Conservatoire national des arts et métiers

The Conservatoire national des arts et métiers (English: National Conservatory of Arts and Crafts; abbr. CNAM) is an AMBA-accredited French grande école and grand établissement. It is a member of the Conférence des Grandes écoles, which is an equivalent to the Ivy League schools in the United States, Oxbridge in the United Kingdom, the C9 League in China, or the Imperial Universities in Japan.[5][6] CNAM is one of the founding Schools of the Grande école system, with École polytechnique and Ecole Normale Supérieure in 1794, in the wake of the French Revolution.

French National Conservatory of Arts and Crafts
Conservatoire National des Arts et Métiers
Docet omnes ubique (Latin)
Motto in English
Teaching to everyone everywhere
TypePublic, Grand établissement, Grande école
Established1794 (1794)
AccreditationGrande école, Commission des Titres d'Ingénieur, AMBA, EduQua
Budget174 M€ in 2020
ChancellorOlivier Faron (since 2013)[1]
PresidentGérard Mestrallet[1]
Vice-ChancellorBernard Racimora[1]
Academic staff
1,670: 568 Professors-Researchers | 1,102 academic staff
Students70,000 (57.7% employees, 24% job seekers, 12% students, 6.3% self-employed) | 10% of foreign students
Postgraduates1,592 (Grande Ecole engineers enrollment)
91 (enrolled at the EiCNAM Grande Ecole engineering School) | 340 in total
Headquartered in Paris
France; campuses in Paris (36% of students), in 160 other French cities, in overseas France (3% of students), campuses in whole francophone Africa and in other countries (11% of students)[2][3]
LanguageFrench, English
AffiliationsParis-Saclay University, AMBA, CGE, Grand Etablissement, Consortium Couperin,[4] Commission des Titres d'Ingénieur, EduQua, Elles Bougent, Hautes Écoles Sorbonne Arts et Métiers University, Répertoire national des certifications professionnelles

Headquartered in Paris, it has campuses in every major French cities, in overseas France and in every francophone African country,[7] China,[8][9] Haiti,[10] Germany,[11] and Switzerland.[12][13][14] Founded in 1794 by the French bishop Henri Grégoire, CNAM's core mission is dedicated to provide education and conduct research for the promotion of science and industry. With 70,000 students and a budget of €174 million,[15] it is the largest university in Europe in terms of Budget for distance learning and continued education, and in terms of enrolment, slightly ahead of the University of Hagen.[16]

Under the aegis of the French Ministry of National Education, the National Directory of Professional Certifications and the Accreditation authority for French professional engineers, CNAM provides Grande Ecole and non-Grande Ecole certificates, diplomas, Bachelor's degrees, Master's degrees and PhD's in Science, Engineering, Law, Management (AMBA-accredited[17]), Finance, Accountancy, Urban planning and Humanities, all designed to abide by the European Bologna Process, and thus complying with the European Credit Transfer System. It is the only higher education institution in Europe to provide Physics, Chemistry and Life-Science engineer's degrees up to a PhD-level (some of which 100% remotely) via distance learning and via its so-called "hybrid learning" which includes intermittent laboratories classes concentrated during a whole week on-site.

The CNAM hosts also a museum dedicated to scientific and industrial inventions: Musée des Arts et Métiers (English: the Industrial Design Museum) which welcomed 250,000 visitors in 2018,[18] and is located on the Parisian campus of the French National Conservatory of Arts and Crafts at 292 rue Saint Martin, in the 3rd arrondissement of Paris, in the historical area of the city named Le Marais.

History edit

Founded on 10 October 1794, during the French Revolution,[19] it was then proposed by Abbé Henri Grégoire as a "depository for machines, models, tools, drawings, descriptions and books in all the areas of the arts and trades".[20] The deserted Saint-Martin-des-Champs Priory (and particularly its Gothic refectory by Pierre de Montereau) was selected as the site of collection, which officially opened in 1802.

Tennis Court Oath (1789) by David : the abbot Henri Grégoire, was a founding member of the French Conservatory of Arts and Crafts, and is shown here wearing his clergy black cloth, in the foreground, at the centre of the painting with Dom Gerle on the left and Jean-Paul Rabaut Saint-Étienne on the right-hand side.

