Alexandre Millerand (French: [alɛksɑ̃dʁ milʁɑ̃]; 10 February 1859 – 7 April 1943) was a French politician and freemason. He was Prime Minister of France from 20 January to 23 September 1920 and President of France from 23 September 1920 to 11 June 1924. His participation in Waldeck-Rousseau's cabinet at the start of the 20th century, alongside the Marquis de Galliffet who had directed the repression of the 1871 Paris Commune, sparked a debate in the French Section of the Workers' International (SFIO) and in the Second International about the participation of socialists in "bourgeois governments".
|President of the French Republic|
23 September 1920 – 11 June 1924
Acting: 21 September 1920 – 23 September 1920
|Prime Minister||Georges Leygues,|
|Preceded by||Paul Deschanel|
|Succeeded by||Gaston Doumergue|
|Prime Minister of France|
20 January 1920 – 24 September 1920
|Preceded by||Georges Clemenceau|
|Succeeded by||Georges Leygues|
|Minister of War|
26 August 1914 – 29 October 1915
|Prime Minister||René Viviani|
|Preceded by||Adolphe Messimy|
|Succeeded by||Joseph Gallieni|
14 January 1912 – 12 January 1913
|Prime Minister||Raymond Poincaré|
|Preceded by||Adolphe Messimy|
|Succeeded by||Albert Lebrun|
|Minister of Commerce, Industry, Posts and Telegraphs|
Paul Delombre – Georges Trouillot
|Prime Minister||Pierre Waldeck-Rousseau|
|Member of the Senate|
5 April 1925 – 10 July 1940
|Member of the Chamber of Deputies|
4 October 1885 – 23 September 1920
|Born||10 February 1859|
|Died||7 April 1943 (aged 84)|
Versailles, Occupied France
|Political party||Independent Socialists|
(m. 1898; his d. 1943)
|Alma mater||University of Paris|
Born in Paris, he was educated for the Bar and was elected Secrétaire of the Conférence du Barreau de Paris. He made his reputation through his defence, in company with Georges Laguerre, of Ernest Roche and Duc-Quercy, the instigators of the strike at Decazeville in 1883. He then took Laguerre's place on Georges Clemenceau's newspaper, La Justice. He was elected to the Chamber of Deputies for the Seine département in 1885 as a Radical Socialist. He was associated with Clemenceau and Camille Pelletan as an arbitrator in the Carmaux strike (1892). He had long had the ear of the Chamber in matters of social legislation, and after the Panama scandals had discredited so many politicians, his influence grew.
As member of the executiveEdit
He was chief of the Independent Socialist faction, a group which then mustered sixty members, and edited until 1896 their organ in the press, La Petite République. His programme included the collective ownership of the means of production and the international association of labour. However, when in June 1899 he entered Pierre Waldeck-Rousseau's cabinet of "republican defence" as Minister of Commerce, he limited himself to practical reforms, devoting his attention to the improvement of the merchant marine, to the development of trade, of technical education, of the postal system, and to the amelioration of the conditions of labour. Labour questions were entrusted to a separate department, the Direction du Travail, and the pension and insurance office was also raised to the status of a "direction".
As labour minister, Millerand was responsible for the introduction of a wide range of reforms, including the reduction in the maximum workday from 11 to 10 hours in 1904, the introduction of an 8-hour workday for postal employees, the prescribing of maximum hours and minimum wages for all work undertaken by public authorities, the bringing of workers' representatives into the Conseil supérieur de travail, the establishment of arbitration tribunals and inspectors of labour, and the creation of a labour section inside his Ministry of Commerce to tackle the problem of social insurance.
The introduction of trade union representatives on the Supreme Labour Council, the organisation of local labour councils, and instructions to factory inspectors to put themselves in communication with the councils of the trade unions were valuable concessions to labour. He further secured the rigorous application of earlier laws devised for the protection of the working class. His name was especially associated with a project for the establishment of old age pensions, which became law in 1905. In 1898, he became editor of La Lanterne.
