European Montenegro

The European Montenegro (Montenegrin: Европскa Црнa Горa, Evropska Crna Gora) was the ruling political alliance in Montenegro headed by Milo Đukanović's Democratic Party of Socialists (DPS).

European Montenegro

Европскa Црнa Горa
Evropska Crna Gora
LeaderMilo Đukanović
Founded1998
Dissolved2016
HeadquartersPodgorica
IdeologySocial democracy
Civic nationalism
Pro-Europeanism
Political positionCentre to centre-left[1]
ColoursRed, yellow
Parliament (2012)
39 / 81

Consisting of two additional parties (SDP and Liberals), "Coalition for European Montenegro" is the latest installment of the DPS-led political alliances that have ruled Montenegro since 1998. This current ruling alliance, much like its earlier predecessors did, derives its strength and is driven by the prestige and personal authority of Milo Đukanović.

Following the internal turmoil within the DPS during late 1996 and early 1997 when the party's most prominent members Milo Đukanović and Momir Bulatović bitterly fought behind the scenes for the control of the party, Đukanović emerged as the clear winner of the year-long power struggle. Under his leadership, DPS began entering pre-election alliances with smaller parties under the coalition banner that had a different name ahead of each parliamentary elections.

The dynamic within the coalition's various installments is always such that his party DPS is naturally entering it from an overwhelming position of strength while the other small party(ies) merely round out the ballot.

The first version of the coalition was formed ahead of the 1998 parliamentary elections in Montenegro under the name So that we live better (Да живимо боље, Da živimo bolje). Before the 2001 elections the coalition was rebranded as Victory is Montenegro's (Побједа је Црнe Горe, Pobjeda je Crne Gore). Then, before the 2002 elections the coalition was known as (Democratic) List for European Montenegro (Листа за европску Црну Гору, Demokratska lista za evropsku Crnu Goru), and finally before the 2006 elections it became the Coalition for European Montenegro.

The party that has been DPS' and Đukanović's most continual ally is SDP CG, part of every single version of the coalition.

HistoryEdit

1998 electionsEdit

In 1998 DPS forged a wide alliance in an attempt to compete with the newly created pro-Milošević Socialist People's Party of Montenegro (SNP) led at the time by former DPS leader Momir Bulatović.

Đukanović-led DPS called for an alliance between anti-Milošević parties, stating that Milošević's political pursuits were leading FR Yugoslavia into ruin. It made a coalition with the Social Democratic Party of Montenegro (SDP) that supported outright independence and the People's Party of Montenegro (NS) that wanted Montenegro to remain in a state with Serbia. DPS's own position at the time was that Montenegro and Serbia should be in a single unified state, but they opposed Milošević's rule.

The 1998 parliamentary election on May 31 essentially turned into another showdown between Đukanović and Bulatović over a single issue - Slobodan Milošević. Đukanović's coalition won, seizing 42 of 78 total parliamentary seats. Those 42 seats were then divided up three ways according to the coalition agreement: DPS received 32 seats while its coalition partners NS and SDP got 5 each.

For DPS it meant less actual seats belonging to the party than after the previous election when they got 45 of 71 total seats alone by themselves. However, they were now ruling through a coalition, which benefited the party's image in other ways as it created a perception of openness and pluralism.

As far as SDP was concerned getting 5 seats was a remarkable success - the party entered parliament for the first time in its history and could now influence the republic's official policy, neither of which they could dream of had they entered the election alone.

From NS perspective, getting 5 seats was not a big reason for celebration since the party had a distinct voting base at the time, meaning they would've surely gotten more had they entered alone, but they were now in a ruling coalition, in position to influence official policy and were happy to be there as long as DPS supported the idea of a unified state with Serbia.

Though never stable and cohesive, during its first year, the government formed by the "So that we live better" coalition was able to internally agree on basic matters and reach the minimum consensus. Big political test came in March 1999 when NATO military alliance started bombing FR Yugoslavia. Despite Montenegro being spared from the heaviest bombing, SDP and even fringe parts of DPS capitalized on the bombing to aggressively push the idea of an independent Montenegrin state. This political discourse, however, never made it into any of the government's official policy. In fall 1999, initiated by Đukanović, Montenegro drafted a document called Platforma za redefiniciju odnosa Crne Gore i Srbije (A platform for redefinition of relations within the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia) and sent it to Belgrade. In an atmosphere when Đukanović-Milošević relations were strained to a maximum, the platform called for major changes in the division of governing responsibilities within FR Yugoslavia. Though still officially seeing itself within a state with Serbia, Đukanović-led Montenegro wanted many things changed and redefined.