Originally charged with the collection of inventions, it has since become an educational institution. At the present time, it is known primarily as a grand-école and university for:

  • adults seeking higher education as engineering (multidisciplinary scientific program), master and bachelor degrees, mostly through evening and/or remote classes in a variety of topics ;
  • young students enrolling in training diplomas in apprenticeship ;
  • international student of bachelors and masters taught in English.

The collection of inventions is now operated by the Musée des Arts et Métiers. The original Foucault pendulum was exhibited as part of the collection, but was moved to the Panthéon in 1995 during museum renovation. It was later reinstalled in the Musée des Arts et Métiers. On 6 April 2010,[21] the cable suspending the original pendulum bob snapped causing irreparable damage to the pendulum and to the marble flooring of the museum.[22]

For the first time in history, in 1851, the French physicist Léon Foucault used a pendulum in order to prove the rotation of Earth around its own axis. The pendulum is exhibited at the Museum of Cnam on the Parisian campus and at the Panthéon.[23]

The novel Foucault's Pendulum written by Umberto Eco deals greatly with this establishment, as the Foucault pendulum hung in the museum plays a great role in the storyline. The novel was published in 1989 prior to the pendulum being moved back to the Panthéon during the museum reconstruction.[24]

On 25 November 1819, at the instigation of Duke Decazes, newly nominated as Minister of the Interior, a three-Chairs higher education is established at the French National Conservatory of Arts and Crafts: Applied Mechanical Engineering vested in Baron Charles Dupin; Applied Chemistry entrusted to Nicolas Clément; and Industrial Economics left with Jean Baptiste Say.

Missions and Values edit

The French National Conservatory of Arts and Crafts is infused with the values of the Lumières, as part of the French enlightenment era, of the 18th Century French Humanism, and of the French encyclopedists, whose goal was to provide emancipation via knowledge for everyone; the latter being often followed by most Grande Ecole and Universities in France, along with Universalism and Cartesianism. This background paved the way to nowadays CNAM's values of meritocracy, solidarity and academic excellence.[25]

Under the supervision of the Ministry of Higher Education and as French public institution of higher education, it is assigned three missions:

  • Training throughout life (Lifelong learning);
  • Technological research and innovation;
  • Dissemination of scientific and technical culture.

These missions and values are reflected in CNAM's motto: "Omnes docet ubique", which means: "Teaching to everyone everywhere."

Campuses edit

Parisian campus edit

Out of the 70,000 students enrolled at CNAM (57.7% employees, 24% job seekers, 12% students, 6.3% self-employed), 36% are enrolled at the Parisian campus, 3% in Overseas France, 11% abroad and the rest in metropolitan France, of which 1,592 are enrolled at the Grande Ecole engineer school of CNAM: the EiCNAM.[26][27] The Parisian campus and headquarters of the French National Conservatory of Arts and Crafts is located in one of the last medieval architectural area of Paris, in the historical district of Le Marais in the 3rd arrondissement of Paris, at the former Benedictine priory of Saint-Martin-des-Champs, which church and core architectural style was inspired by the Basilica of Saint-Denis architecture built a few years earlier.

Diderot and D'Alembert's Encyclopedia, as part of the French Encyclopedist movement during the French Enlightenment era, paved the way for the creation of an institution dedicated to arts and crafts.

This large Cluniac monastery founded by King Henry the First of France in 1059–1060 on Merovingian vestige, is still visible today. The former gothic-style refectory hall dated from the 13th century remains until today and was reassigned as the library in the middle of the 19th century by the CNAM's architect: Léon Vaudoyer.