He had not joined his independent socialist colleague, Jean Jaurès, in forming the Parti Socialiste Français in 1902, instead forming the small Independent Socialist Party in 1907 which became the Republican-Socialist Party (PRS) in 1911. His influence with the far left had already declined, for it was said that his departure from the true Marxist tradition had disintegrated the movement. He continued to move to the right, being appointed Prime Minister by the conservative President, Paul Deschanel.
During his time as Prime Minister, a decree of February 1920 introduced the eight-hour day for seamen.
Presidency and later yearsEdit
When Deschanel had to resign later that year due to his mental disorder, Millerand emerged as a compromise candidate for President between the Bloc National and the remnants of the Bloc des gauches. Millerand appointed Georges Leygues, a politician with a long career of ministerial office, as Prime Minister and attempted to strengthen the executive powers of the Presidency. This move was resisted in the Chamber of Deputies and the French Senate, and Millerand was forced to appoint a stronger figure, Aristide Briand. Briand's appointment was welcomed by both left and right, although the Socialists and the left wing of the Radical Party did not join his government. However, Millerand dismissed Briand after just a year, and appointed the conservative republican, Raymond Poincaré.
Millerand was accused of favouring conservatives in spite of the traditional neutrality of French Presidents and the composition of the legislature. On 14 July 1922, Millerand escaped an assassination attempt by Gustave Bouvet, a young French anarchist. Two years later, Millerand resigned in the face of growing conflict between the elected legislature and the office of the President, following the victory of the Cartel des Gauches. Gaston Doumergue, who was the president of the Senate at the time, was chosen to replace Millerand.
Millerand's Ministry, 20 January 1920 – 24 September 1920Edit
- Alexandre Millerand - President of the Council and Minister of Foreign Affairs
- André Joseph Lefèvre - Minister of War
- Théodore Steeg - Minister of the Interior
- Frédéric François-Marsal - Minister of Finance
- Paul Jourdain - Minister of Labour
- Gustave L'Hopiteau - Minister of Justice
- Adolphe Landry - Minister of Marine
- André Honnorat - Minister of Public Instruction and Fine Arts
- André Maginot - Minister of War Pensions, Grants, and Allowances
- Joseph Ricard - Minister of Agriculture
- Albert Sarraut - Minister of Colonies
- Yves Le Trocquer - Minister of Public Works
- Auguste Isaac - Minister of Commerce and Industry
- Émile Ogier - Minister of Liberated Regions
This article includes a list of references, related reading or external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks inline citations. (November 2018) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
- Initiated in ""L'Amitiée Lodge"" on may 21st of 1883 (Histoire de la Franc-maçonnerie en France - Faucher and Ricker 1967).
- This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). . Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. Endnotes:
- For his administration in the Waldeck-Rousseau cabinet see A. Lavy, L'Œuvre de Millerand (1902);
- his speeches between 1899 and 1907 were published in 1907 as Travail et travailleurs.
- Sowerine, Charles (year). France since 1870: Culture, Politics and Society. publisher. Check date values in:
- Cobban, Alfred (year). A History Of Modern France 1871-1962. 3. publisher. Check date values in:
- The Encyclopædia Britannica: a dictionary of arts, sciences, literature and general information, Volume 31 by Hugh Chisholm
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Alexandre Millerand.|
- . New International Encyclopedia. 1905.
- . Encyclopædia Britannica (12th ed.). 1922.
- Newspaper clippings about Alexandre Millerand in the 20th Century Press Archives of the German National Library of Economics (ZBW)
| Minister of Commerce, Industry, Posts, and Telegraphs
| Minister of Public Works, Posts, and Telegraphs
| Minister of War
| Minister of War
| Prime Minister of France
| Minister of Foreign Affairs|
| President of France
Paul Deschanel and Justí Guitart i Vilardebó
| Co-Prince of Andorra
with Justí Guitart i Vilardebó
Gaston Doumergue and Justí Guitart i Vilardebó