John Jay College of Criminal Justice
The John Jay College of Criminal Justice (John Jay) is a public college focused on criminal justice and located in New York City. It is a senior college of the City University of New York (CUNY). John Jay was founded as the only liberal arts college with a criminal justice and forensic focus in the United States. The college is known for its criminal justice, forensic science, forensic psychology, and public affairs programs.
|Motto||"Fierce Advocates for Justice."|
|President||Karol V. Mason|
|1,100+ (includes adjuncts)|
|Colors||navyand light blue|
|Athletics||NCAA Division III|
CUNYAC, ECAC, MAC
|Affiliations||City University of New York|
|Sports||15 varsity teams|
- 1 History
- 2 Academics
- 3 Student life
- 4 Campus
- 5 Notable people
- 6 See also
- 7 References
- 8 External links
In 1964, a committee convened by the Board of Higher Education recommended the establishment of an independent, degree-granting school of police science. The College of Police Science (COPS) of the City University of New York was subsequently founded and admitted its first class in September 1965. Within a year, the school was renamed John Jay College of Criminal Justice to reflect broader education objectives. The school's namesake, John Jay, was the first chief justice of the United States Supreme Court and one of the founding fathers of the United States. Jay was a native of New York City and served as governor of New York State.
Classes were originally held at the Police Academy on East 20th Street. Leonard E. Reisman served as college president from 1964 to 1970, succeeded by Donald Riddle, president from 1970–1975.
Era of protests and disputesEdit
In the spring of 1970, after President Nixon announced that the Cambodian Campaign would be extended, the college held two "heated" teach-ins about the conflict. Many other college campuses were home to student strikes across the nation. On May 7, 1970, the faculty voted 52-39 in favor of closing the college in protest of President Nixon's handling of the Vietnam War and the killing of students by National Guardsmen at Kent State University and Jackson State College. But the closing of John Jay College would ultimately be up to its students, the faculty decided. At an impassioned student meeting, the final vote was 865–791 in favor of keeping the college open.
In the summer of 1970, Professor Abe Blumberg made some criticisms of the FBI and the Director J. Edgar Hoover in a graduate course on the sociology of law. One of his students, an FBI agent named Jack Shaw, examined the agency's role in American society in his master's thesis, granting that some of Blumberg's criticisms may have been valid. His paper found its way to Hoover's hands, who ordered that Shaw resign and told President Riddle that as long as Blumberg (a tenured professor) remained on the faculty, no FBI agents would attend John Jay. Riddle defended Blumberg, citing academic freedom. After Hoover's death in 1972, FBI agents began to enroll again at the college. The FBI later paid former agent Shaw $13,000 in back pay.
CUNY's open admissions Program came into effect in the fall of 1970. The program had been slated to begin in 1975, but was sparked into early enforcement after a group of students at City College demonstrated against the overwhelming whiteness of CUNY's student body, demanding greater access for black and Latino students. Adopting the Open Admissions policy meant that the University would now provide a place for any high school graduate who desired to attend. Across CUNY, student enrollment ballooned. At John Jay, undergraduates numbered 2,600 in 1969; 4,400 in 1970; 6,700 in 1972; and 8,600 in 1973. The size of the faculty grew by over 200% between 1970–1972. Moreover, the policy brought many more "civilian" (non-law enforcement) students to the College. The school's massive and sudden growth had a profound effect. More of the college's budget went toward remedial programs to help transition underprepared freshmen. In addition, the college broadened its curriculum, expanding into liberal arts. Majors including English, Math, American Studies, and Chemistry were introduced during this period in the early 1970s. The SEEK program developed during this time as well, supporting students from underprivileged backgrounds who showed academic promise.
President Riddle resigned to become chancellor of the University of Illinois at Chicago. From 1975–1977, Gerald W. Lynch served as acting president, and in 1977, he was sworn in as college president, a position he would hold until 2004.
As the school grew, its space constraints were felt, despite having acquired the Miles Shoe Building on West 59th Street (North Hall) in 1969. In 1973, John Jay rented the former 20th Century Fox building (South Hall) a few blocks from North Hall.