Campuses in the rest of Metropolitan France edit

CNAM is based in 160 other French cities. French regional CNAM Centres are financially independent but pedagogically linked to the CNAM public institution based in Paris (namely of enrolment, selection and evaluation of candidates), and their existence is governed by a specific ministry decree. Half of the regional CNAM centres budget is allocated by the French regional councils. A student should apply through the nearest French regional CNAM in terms of enrolment, in other words, someone living in Marseille should enrol in Marseille's regional center (PACA) and not in Paris, even if his/her desired curriculum is not available in Marseille. As the vast majority of continuing education curricula are taught online, continuing education students can most of the time attend them via their nearest CNAM regional centre. Shall some specific classes be available only in Paris or at another regionalc centre, the student can attend these courses on-site, shall it be required (for example laboratory sessions in Life Science, Physics or Chemistry). Regional centres providing Engineering diploma via the EiCNAM, the Grande Ecole Engineer School of CNAM are all certified by the French national committee responsible for evaluation and accreditation of higher education institutions for the training of professional engineers in France (in French: Commission des Titres d'Ingénieur, abbr.: CTI). Some CNAM regional centres are hosted by other partner universities, for example the CNAM centre of Aix-en-Provence is located at the campus of the French Grande Ecole engineering and research school: Arts et Métiers ParisTech.

CNAM campus in Reims, Champagne province.
Campuses of the French National Conservatory of Arts Crafts (abbreviated in French as: CNAM) worldwide. This map does not take into account campuses based in mainland France and Corsica.

Campuses in overseas France edit

  •   French Guiana
  •   French Polynesia
  •   Guadeloupe
  •   Martinique
  •   Mayotte
  •   New Caledonia
  •   Réunion

Campuses abroad edit



  •   Algeria
  •   Burkina Faso
  •   Burundi
  •   Cameroon
  •   Central African Republic
  •   Democratic Republic of the Congo
  •   Djibouti
  •   Gabon
  •   Guinea
  •   Ivory Coast
  •   Lebanon: Network of 7 campus founded since 1971.
  •   Madagascar
  •   Mali
  •   Mauritania
  •   Morocco
  •   Niger
  •   Republic of the Congo
  •   Senegal
  •   Chad
  •   Togo
  •   Tunisia




Faculties and Schools edit

Faculties edit

On 7 July 2016, the CNAM's board of directors enacted a reform via the directory of decisions number 2016-24 AG to 2016–33 AG,[34] which goal was to create 16 national pedagogic teams (French: équipes pédagogiques nationales | abbr.: EPN) in lieu of the School for industrial sciences and technologies (French: écoles Sciences industrielles et technologies de l’information | abbr.: Siti) and the School for Management and Society Management et société (French: école Management et Société | abbr.: MS). Some Pedagogic Teams below are also sometimes Schools per se.  

  • EPN 1: Building and energetics
  • EPN 2: School for Surveyors, Geometricians-Topographers (Abbreviation of the chool name in French: ESGT)
  • EPN 3: Electronics, Electrotechnics, Automation, Measurement
  • EPN 4: Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science
  • EPN 5: Computer Science and Engineering
  • EPN 6: Mathematics and Statistics
  • EPN 7: Chemical, pharmaceutical and Food Industries
  • EPN 8: Intechmer (Maritime Transport and Marine Biology)
  • EPN 9: Economics, Finance, Insurances, Banking (Efab)
  • EPN10: Accounting, Finance Monitoring, Audit (CCA)
  • EPN 11: Territories (Geography and Sociology)
  • EPN 12: Health and Solidarities
  • EPN 13: Labour
  • EPN 14: Law and Real Estate
  • EPN 15: Strategies and Management
  • EPN 16: Innovation

Schools and institutes of CNAM

  • Ecole Pasteur-Cnam: School specialised in public health
  • Ecole Vaucanson: first National Management and Engineering Grande Ecole Higher Education Institution for students coming from vocational baccalaureate curricula.
  • EiCnam Ecole d'ingénieur.e: "Ei-" standing for: Ecole d'Ingénieur (in English: Engineering School), Grande Ecole curriculum, which like any other Grande Ecole selects students via a national competitive examination.
  • ENASS: French National School for Insurances
  • Enjmin: School specialised in video games and interactive media
  • ESGT: School for surveyor/geometrician-topographer
  • ICH: Institute specialised in Law applied to Real Estate
  • ICSV: Institute specialing in Sales and Marketing
  • FFI: College for Refrigeration, Industrial Cooling and HVAC engineering
  • IHIE-SSET: Institute for Hygiene and Food Safety
  • IIM: Institute specialised in Management
  • Inetop: Institute for the study of Labour, career counselling, personal development, education
  • INTD: Institute for Culture, Information, Technology and Society
  • Intec: Institute for Economics and Accountancy
  • Institute of Technology in Management, IT, Industrial Engineering, Physical Measurement, Material Studies
  • ISTNA: Institute for Nutrition and Food Science
  • ITIP: Institute for Transport and Ports

