes taurinus)[138] and black wildebeest (C. gnou)[139] date uncertain South Africa, Kenya meat, leather, hides, horns, pets   1b Bovidae
Bontebok (Damaliscus pygargus pygargus) including subspecies blesbok (D. p. phillipsi)[140] date uncertain South Africa meat, hides, horns   1b Bovidae
Nilgai (Boselaphus tragocamelus) date uncertain India, Pakistan meat, hides, horns, pets   Historically farmed 1b Bovidae
Scaly-breasted munia (Lonchura punctulata) date uncertain Southeast Asia pets, research   Slight physical changes Fairly common in the wild and in captivity 2d Passeriformes
Blackbuck (Antilope cervicapra) date uncertain India, Pakistan meat, hides, horns, pets   1b Bovidae
Springbok (Antidorcas marsupialis)[141] date uncertain South Africa meat, hides, horns, pets   1b Bovidae
Barbary sheep (Ammotragus lervia)[142] date uncertain North Africa meat, horns   1b Bovidae
African buffalo (Syncerus caffer)[143][144] date uncertain South Africa meat, leather, horns   1b Bovidae
Collared peccary (Dicotyles tajacu)[145] date uncertain Brazil meat, pets   1a Artiodactyla except Bovidae
Thorold's deer (Cervus albirostris)[146] date uncertain China meat, antlers   1a Artiodactyla except Bovidae
White-tailed (Odocoileus virginianus)[147] and mule deer (O. hemionus) date uncertain Virginia, West Virginia, Florida, Montana, Canada, Colombia meat, hides, antlers, pets   1a Artiodactyla except Bovidae
Dwarf (Moschus berezovskii), alpine (M. chrysogaster), white-bellied (M. leucogaster) and Siberian musk deer (M. moschiferus)[148][149][150] date uncertain China, India, Russia meat, hides, tusks, musk   1a Artiodactyla except Bovidae
Spotted hyena (Crocuta crocuta)[151][152][153][154] date uncertain South Africa, Ethiopia, Nigeria hunting, guarding, waste management, tourism, show, pets   1c Carnivora
Fennec fox (Vulpes zerda)[155] date uncertain North Africa pest control, pets   1c Carnivora
Grey (Urocyon cinereoargenteus) and island foxes (U. littoralis)[156] date uncertain the eastern United States, the Channel Islands, California pelts, pest control, pets   1c Carnivora
Meerkat or suricate (Suricata suricatta)[157][158] date uncertain South Africa pest control, research, education, therapy, tourism, show, pets   1c Carnivora
Common kusimanse (Crossarchus obscurus) date uncertain West Africa pets, pest control   Captive-bred 1c Carnivora
Kissing gourami (Helostoma temminckii) date uncertain Thailand, Indonesia meat, pets   5b Other fish
Giant (Osphronemus goramy),[159][160] giant red tail (O. laticlavius) and elephant ear gouramis (O. exodon) date uncertain Southeast Asia meat, weed control, pets   Captive-bred 5b Other fish
Red-bellied (Pygocentrus nattereri), piraya (P. piraya) and black spot piranha (P. cariba) date uncertain South America meat, teeth, research, pets   Fairly common in captivity, common in the wild 5b Other fish
Atlantic bluefin (Thunnus thynnus), Pacific bluefin (T. orientalis), southern bluefin (T. maccoyii), yellowfin (T. albacares) and bigeye tunas (T. obesus); albacore or longfin tuna (T. alalunga)[161][162] date uncertain Europe, East Asia, Australia, Hawaii, North America meat, eggs   Captive-bred 5b Other fish
European sea (Acipenser sturio), white (A. transmontanus), shortnose (A. brevirostrum), Persian (A. persicus), Siberian (A. baerii), Adriatic (A. naccarii) and starry sturgeons (A. stellatus)[163][164][165][166] date uncertain Europe, Alaska, California, Canada, Iran, Russia, Albania, the Aegean Sea meat, eggs, pets   Captive-bred 5b Other fish
Malabar (Epinephelus malabaricus), giant (E. lanceolatus), greasy (E. tauvina), areolate (E. areolatus), dusky (E. marginatus), wavy-lined (E. undulosus), six-bar (E. sexfasciatus) and orange-spotted groupers (E. coioides)[167][168][169] date uncertain Asia, Australia, Fiji, South Africa, Italy, the Indo-Pacific meat   Captive-bred 5b Other fish
Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss); Chinook (O. tshawytscha) and Masu salmon (O. masou) date uncertain Europe, Asia, North America meat, eggs   Captive-bred 5b Other fish
Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and brown trout (S. trutta) date uncertain Europe (including the United Kingdom), Alaska, Canada, Chile, Russia, Australia, Tasmania meat, eggs   Captive-bred 5b Other fish
Barramundi (Lates calcarifer),[170] Japanese lates (L. japonicus) and Nile perch (L. niloticus)[171] date uncertain the United Kingdom, Poland, the United States, India, Southeast Asia, the Middle East, Australia, Japan, Africa meat, pets   Captive-bred 5b Other fish
Cobia (Rachycentron canadum) date uncertain the United States, Asia, Panama, Mexico meat   Captive-bred 5b Other fish
European bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) date uncertain Europe meat   Captive-bred 5b Other fish
Milkfish (Chanos chanos)[172] date uncertain the Philippines, Taiwan, Indonesia meat   Captive-bred 5b Other fish
Northern pike (Esox lucius)[173] date uncertain Europe meat, eggs, research, pets   Captive-bred 5b Other fish
Alligator (Atractosteus spatula), Cuban (A. tristoechus) and tropical gars (A. tropicus)[174][175][176] date uncertain North America, Cuba, Costa Rica meat, pets   Captive-bred 5b Other fish
Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) date uncertain China meat, weed control   5a Cyprinidae
Black carp (Mylopharyngodon piceus) date uncertain China meat, pest control, medicine   5a Cyprinidae
Bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) date uncertain China meat   5a Cyprinidae
Giant barb (Catlocarpio siamensis)[177] date uncertain Vietnam meat, pets   5a Cyprinidae
Arapaima (Arapaima gigas)[178][179] date uncertain the Amazon Basin meat, pets   Captive-bred 5b Other fish
Wels catfish (Silurus glanis)[180] date uncertain Europe meat   Captive-bred 5b Other fish
Iridescent shark (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) and Mekong giant catfish (P. gigas)[181] date uncertain Southeast Asia meat, pets   Captive-bred 5b Other fish
Flathead grey mullet (Mugil cephalus)[182] date uncertain California, Colorado meat   Captive-bred 5b Other fish
Green (Etroplus suratensis)[183] and orange chromides (E. maculatus); Canara pearlspot (E. canarensis) date uncertain India meat, pets   Captive-bred 5b Other fish
Northern red snapper (Lutjanus campechanus)[184] date uncertain the Gulf of Mexico meat, research   Captive-bred 5b Other fish
Greater (Seriola dumerili), Japanese (S. quinqueradiata) and yellowtail amberjacks (S. lalandi); longfin yellowtail (S. rivoliana)[185][186] date uncertain the Mediterranean Sea, Japan, Chile, Hawaii meat   Captive-bred 5b Other fish
Southern (Paralichthys lethostigma) and olive flounders (P. olivaceus)[187] the 1980s (uncertain for P. lethostigma) the United States, Japan, China, Korea meat   Captive-bred 5b Other fish
European eel (Anguilla anguilla) date uncertain Europe, North America meat   Captive-bred[188] 5b Other fish
Sugarbag bee (Tetragonula carbonaria) and Indian stingless bee (T. iridipennis) date uncertain Australia, India honey, wax, propolis, pollination   6a Hymenoptera
Dubia roach (Blaptica dubia) date uncertain Central America, South America animal feed, pets   Captive-bred 6b Other insects
Mealworm (Tenebrio molitar) and superworm (Zophobas morio) date uncertain Europe meat, animal feed, research   Captive-bred 6b Other insects
Red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum) date uncertain the United States research   Captive-bred 6b Other insects