CUNY fiscal crisis of 1976Edit
In 1976, City University Board of Trustees threatened to shut down the college during a time of fiscal crisis for CUNY and New York City as a whole. Throughout the campaign to "save John Jay," the faculty and administration united to advocate the sentiment voiced by President Lynch in a memo: "John Jay can contribute to the city as a unique resource to help solve the problems of crime, public productivity, manpower needs, and budget management." After weeks of turmoil, the college decided to trim its budget to remain independent rather than merge with Baruch College. On April 5, the Board of Higher Education voted to preserve John Jay. Though the budget cuts were still painful, the college community's efforts were successful.
In 1980, at President Lynch's urging, the college established its first doctorate program, offering a Ph.D. in Criminal Justice on the heels of several Master's programs. In the next two decades of Lynch's presidency, enrollment and the faculty grew, the school's external activities expanded, and its curriculum continued to evolve. John Jay continued to pursue an approach to education more attuned to the liberal arts. The college supported more curricular cultural diversity, establishing an Ethnic Studies track and strengthening its Women's Studies program. Between 1985 and 1988, as faculty pursued more research opportunities, the amount of grant money given to John Jay faculty increased by over 500%.
Again, the college felt the constraints of space, and in 1986 acquired Haaren Hall (formerly DeWitt Clinton High School) across the intersection from North Hall. After renovation, Haaren Hall was opened to students in 1988. The new hall included a spacious two-level library, christened Lloyd Sealy Library in 1991 for Lloyd Sealy, a John Jay alumnus.
CUNY fiscal crisis of 1995Edit
In 1995, CUNY suffered another fiscal crisis when Governor George Pataki announced a $162 million cut in state financing for the university. The CUNY board of trustees declared a state of financial emergency. By June, in response to the threat of budget cuts, CUNY had adopted a stricter admissions policy for its senior colleges: students deemed unprepared for college would not be admitted, a departure from the 1970 Open Admissions program, in order to save money spent on remedial programs. The proposed $162 million in cuts was reduced to $102 million, which CUNY absorbed by increasing tuition by $750 and offering a retirement incentive plan for faculty. (In May 1996, a State Supreme Court justice ruled that CUNY misused their emergency financial authority to lay off professors, close departments, and cut remedial aid.)
Academic overhaul and campus expansionEdit
On September 11, 2001, John Jay lost 67 alumni and students, many of them firefighters, in the World Trade Center attacks. The school resumed class on September 13, providing additional counseling for students, many of whom saw their studies and career aspirations in a new light. In September 2011, John Jay dedicated a memorial to the fallen members of its community who died on 9/11. The memorial, a large steel fragment from the World Trade Center ruins, was officially unveiled in September 2013.
In 1998, the New York State Legislature had approved a five-year capital budget of $352 million for the college to improve its facilities. The college continued to expand its campus as enrollment grew. The "New Building," a 13-story tower connected to Haaren Hall's west side, opened in 2011, dramatically increasing the college's square footage and adding green space to the campus.
John Jay joined the Macaulay Honors College, an advising program for top students, in September 2012. In December 2012, the college received its largest-ever donation: $5 million from adjunct professor and alumnus Dr. Andrew Shiva.
President Lynch retired in 2004, having headed the longest senior-level administration in City University of New York history. He was succeeded by Jeremy Travis, who was previously a Senior Fellow at the Justice Policy Center and had directed the National Institute of Justice. Travis retired in 2017. Karol Mason, former Assistant Attorney General, assumed the office of college president in August 2017.
John Jay College of Criminal Justice is fully accredited by the Middle States Commission on Higher Education. The school is primarily known for its criminal justice studies, forensic psychology, and forensic science programs, supported by a liberal arts curriculum. The student-faculty ratio is 16:1, and the average freshman retention rate is 78%. The college offers a variety of in-person, online, and hybrid courses. There are a total of 1,100 faculty employed by the school, over one-third of which are full-time faculty members.
Forbes, in its 2016 rankings of Americas Top Colleges, ranked John Jay as the #497 best college in the country; Forbes also ranked John Jay #175 in the Best College in the Northeast category and #169 in the Best Public Colleges category respectively.
In 2016, Washington Monthly ranked John Jay #72 in its Master's Universities Ranking, which rated universities on their contribution to the public good in three broad categories: social mobility (recruiting and graduating low-income students), research (producing cutting-edge scholarship and PhDs), and service (encouraging students to give something back to their country).