The academic staff headcount in 2020 reached 1,670, with 568 professors/researchers and 1,120 academic staff, which are called at CNAM: Biatss (French: bibliothèque, ingénieurs, administratifs, techniciens, social et santé | English: library staff, engineering staff, administrative staff, technical taff, social and health services staff).[15]

Doctoral college, schools and research centres edit

Doctoral college and doctoral schools edit

The CNAM provides via its doctoral college PhD-curricula via distance-learning (along the job), or on-site. There are 91 PhD candidates enrolled at the EiCNAM Grande Ecole engineering School,[27] and a total of 350 professors-researchers and academic staff for a total of 340 doctoral students[35] from 40 different nationalities[36] enrolled at CNAM worldwide, at which 60 thesis defence/examination take place yearly.[16][36] The doctoral college of CNAM comprises two doctoral schools:[37]

  • a doctoral school specialised in Science and Engineering (French: Sciences des métiers de l’ingénieur.e | abbr.: SMI), in partnership with the French Grande Ecole Arts et métiers (doctoral school code: ED 432),
  • and a doctoral school Abbé-Grégoire specialised in Humanities and Arts (ED 546).

Doctoral schools in partnership with other French Universities:

  • ED 591 : Physics, engineering sciences and energetics
  • ED 532 : Mathematics and informatics
  • ED 435 : Agriculture, biology, environment, health
  • ED 146 : Sciences, technology, health
    Paris-Saclay University is a partner of Cnam, with which the latter shares a doctoral college. Paris-Saclay ranks 13 in the world in 2020 according to ARWU,[38] 1st in Mathematics and 9th in Physics (1st in Europe),[39] with a teaching and academic research staff of 9,000, while catering 48,000 students — which is more than Harvard or Stanford.[40]
    Doctoral College of Paris-Saclay University.
Helium–neon laser used at the LNE-CNAM: the National Laboratory of Experimental Metrology,[41] under the aegis of the International Committee for Weights and Measures (CIPM), based in Paris and of EURAMET, which conduct research projects in cooperation with the Kastler–Brossel Laboratory, the latter being a shared laboratory of the French National Centre for Scientific Research (CNRS), the Grande Ecole École normale supérieure, the Sorbonne University and the Grand Etablissement Collège de France.[42] Specializing in fundamental physics of quantum systems, it was named after Alfred Kastler French physicist, and Nobel Prize laureate[43] and Jean Brossel, French physicist known for his work on quantum optics and Holweck Prize Laureate.[44][45]

Research centres and laboratories of CNAM edit

  • Cedric: Research centre in informatics and communication
  • CEET: Research centre for labour and employment
  • CRTD: Research centre for labour and development
  • Dicen-IdF: Information system in a digital era
  • DynFluid: Laboratory of fluid dynamics
  • Eren: Research team in food
  • Esycom: Electronics, communication systems and microsystems
  • Foap: Vocational training and professional apprenticeship
  • GBCM: Laboratory of genomics, bioinformatics and molecular chemistry
  • GeF: Laboratory of geomatics and real estate
  • HT2S: History of technosciences in our society
  • Lafset: Laboratory for refrigeration, industrial cooling, HVAC engineering, energetic and thermal systems
  • LCM: Shared laboratory of metrology (LNE-Cnam)
  • Lifse: Laboratory in fluid engineering and energetic systems
  • Lirsa: Interdisciplinary laboratory in the research for action, piloting and decision-making (applied to economics, law, management)
  • Lise: Interdisciplinary laboratory for sociology applied to economics
  • LMSSC: Laboratory for structural mechanics and coupled systems
  • M2N: Mathematical modelling and digitalisation
  • MESuRS: Modelling, epidemiology and health risk monitoring
  • Pimm: Process and engineering in mechanic and material sciences
  • Satie: Applications and systems of communication technologies and energetics
  • SD (ESDR3C): Intelligence, security and defence, cyber-threats, crisis

Partner research centres edit

Curricula edit

Array of curricula edit

In 2022, amongst the 4366 curricula in total, the array of the Cnam's academic curricula spans the following[46]:

  • 536 Diploma and certificates not registered at the RNCP: 
    • 241 CNAM Certificate,
    • 89 CNAM Diploma.
  • 2201 courses, as part of a certifying curriculum, of which around 84% are solely taught remotely.  
  • 657 continuing education course, i.e. perfecting classes resulting in a certification.  
  • Other classes.