Black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens)[189] date uncertain the United States meat, animal feed, pollination, decomposing   Captive-bred 6b Other insects
Waxworms (Achroia grisella and Galleria mellonella) date uncertain Europe? meat, bait, animal feed, research   Captive-bred 6b Other insects
American cockroach (Periplaneta americana)[190] date uncertain North America meat, medicine, pets   Captive-bred 6b Other insects
Flame jellyfish (Rhopilema esculentum)[191] date uncertain China meat, medicine, pets   Captive-bred 7c Other animals
Common (Octopus vulgaris), common Sydney (O. tetricus), big blue (O. cyanea), Mexican four-eyed (O. maya), California two-spot (O. bimaculoides), Gould's (O. mimus), long arm (O. minor), Caribbean reef (O. briareus), Caribbean dwarf (O. mercatoris) and East Pacific red octopuses (O. rubescens)[192][193][194][195][196][197] date uncertain Europe, Asia, North America, Western Australia, Hawaii, the Caribbean Sea meat, ink, research, pets   Captive-bred 7a Mollusca
Common periwinkle (Littorina littorea) date uncertain Europe meat, shells   Captive-bred 7a Mollusca
Garden snail (Cornu aspersum) date uncertain Europe meat, eggs, shells, slime, pets   Captive-bred 7a Mollusca
Giant Ghana African snail (Achatina achatina)[198] date uncertain Ghana, Kenya meat, eggs, shells, slime, pets   Captive-bred 7a Mollusca
Giant East African (Lissachatina fulica)[199] and African land snails (L. albopicta) date uncertain East Africa meat, shells, slime, education, pets   Captive-bred 7a Mollusca
Pacific (Eptatretus stoutii) and inshore hagfishes (E. burgeri)[200][201] date uncertain the United States, South Korea, Japan meat, skins, slime   Captive-bred 5b Other fish
Mud crab (Scylla serrata) date uncertain Asia meat, pets   Captive-bred 6c Other arthropods
Flower crab (Portunus armatus)[202][203] date uncertain Australia meat   Captive-bred 6c Other arthropods
European (Homarus gammarus) and American lobsters (H. americanus)[204][205][206] date uncertain Europe, the United States meat   Captive-bred 6c Other arthropods
American bullfrog (Lithobates catesbeianus), northern leopard (L. pipiens), pig (L. grylio), and northern green frogs (L. clamitans melanota) date uncertain North America meat, education, research, pets   Captive-bred 4a Anura
Pool (Pelophylax lessonae) and marsh frogs (P. ridibundus)[207] date uncertain Europe meat, pets   Captive-bred 4a Anura
Crab-eating frog (Fejervarya cancrivora) date uncertain Java meat   Captive-bred 4a Anura
Chinese edible frog (Hoplobatrachus rugulosus) and Indus Valley bullfrog (H. tigerinus) date uncertain China, Thailand meat, pets   Captive-bred 4a Anura
Blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) the 14th century CE Europe meat, pets   Captured in the wild or captive-bred Extended in the wild and in captivity 7a Mollusca
New Zealand green-lipped mussel (Perna canaliculus) the 1970s New Zealand meat, pets   Captured in the wild and captive-bred 7a Mollusca
Purple dye murex (Bolinus brandaris) classical antiquity (date uncertain) the central and western Mediterranean Sea Tyrian purple, meat   Historically captive-bred No longer farmed 7a Mollusca
Striped skunk (Mephitis mephitis) the 19th century CE[citation needed] North America pelts, pest control, pets   Tame when captive-bred, significant physical changes[citation needed] Somewhat common in the wild and in captivity 1c Carnivora

Taxonomical groupings edit

The categories used in the Taxon group column are:

See also edit

References edit

  1. ^ "How did we ever manage to domesticate so many animals?". Archived from the original on 2011-07-07. Retrieved 2009-04-23.
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