European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System

The European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System (ECTS) is a standard means for comparing academic credits, i.e., the "volume of learning based on the defined learning outcomes and their associated workload" for higher education across the European Union and other collaborating European countries.[1] For successfully completed studies, ECTS credits are awarded. One academic year corresponds to 60 ECTS credits that are normally equivalent to 1500–1800 hours of total workload, irrespective of standard or qualification type.[citation needed] ECTS credits are used to facilitate transfer and progression throughout the Union. ECTS also includes a standard grading scale, intended to be shown in addition to local (i.e. national) standard grades.[2]

Current systems

List of credits given in one year in European countries[3]
Country Credit points per year Hours per credit point Credit point name Status
European Union (EU) 60 25-30[4] ECTS credits
Austria 60 25 ECTS (also ECTS-Punkte, ECTS credits) EU member state
Belgium 60 25-30 ECTS (also studiepunten, crédits, ECTS) EU member state
Bulgaria 60 25-30 кредити EU member state
Croatia 60 25-30 ECTS bodovi EU member state
Cyprus 60 30 ECTS EU member state
Czech Republic 60 26 kredity EU member state
Denmark 60 28 ECTS-point EU member state
Estonia 60 26 ainepunkt (EAP). Currently because many students are still used to the older system the longer name 'euroopa ainepunkt' is more often used for clarity's sake EU member state
Finland 60 27 opintopiste (op) / studiepoäng (Swedish) (lit. study point) EU member state
France 60 25-30[5] crédits ECTS EU member state
Germany 60 25-30 ECTS, Leistungspunkte (LP), Kreditpunkte (KP), Credit Points (CP) or Credits EU member state
Greece 60 30 ECTS, Credit Points (CP), Μονάδες Φόρτου Εργασίας (Διδακτικές Μονάδες - Δ.Μ) or Credits EU member state
Hungary 60 30 kredit (pont) EU member state
Ireland 60 ECTS EU member state
Italy 60 25-30 crediti formativi universitari (CFU) EU member state
Latvia 60 30 ECTS kredītpunkts (1 "Latvian" credit point (kredītpunkts) equals 1.5 ECTS)[6][7] EU member state
Lithuania 60 28 kreditai; ECTS kreditai EU member state
Luxembourg 60 ECTS EU member state
Malta 60 25 ECTS-credits EU member state
Netherlands 60 28 studiepunten (ECTS or EC) EU member state
Poland 60 25-30 punkty ECTS, eceteesy EU member state
Portugal 60 28 créditos ECTS EU member state
Romania 60 30 credite (SECTS) EU member state
Slovakia 60 25 kredity EU member state
Slovenia 60 25-30 kreditne točke EU member state
Spain 60 25-30 créditos (ECTS) EU member state
Sweden 60 26.667 högskolepoäng (Used from July 2007) EU member state
Iceland 60 25-30 einingar (units) EFTA member state
Liechtenstein 60 EFTA member state
Norway 60 25-30[8] studiepoeng EFTA member state
Switzerland 60 25-30[9] ECTS-credits, Kreditpunkte (KP) EFTA member state
Albania 60 30 Pikët ECTS Non-EU, Non-EFTA member state
Bosnia and Herzegovina 60 25 ECTS bodovi Non-EU, Non-EFTA member state
England, Wales and Northern Ireland 120 (60 ECTS) 10 (20 hours per ECTS) Credits. One ECTS credit is equivalent to two UK credits.[10][11] Non-EU, Non-EFTA member state
Georgia 60 30 კრედიტები (kreditebi) Non-EU, Non-EFTA member state
Montenegro 60 ECTS-krediti Non-EU, Non-EFTA member state
North Macedonia 60 кредити (ECTS) Non-EU, Non-EFTA member state
Russia 60 30 кредиты Non-EU, Non-EFTA member state
Scotland 120 (60 ECTS) 10 (20 hours per ECTS)[12] SCQF credit points (2 SCQF points equal 1 ECTS point[12]) Non-EU, Non-EFTA member state
Serbia 60 30 ЕСПБ бодови / ESPB bodovi Non-EU, Non-EFTA member state
Turkey 60 25-30 AKTS - kredi[13] Non-EU, Non-EFTA member state
Ukraine 60 30 кредити Non-EU, Non-EFTA member state

See also



  1. ^ "ECTS Users' Guide". Publications Office of the European Union. 2015. p. 10.
  2. ^ "European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System (ECTS) - Education and training - European Commission". Education and training.
  3. ^ "ECTS User's guide". Publications Office of the European Union. 2015.
  4. ^ typical values which can vary between national systems, "academic year" is normative
  5. ^ "Article 8 - Arrêté du 22 janvier 2014 fixant le cadre national des formations conduisant à la délivrance des diplômes nationaux de licence, de licence professionnelle et de master" [Article 8 - Order of 22 January 2014 establishing the national framework for courses leading to the award of national bachelor's, professional bachelor's and master's degrees]. Légifrance (in French). 22 January 2014.
  6. ^ "Credit point system". Retrieved 27 November 2015.
  7. ^ "Law of Higher education (in Latvian)". 1 January 1995. Retrieved 27 November 2015.
  8. ^ "Norway's education system". Study in Norway.
  9. ^ "Richtlinien des Hochschulrates für die koordinierte Erneuerung der Lehre an den universitären Hochschulen der Schweiz im Rahmen des Bologna-Prozesses". Retrieved 12 November 2018.
  10. ^ "Erasmus Mundus credits" (PDF). University of Salford. Archived from the original (PDF) on 13 June 2007. Retrieved 20 May 2012.
  11. ^ "Higher education credit framework for England: guidance on academic credit arrangements in higher education in England" (PDF). Quality Assurance Agency. Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 February 2019. Retrieved 1 May 2019.
  12. ^ a b "SCQF Credit Points" (PDF). Scottish Credit and Qualification Framework. p. 3. Retrieved 5 December 2018.
  13. ^ "ECTS and Course Load - Yükseköğretim Kurulu". Archived from the original on 13 March 2018. Retrieved 4 November 2016.