Grande école academic features edit

National Convention Altar or also called Republican Altar, inside the Panthéon in Paris. The term grande école originated in 1794 after the French Revolution,[47] upon the creation of the École normale supérieure, of the École centrale des travaux publics (later École polytechnique, France's foremost Grande Ecole of Engineering, abbreviated nowadays as "ℓ'X" in French) by the mathematician Gaspard Monge and Lazare Carnot and of the French National Conservatory of Arts and Crafts by the abbot Henri Grégoire, which all resulted from the National Convention.[48][49][50]

The French National Conservatory of Arts and Crafts is a Grand Etablissment (like the prestigious Collège de France founded in 1530), but is also a Grande Ecole which provides Grande-Ecole degrees, i.e. solely Master's Degrees, MBAs and PhDs (Grande Ecoles do not bestow diplomas lower than a European Master's degree level). A Grande Ecole, literally "Great School", is a higher education institution and part of a French league of universities,[51] which select students via national competitive entrance examinations (in French: concours) to safeguard meritocracy and impartiality.[52] The French National Conservatory of Arts and Crafts was one of the founding Schools of the Grande Ecole System in the wake of the French Revolution.[48][49][50]

Grande Ecoles are separate from, but parallel and often connected to, the main framework of the French public university system. Grandes écoles, like CNAM, are elite academic institutions which enroll students via an extremely competitive process, and a significant proportion of their graduates occupy the highest levels of French society. Similar to Ivy League schools in the United States, Oxbridge in the UK, and C9 League in China, graduation from a grande école is considered the prerequisite credential for any top government, administrative and corporate position in France. The degrees are accredited by the Conférence des Grandes Écoles and bestowed upon by the Ministry of National Education (France). Higher education business and engineering degrees in France are organised into three levels thus facilitating international mobility: the Licence / Bachelor's degrees, and the Master's and Doctorat degrees. The Bachelor's and the Master's degrees are organised in semesters: 6 for the Bachelor's and 4 for the Master's. Those levels of study include various "parcours" (in English: paths or curricula) based on UE (Unités d'enseignement or Modules, in English: Teaching Units or Modules), each worth a defined number of European credits (ECTS) and thus abiding by the Bologna Process of the European Union. A student accumulates those credits, which are generally transferable between curricula. A Bachelor's is awarded once 180 ECTS have been obtained (3 years of higher studies after high school, abbreviated in French as "bac+ 3"); a Master's is awarded once 120 additional credits have been reached (5 years of higher studies after high school, abbreviated in French as "bac+ 5", i.e. 2 additional years after a Bachelor's degree).

National competitive examinations as prerequesite of French Grande Ecoles edit

One of the prerequesite of a Grande Ecole (along with having the Grande Ecole-label), is to select students via national competitive examinations. The latter are well-acknowledged to be particularly stringent.[53][54] While students prepare for these National Competitive examinations right after their high school diploma (often obtained with a magna cum laude or summa cum laude) during a two-year preparatory programme in high schools proposing such curricula; some other students will start an Undergraduate or Bachelor's degree and prepare for the national Competitive examinations along their studies at Universities or private Colleges in France or abroad. Both pathways have their own advantages and drawbacks.

As CNAM provides remote and continuous education, the access to the Grande Ecole does not require that candidates go through preparatory classes. Instead, obligatory classes and tests in Mathematics, Chemistry, Biology and English, along with a minimum required work experience (at least 6 months in a relevant field to the one the candidate whishes to apply to) and a minimum degree in a relevant field (an Undergraduate degree, i.e. 2 years of higher education after the French High School Diploma called Baccalauréat) will be expected as minimum requirements from cancidates. Additionally, an interview of candidates will be conducted to select appropriate future Grande Ecole students. The Competitive Examination can only be retaken thrice.[55]

The most selective Grande Ecole will enroll less than 10% of candidates, i.e. 90% of candidates are bound to fail, not because they performed poorly, but because a handful of students performed better, which is in itself, the principle of a competitive examination. In some Grande Ecole, it is possible to retake a Grande Ecole national competitive examination as many times as one wishes, whereas some others limit the possibilities to retake the examination to a maximum of three times.[55]

Notable people edit

Commemorative plaque of Gaston Planté on the Parisian Campus of CNAM, inventor of the first lead-acid accumulator and first reusable lead-acid battery.
Example of Bézier curve, invented by Cnam alumnus, engineer and mathematician Pierre Bézier.

