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European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System

European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System (ECTS) credits are a standard means for comparing the "volume of learning based on the defined learning outcomes and their associated workload" for higher education across the European Union and other collaborating European countries[1]. For successfully completed studies, ECTS credits are awarded. One academic year corresponds to 60 ECTS credits that are normally equivalent to 1500–1800 hours of total workload, irrespective of standard or qualification type. ECTS credits are used to facilitate transfer and progression throughout the Union. ECTS also includes a standard grading scale, intended to be shown in addition to local (i.e. national) standard grades:[2]

Contents

Current systemsEdit

List of credits given in one year in European countries"ECTS User's guide" (PDF). Publications Office of the European Union. 2015. 
Country Credit points per year Hours per credit point Credit point name
European Union (EU) 60 25-30[3] ECTS credits
EU Member States
Austria 60 25 ECTS (also ECTS-Punkte, ECTS credits)
Belgium 60 25-30 ECTS (also studiepunten, ECTS)
Bulgaria 60 25-30 (*) кредити
Croatia 60 25-30 ECTS bodovi
Cyprus 60 30 ECTS
Czech Republic 60 ~26 kredity
Denmark 60 ~28 ECTS-point
England, Wales and Northern Ireland 120 10 Credits (Open University – points). Two England/Wales/Northern Ireland credits are equivalent to one ECTS credit.[4][5]
Estonia 60 26 ainepunkt (EAP). Currently because many students are still used to the older system the longer name 'euroopa ainepunkt' is more often used for clarity's sake
Finland 60 27 opintopiste (op) / studiepoäng (Swedish)
France 60 29 crédits ECTS
Germany 60 25-30 ECTS, Leistungspunkte (LP), Kreditpunkte (KP), Credit Points (CP) or Credits
Greece 60 30 ECTS, Credit Points (CP), Μονάδες Φόρτου Εργασίας (Διδακτικές Μονάδες - Δ.Μ) or Credits
Hungary 60 30 kredit(pont)
Ireland 60 ECTS
Italy 60 25 crediti formativi universitari (CFU)
Latvia 60 30 ECTS kredītpunkts (equals 1.5 "Latvian" credit points - kredītpunkts (KP))[6][7]
Lithuania 60 ~28 kreditai; ECTS kreditai
Luxembourg 60 ECTS
Malta 60 25 ECTS-credits
The Netherlands 60 28 studiepunten (ECTS or EC)
Poland 60 25-30 punkty ECTS, eceteesy
Portugal 60 28 créditos
Romania 60 30 credite (SECTS)
Scotland 120 10[8] SCQF credit points (2 SCQF points equal 1 ECTS point[9])
Slovakia 60 25 kredity
Slovenia 60 kreditne točke
Spain 60 25-30 créditos ECTS
Sweden 60 26.667 högskolepoäng (Used from July 2007)
EFTA Member States
Iceland 60 25-30 einingar (units)
Liechtenstein 60
Norway 60 25-30 studiepoeng
Switzerland 60 30 ECTS-credits
Other European Countries
Bosnia and Herzegovina 60 25 ECTS bodovi
Macedonia 60 кредити (ECTS)
Montenegro 60 ECTS-krediti
Serbia 60 30 ЕСПБ бодови / ESPB bodovi
Turkey 60 25-30 AKTS - kredi[10]
Ukraine 60 30 кредити

(*) Note: some Bulgarian universities have put a lesser standard for their students, although there is a particular ordinance by the Ministry of Education and Science.[11] In such universities the hours per credit are ≈13, but this does not include the hours spent on self-study.[12][13] Moreover, an "academic hour" in a Bulgarian educational institution is 45 minutes long -- as in Dutch universities for example.[14]

See alsoEdit

External linksEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "ECTS Users’ Guide" (PDF). Publications Office of the European Union. 2015. p. 10. 
  2. ^ EUROPA - Education and Training - Socrates programme - ECTS - European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System
  3. ^ typical values which can vary between national systems, "academic year" is normative
  4. ^ "Erasmus Mundus credits" (PDF). University of Salford. Retrieved 20 May 2012. 
  5. ^ "Higher education credit framework for England: guidance on academic credit arrangements in higher education in England". Quality Assurance Agency. August 2008. 
  6. ^ "Credit point system". Retrieved 27 November 2015. 
  7. ^ "Law of Higher education (in Latvian)". 1 January 1995. Retrieved 27 November 2015. 
  8. ^ "SCQF Credit Points". Retrieved 15 January 2015. 
  9. ^ (PDF) http://scqf.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2014/03/European-Developments-Explained-FINAL-web-version-April-2012.pdf. Retrieved 8 January 2016.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  10. ^ http://www.yok.gov.tr/en/web/uluslararasi-iliskiler/tyyc-akts-ve-ders-yuku
  11. ^ "Ordinance 21/30 September 2004 for Application of Credit Transfer and Accumulation System in Higher education institutions, Ministry of education and science, Bulgaria, page 2". Retrieved 15 April 2014. 
  12. ^ "Academic calendar, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, Sofia University". Retrieved 15 December 2012. 
  13. ^ "Sofia University - Business Administration (English) - Curriculum". Retrieved 15 December 2012. 
  14. ^ Higher Education Act - Bulgaria, page 12, Promulgated by State Gazette No. 112, December 1995.