As of 2016, U.S. News and World Report ranked John Jay's Criminology graduate program #10 nationally and its Public Affairs graduate program #56 in the country (in the top 20%). The same publication also ranked John Jay College of Criminal Justice #108 in the Regional Universities North Category, as well as the 34th-top public school in the same region. In an alternative ranking of the top public universities in New York for 2016, Niche ranked John Jay #9. Niche's rankings were based on "key statistics and student reviews" and "the top ranked public colleges are elite academic institutions that provide a good value for in-state students and offer an exceptional college experience" according to Niche's assessment.
John Jay College of Criminal Justice was ranked as the 61st-top college in the United States by Payscale and CollegeNet's Social Mobility Index in 2015, which ranked colleges and universities on their ability to improve both economic opportunity and social stability in our country.
The Military Times ranked John Jay as the #3 Best College for Veterans in its 2015 rankings.
The Conference on College Composition and Communication awarded a certificate of excellence to the John Jay College Writing Program in 2012–2013 for "imaginatively address[ing] the needs and opportunities of its students, instructors, institution, and locale" and offering "exemplary ongoing professional development" for faculty.
John Jay College of Criminal Justice had a 37% admission rate in its most recent undergraduate admissions cycle.
John Jay College is a member of the selective Macaulay Honors College program, which awards academically gifted students with a full four-year tuition scholarship, specialized academic advisers, and an Opportunities Fund of $7,500, to be used toward academically enriching experiences. Students accepted into the program are deemed University Scholars and collaborate with other honors students across CUNY campuses. The Macaulay program at John Jay is currently directed by scientist and author Nathan H. Lents.
The college houses multiple research centers and institutes focused on crime and justice:
- Academy of Critical Incident Analysis
- Center for Crime Prevention and Control
- Center for Cybercrime Studies
- Center for International Human Rights
- Center on Media, Crime and Justice
- Center on Race, Crime and Justice
- Center on Terrorism
- Christian Regenhard Center for Emergency Response Studies
- CUNY Dispute Resolution Consortium
- Institute for Criminal Justice Ethics
- Prisoner Reentry Institute - studies prisoner reentry
- Research & Evaluation Center
Approximately 13,000 undergraduate students and 2,000 graduate students attend John Jay.
Although 95% of students enrolled are in-state residents, the college offers a diverse and inclusive environment. Over 75% of the student body identify as a minority (39% Hispanic, 28% White, 21% Black, 12% Asian), while over 130 nationalities are represented among those enrolled at the college. The college's diversity is highlighted even further by the fact that 47% of the student body are first-generation Americans, about half speak a language other than English at home, and 33% are foreign-born.
There are 52 student organizations are active on campus, many of which are housed in "Club Row", a series of hallways where the student clubs are given space.
The Student Council disburses funds for organizations deemed "Essential Service," such as the Yearbook committee.
College teams participate as a member of the National Collegiate Athletic Association's Division III. The Bloodhounds are a member of the City University of New York Athletic Conference (CUNYAC). The following sports include:
- Fall: Men's and Women's Soccer, Women's Volleyball, Women's Tennis, Men's and Women's Cross Country
- Winter: Men's and Women's Basketball, Women's Swimming, Rifle and Cheerleading
- Spring: Baseball, Softball, Men's Volleyball, and Men's Tennis
The College's newest building, a 13-story, 625,000-square-foot (58,100 m2) facility, opened in 2011 and occupies a full city block in midtown.
Known around campus as the "New Building" it has been recognized as an "overlooked architectural masterpiece" by The Real Deal, a leading New York City real estate news publication, which recently listed the building among the “ten best buildings to see in America” and one of “coolest works of architecture in the country.
- Haaren Hall
Haaren Hall, also known as the 'Tenth Avenue building or, simply, the T building, is the main campus building of John Jay. Located at 899 10th Avenue, it houses the majority of the administrative departments and classrooms. Originally designed by Charles B.J. Snyder to house De Witt Clinton High School, the building was erected in 1903. In 1988, Haaren Hall was acquired by John Jay and now contains the Lloyd Sealy Library, the Gerald W. Lynch Theater, a gymnasium, and a swimming pool.
- North Hall
North Hall, also known as the N building, is located at 445 West 59th Street, diagonally across the intersection from Haaren Hall. Prior to the acquisition in 1973, the building was a shoe factory.