Traditions edit

  • Vandermonde : secret society of the French Conservatory of Arts and Crafts, allegedly based on the Skull & Bones model of Yale University.[94][102]
  • At the French Conservatory of Arts and Crafts, students are commonly (and also officially) called "auditeurs", referring to audience/listener (instead of "étudiants", in English: students).

Graduates from the Grande Ecole Engineering School: EiCNAM, receive coloured graduation scarf during the diploma bestowal ceremony, depending on the major they belong to:

  •   Building and public works Engineering, Energetics Engineering, Nuclear Power Engineering,
  •   IT Engineering,
  •   Bioinformatics Engineering, Chemical Engineering, Bio-Engineering, Process Engineering, Risk Management Engineering,
  •   Automation and Robotics Engineering, Electrical Engineering,
  •   Electronic Systems Engineering, Electronic Systems, Telecommunication and IT Engineering, Electronic system and railway signalling Engineering,
  •   Aeronautics and Aerospace Engineering, Rail Operation Engineering,
  •   Material Engineering, Mechanical Engineering, Mechatronics Engineering.

Foundation edit

In 1973, the Louis-de-Broglie Foundation was created at the French National Conservatory of Arts and Crafts by Nobel Prize Laureate in Physics Louis de Broglie along with Physics Nobel-Prize Laureate Louis Néel, and Fields Medallist René Thom, on the occasion of the fiftieth anniversary of the discovery of matter waves. It is now located at the French Academy of Sciences in Paris.

Affiliations and memberships edit

CNAM is a part of HeSAM (French: Hautes Écoles Sorbonne Arts et Métiers University), a cluster for higher education and research as a group of universities and institutions comprising 11 members and 4 associated institutions, totalling 110,000 enrolled students.

The members are:

See also edit

(in French) Écoles de l'an III scientifiques

Notes edit

  1. ^ a b c CNAM Officials
  2. ^ Rapport d'évaluation du Conservatoire national des arts et métiers (Cnam) par l'Aeres, 11/2013 p.5 (p.6 du PDF)
  3. ^ CNAM centres in 160 others cities in France and overseas territories
  4. ^ "Les membres de Couperin", (in French), retrieved 12 July 2018
  5. ^ "Grandes écoles: The making of France's ruling elite". France 24. 21 May 2013. Retrieved 4 April 2023.
  6. ^ "Understanding our education system: the "Grandes Ecoles"". ENSTA Bretagne. Retrieved 4 April 2023.
  7. ^ a b Cnam. "Liste des centres d'enseignement à l'étranger | Intec | Cnam". Intec (in French). Retrieved 14 March 2022.
  8. ^ a b Cnam. "Centre Cnam Chine | International | Cnam". International (in French). Retrieved 21 March 2022.
  9. ^ a b Cnam. "Création de l'institut franco-chinois d'ingénierie et de management | International | Cnam". International (in French). Retrieved 21 March 2022.
  10. ^ Cnam. "Convention de partenariat avec Haïti | International | Cnam". International (in French). Retrieved 11 April 2022.
  11. ^ Cnam. "Allemagne Hochschule Darmstadt | International | Cnam". International (in French). Retrieved 4 April 2022.
  12. ^ a b "CNAM CENTRE D'ENSEIGNEMENT DU BASSIN LEMANIQUE". LE [Lyon-Entreprises] (in French). Retrieved 22 March 2022.
  13. ^ a b "Le Conservatoire national des arts et métiers (CNAM)". Retrieved 22 March 2022.
  14. ^ Cnam. "Liste des centres d'enseignement à l'étranger | Intec | Cnam". Intec (in French). Retrieved 9 March 2022.
  15. ^ a b "Rapport d'activité 2020 du Conservatoire national des arts et métiers" (in French). June 2021. pp. 9, 11.
  16. ^ a b Hcéres, Rapport (16 July 2018). "Conservatoire national des arts et métiers – CNAM" (in French). {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  17. ^ Cnam. "Equipe pédagogique nationale Stratégies | EPN Stratégies | Cnam". EPN Stratégies (in French). Retrieved 22 March 2022.
  18. ^ "DOSSIER / La fréquentation des musées et lieux de patrimoine en France, en 2019 (05/02/2020)". Club Innovation & Culture CLIC France (in French). 5 February 2020. Retrieved 14 March 2022.
  19. ^ Michel Nusimovici, Les écoles de l'an III, 2010.
  21. ^ Le pendule de Foucault perd la boule
  22. ^ Foucault's pendulum is sent crashing to Earth
  23. ^ "Sphère du pendule de Léon Foucault | musée des Arts et Métiers". Retrieved 26 October 2022.
  24. ^ The pendulum at the Pantheon is said to be a copy of the original that still hangs in an 11th-century chapel inside the Musée des Arts et Métiers.[citation needed]
  25. ^ Cnam. "La Fondation du Cnam | Fondation du Cnam | Cnam". Fondation du Cnam (in French). Retrieved 9 March 2022.
  26. ^ "Rapport Hcéres – Conservatoire national des arts et métiers – CNAM". 2018.
  27. ^ a b "EI.CNAM : Classement des écoles d'ingénieurs 2022 – L'Etudiant". Retrieved 22 March 2022.
  28. ^ "François Schuiten – 30 ans d'aventures en images | Vente n°2429 | Lot n°5 | Artcurial". Retrieved 18 March 2022.
  29. ^ Jean, Dhombres. "Denis Papin". FranceArchives (in French). Retrieved 14 March 2022.
  30. ^ "Monument à Nicolas Leblanc – Paris (75003) | E-monumen". (in French). 11 April 2012. Retrieved 18 March 2022.
  31. ^ Simon, Paul (17 October 2007). "How Reaumur fell off the temperature scale". Times.
  32. ^ "FRAN_IR_029852 - Online catalogue". Retrieved 9 March 2022.
  33. ^ INHA (10 February 2010). "VAUDOYER, Léon" (in French). Retrieved 14 March 2022.
  34. ^ Cnam. "Télécharger les recueils des actes administratifs de l'établissement. | Portail national | Cnam". Portail national (in French). Retrieved 22 March 2022.
  35. ^ Cnam. "Accueil | Recherche | Cnam". Recherche (in French). Retrieved 28 March 2022.
  36. ^ a b Cnam. "Les études doctorales au Cnam | Recherche | Cnam". Recherche (in French). Retrieved 28 March 2022.
  37. ^ "La recherche scientifique au conservatoire des arts et métiers". 2022.
  38. ^ Nouvelle, L'Usine (12 July 2020). "L'Université Paris-Saclay, première en maths" (in French). {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  39. ^ Nouvelle, L'Usine (12 July 2020). "L'Université Paris-Saclay, première en maths" (in French). {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  40. ^ "How France created a university to rival MIT". The Economist. ISSN 0013-0613. Retrieved 26 October 2022.
  41. ^ Cnam. "Laboratoire Commun de Métrologie (LNE-Cnam)| Accueil | Laboratoire commun de métrologie | Cnam". Laboratoire commun de métrologie (in French). Retrieved 22 March 2022.
  42. ^ "LKB – Laboratoire Kastler Brossel Rapport Hcéres". 2019.
  43. ^ Happer, William (May 1984). "Alfred Kastler". Physics Today. 37 (5): 101–102. Bibcode:1984PhT....37e.101H. doi:10.1063/1.2916219. ISSN 0031-9228.
  44. ^ Cohen-Tannoudji, Claude (December 2003). "Jean Brossel". Physics Today. 56 (12): 81–82. doi:10.1063/1.4776720. ISSN 0031-9228.
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References edit

  • Michel Nusimovici, Les écoles de l'an III, 2010 [1]

External links edit

48°52′1″N 2°21′16″E / 48.86694°N 2.35444°E / 48.86694; 2.35444