- Westport Building
Westport Building, also referred as the W building, is a 24-story residential/commercial skyscraper located at 500 West 56th Street. Constructed in 2003 by The Related Companies, the first two floors of Westport Building are occupied by John Jay. It was also the location of the John Jay branch of Barnes & Noble College Booksellers, until the summer of 2014, in which the bookstore was closed as the campus switched to a digital service.
- BMW Building
The BMW Building is a commercial skyscraper on 555 West 57th Street, opened in 1992. Located adjacent to the New Building, the 6th floor of the BMW Building houses the Academic Centers and Training Rooms of John Jay.
- 54th Street Annex
The 54th Street Annex is a 10-story building, built in 1930 and located at 619 West 54th Street. It is the southernmost structure of the campus. Some of John Jay's administrative offices are located there.
- The "New" Building
(Also known as "The Tower" and denoted "NB".) The New Building is located at 11th Avenue between West 58th and 59th Streets. The modernistic 240-foot-tall (73 m), 13-story structure was designed by Skidmore, Owings and Merrill, and structurally engineered by Leslie E. Robertson Associates. The New Building was opened on November 2, 2011, at a cost of $600 million. The tower is directly connected to the western side of Haaren Hall and includes classrooms, conference rooms, a black box theater, a mock court, a 9/11 memorial, and an exterior roof quad called the "Jay Walk."
- Online Degrees and Certificates
In 2014 John Jay College launched two completely online master's degrees and one online professional certificate. The online portion of the college currently offers a master's degree in Security Management, Master's degree in Public Management, Certificate in Terrorism Studies, and a non-credit Certificate in Homeland Security. John Jay College Online plans to launch more degrees and certificates in the future.
- Eric Adams (BA), Brooklyn Borough President (2014- )
- Karl A. Brabenec (MPA), New York State Assemblyman representing district 98
- Edward Thomas Brady (MA), trial attorney and former Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of North Carolina
- Jennings Michael Burch (BA), author of the 1984 best-selling memoir They Cage the Animals at Night
- Marcos Crespo (BA), New York State Assemblyman representing district 85
- Edward A. Flynn, Chief of the Milwaukee Police Department
- Dr. Henry Lee (BS '72), forensic scientist and founder of the Henry C. Lee Institute of Forensic Science
- Eva Norvind (MA), actor and director
- James P. O'Neill (BA), NYPD Commissioner
- Pauley Perrette, actor best known for her role as Abby Scuito on NCIS
- Ronald Rice, New Jersey State Senator
- Ariel Rios, undercover special agent for the United States Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF), killed in the line of duty
- Imette St. Guillen, criminal justice graduate student murdered in February 2006. A scholarship was created in her name
- Ronald Spadafora, (BA), FDNY Chief
- Scott Stringer (BA), New York City Comptroller (2014-) and Manhattan Borough President (2006-2013)
- Kenneth P. Thompson (BA), Kings County District Attorney (2014- ) and former attorney for Dominique Strauss-Kahn accuser Nafissatou Diallo
- John Timoney (BA 1974), Chief of the Miami Police Department (2003–10)
- Dorothy Uhnak (BA), novelist and detective for the New York City Transit Police Department
- Lovely A. Warren (BA), 67th Mayor of Rochester, New York
Faculty, past and presentEdit
- James DiGiovanna, author and award-winning film reviewer and filmmaker
- Saul Kassin, distinguished professor of psychology best known for starting the scientific study of police-induced false confessions
- Jane Katz, Olympic swimmer and member of the National Jewish Sports Hall of Fame
- David M. Kennedy, author of Don't Shoot (2011) and professor of criminology
- Nathan H. Lents, scientist and author
- John Matteson, winner of the Pulitzer Prize in 2008 for the biography Eden's Outcasts: The Story of Louisa May Alcott and Her Father
- Peter Moskos, former Baltimore Police Department officer and author of Cop in the Hood
- Kevin Nadal, notable Filipino American professor, author, and microaggressions researcher
- Serena Nanda (born 1938), author, anthropologist, and professor emeritus
- Steven Penrod, distinguished professor of psychology specializing in the studies of jury decision-making and eyewitness testimony.
- Rosalie Purvis, theater director and choreographer
- Flora Rheta Schreiber, author of Sibyl (1973)
- Lloyd George Sealy, NYPD's first African-American officer to graduate from the FBI National Academy and the first African-American officer in the NYPD to make rank as the commander of a police station
- Jay Sexter, psychologist and President Emeritus of Mercy College
- Mike Wallace, co-author of the 1999 Pulitzer Prize–winning Gotham: A History of New York City to 1898
- Benjamin Ward, first African American New York City Police Commissioner
- Nick Wasicsko, youngest-ever mayor of Yonkers, and the youngest mayor in a major American city
- Cathy Spatz Widom, distinguished professor of psychology and expert on the long-term consequences of child abuse and neglect, winner of 2016 Stockholm Prize in Criminology.
- William E. Macaulay Honors College
- John Jay Report, full name: The Nature and Scope of the Problem of Sexual Abuse of Minors by Catholic Priests and Deacons in the United States, a 2004 report commissioned by the U.S. Conference of Catholic Bishops
- Anya and Andrew Shiva Art Gallery
- Lloyd Sealy Library
- List of NCAA rifle programs
- "CUNY College of Criminal Justice profile". U.S. News and World Report. Retrieved 11 November 2016.
- "Fast Facts". John Jay College of Criminal Justice. Retrieved 26 March 2015.
- Buck, Jerry (18 July 1967). "Liberal Arts College for Policemen in N.Y. May Be the Only One in World". The Daily Plainsman. Retrieved 19 February 2014.
- Bard, Bernard (May 1972). "Don't Call It 'Pig U'". Change. 4 (4): 19–22. doi:10.1080/00091383.1972.10568144. JSTOR 40161451.
- "History of John Jay College". John Jay College of Criminal Justice. Archived from the original on 4 June 2013. Retrieved 21 February 2013.
- Montgomery, Paul L. (10 May 1970). "John Jay College Gets Protests Too: Activity Unusual at School Attended by Policemen". New York Times.
- Markowitz, Gerald (1990). Educating for Justice: A Brief History of John Jay College. New York: The John Jay Press.
- Saxon, Wolfgang (19 November 1996). "A. S. Blumberg, 75, Professor Concerned With Equal Justice". New York Times. Retrieved 17 April 2013.
- Honan, William H. (16 October 1999). "Donald H. Riddle, 78; Led John Jay College". New York Times. Retrieved 17 April 2013.
- Suri, Duitch (2010). Open Admissions and Remediation: A Case Study of Policymaking by the City University of New York Board. New York: Ph.D. Dissertation, The City University of New York.
- Breslin, Meg McSherry (14 October 1999). "[Obituary of] Donald Riddle, UIC Chancellor". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved 11 February 2013.
- Nash, Eric P. (2001-12-16). "F.Y.I." The New York Times. Retrieved 2011-12-08.
- Honan, William (28 Feb 1995). "CUNY Professors, Fearing Worst, Rush Out Their Resumes: With a financial emergency declared, many on the CUNY faculties could go". New York Times. Retrieved 17 April 2013.
- Jones, Charisse (27 June 1995). "CUNY Adopts Stricter Policy On Admissions". New York Times. Retrieved 17 April 2013.
- Arenson, Karen W. (3 May 1996). "CUNY Misused Fiscal 'Emergency' To Cut Staff and Costs, Judge Rules". New York Times. Retrieved 17 April 2013.
- Arenson, Karen W. (19 Oct 2001). "Silent Echoes From Sept. 11; John Jay Has a Special Link With Many Who Died". New York Times. Retrieved 17 April 2013.
- "9/11 Memorial Sculpture". John Jay College of Criminal Justice. Archived from the original on 7 June 2014. Retrieved 21 May 2014.
- Dunlap, David W. (2011-09-09). "On Solemn Note, Curtain Rises on the New John Jay College". New York Times City Room Blog. Retrieved 17 April 2013.
- "Honoring John Jay's Fallen Heroes". John Jay Sentinel. Sep 23, 2013. Archived from the original on February 2, 2014. Retrieved 23 January 2014.
- Dunlap, David W. (June 12, 2012). "John Jay College Is Moving Up, Floor by Floor". New York Times. Retrieved 26 March 2015.
- "John Jay College joins the prestigious Macaulay Honors College". CUNY Newswire. 20 Sep 2012. Retrieved 17 April 2013.
- "John Jay College Receives Largest Donation in College's History". CUNY Newswire. 19 Dec 2012. Retrieved 17 April 2013.
- "York Hails New President; Farewell at John Jay". CUNY. July 2003. Retrieved 2011-12-08.
- Vilensky, Mike, "Karol Mason to Be Next President of John Jay College" (subscription), Wall Street Journal, April 30, 2017. Retrieved 2017-05-01.
- "CUNY--John Jay College of Criminal Justice: Academic Life". U.S. News and World Report. Retrieved 11 November 2016.
- "CUNY, John Jay College Criminal Justice". Forbes. Retrieved 16 July 2016.
- "2015 Master's Universities Rankings". Washington Monthly. Retrieved 11 November 2016.
- "Our first-ever college rankings". The Economist. 2015-10-29. Retrieved 29 December 2015.
- "CUNY--John Jay College of Criminal Justice rankings". U.S. News and World Report. Retrieved 16 July 2016.
- "2016 Top Public Universities in New York". Retrieved 16 July 2016.
- "Best Bang for the Buck - Northeast Rankings". Washington Monthly. Archived from the original on 31 January 2016. Retrieved 29 December 2015.
- "Social Mobility Index 2015". Payscale and CollegeNet. Retrieved 14 January 2016.
- "John Jay College Ranked #4 in the "Best Bang for the Buck" Northeast Rankings in Washington Monthly's "The Other College Guide"". U.S. News and World Report. Retrieved 29 December 2015.
- "The 25 safest college campuses in America". Business Insider. Retrieved 16 July 2016.
- "Best for Vets: Colleges 2015 4-year schools". Military Times. Retrieved 29 December 2015.
- "CCCC Writing Program Certificate of Excellence". Conference on College Composition and Communication. Retrieved 21 February 2013.
- "America's top colleges". Retrieved 16 July 2016.
- "Macaulay Honors College at John Jay". John Jay College of Criminal Justice. Archived from the original on 22 November 2012. Retrieved 21 February 2013.
- Academy of Critical Incident Analysis Archived 2012-11-27 at the Wayback Machine
- "The Center for Crime Prevention and Control". Archived from the original on 20 June 2015. Retrieved 20 June 2015.
- "The Center for Cybercrime Studies". Retrieved 20 June 2015.
- "CIHR". Retrieved 20 June 2015.
- Center on Media, Crime and Justice Archived 2013-03-01 at the Wayback Machine
- Center on Race, Crime and Justice Archived 2013-06-06 at the Wayback Machine
- "The Center on Terrorism". Retrieved 20 June 2015.
- Christian Regenhard Center for Emergency Response Studies Archived 2012-11-27 at the Wayback Machine
- CUNY Dispute Resolution Consortium Archived 2012-11-27 at the Wayback Machine
- "The Institute for Criminal Justice Ethics". Retrieved 20 June 2015.
- "The Prisoner Reentry Institute". Retrieved 20 June 2015.
- "Research and Evaluation Center". Retrieved 20 June 2015.
- "Fast Facts". Retrieved 16 July 2016.
- "John Jay College - The Office of Facilities Management & Planning (Special Projects)". Johnjay.jjay.cuny.edu. Archived from the original on 2011-09-27. Retrieved 2011-12-08.
- "Student Council". John Jay College of Criminal Justice. Archived from the original on 13 March 2013. Retrieved 21 February 2013.
- "JOHN JAY'S NEW BUILDING RECOGNIZED AS 'OVERLOOKED ARCHITECTURAL MASTERPIECE'". Retrieved 11 November 2016.
- Dwyer, Jim (18 Oct 2008). "A Builder of Dreams, in Brick and Mortar". New York Times.
- "Transforming a City Campus". Wall Street Journal. May 16, 2011. Retrieved 2012-09-13.[permanent dead link]
- Travis, Jeremy. "New Building: Welcome". Archived from the original on 5 February 2008. Retrieved 11 February 2013.
- "About Us". John Jay College Online. Archived from the original on 12 June 2015. Retrieved 20 June 2015.
- "New York State Assemblyman Karl A. Brabenec". New York State Assembly. Retrieved 2 October 2015.
- "New York State Assemblymember Marcos A. Crespo". New York State Assembly. Retrieved 11 February 2013.
- "American Psychological Association Citation for Kevin Nadal".
- "Vera Institute of Justice Interview with Steve Penrod". 2019-01-06.
- Martin, Douglas (June 11, 2002). "Benjamin Ward, Former New York City Police Commissioner, 75, Dies". New York Times. Retrieved 2009-06-09.
- "John Jay College News".