However, after the overthrow of Slobodan Milošević in October 2000 (which many saw to be a positive sign in future relations between Montenegro and Serbia and a way to quickly repair the damaged relationship), contrary to expectations, DPS made a complete turnaround and now suddenly started pushing for complete independence thus completely abandoning the platform they wrote just a year earlier. Consequently the mainstream of the ruling coalition started to openly support the idea of an independent Montenegro and this became an official government policy, all of which caused huge international outrage and outright opposition from the European Union.

In the resulting crisis, the pro-unity People's Party left the government dissatisfied with DPS' turnaround. Subsequently, inner quarrels between DPS CG on one side and LSCG on the other came out over filling in NS CG's vacant occupation in the government. NS subsequently joined the newly formed pro-Yugoslavian Together for Yugoslavia of Predrag Bulatović of the reformed SNP, which based itself on countering this alliance's newfound independentist ideology, emphasizing the necessity of keeping the state together with Serbia. Additionally, LSCG also withdrew from the government, on the allegations that DPS was not sincere in decisions to make Montenegro independent and that it was stalling it. The rump DPS-SDP of the once greater alliance lost control over the government. New elections were scheduled in 2001.

2001 electionsEdit

It ran on the 2001 Montenegrin parliamentary election as the "Victory is Montenegro's" (composed of the rump remains of the once large coalition; Democratic Party of Socialists and its sole partner, SDP). The coalition lost parliamentary majority, winning just 36 of 77 seats (30 for DPS and 6 for SDP). Contrary to everyone's expectation, the now opposing, once former ally, Liberal Alliance supported it to form a minority government under Filip Vujanović. But closer aligning of LSCG with the Together for Yugoslavia bloc distanced it from the minority coalition. The government signed the Belgrade Agreement in 2002, by which the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia was transformed into the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro and the Republic of Montenegro re-integrated into political structure with its great sister-republic. According to the agreement, the Deputy President of DPS Svetozar Marović became the country's first President. The frustrated pro-independence Liberal Alliance withdrew its support and crashed Vujanović's government. New elections were scheduled for 2002.

2002 electionsEdit

As the "List for European Montenegro" (composed out of Democratic Party of Socialists of Montenegro, Social Democratic Party of Montenegro, Civic Party of Montenegro, Liberal Democratic Party and the People's Concord of Montenegro), it won the 2002 Montenegrin parliamentary election receiving 39 of 75 seats in the Parliament of the Republic of Montenegro. DPS CG received 31 seat, SDP CG 7 and GP 1. NSCG received no seat as promised, but entered the later in 2003 elected Parliament of Serbia and Montenegro with one seat as compensation. LDP because of insufficient share in the total parliament, LDP was excluded completely.

2006 electionsEdit

In the 2006 election the alliance "For European Montenegro" won with 41 out of 81 seats. 32 seats were supposed to go DPS and 8 to SDP[citation needed]. The Coalition's seats were split 33 for DPS, 7 for SDP and 1 for HGI.

2009 electionsEdit

Coalition for a European Montenegro won the absolute majority in the 2009 election. The result translates to 47 out of the 81 seats in the Parliament. The turnout among the nearly 500,000 registered voters was around 67 per cent.[2] Milo Đukanović secured his sixth term as the Prime Minister with 50.8% of the vote.[3]

2012 electionsEdit

In the 2012 election this alliance is formed by DPS, SDP and the Liberal Party of Montenegro. The result of 2012 election was a victory for the ruling Coalition for a European Montenegro led by Milo Đukanović, which won 39 of the 81 seats.Milo Đukanović secured his seventh term as the Prime Minister with 45.60% of the vote.

2016 DPS–SDP splitEdit

On 22 January 2016 SDP's president Ranko Krivokapić announced that SDP will left the coalition with DPS and will support the non-confidence vote against the government of Milo Đukanović on 25 January.[4] In this way, after 18 years, the coalition between these two parties ended.

Coalition membersEdit

Name Abbr. Ideology Leader Member
Democratic Party of Socialists
Demokratska partija socijalista
Демократска партија социјалиста
DPS Social democracy[5]
Pro-Europeanism
Milo Đukanović 1998–2016
Social Democratic Party
Socijaldemokratska partija
Социјалдемократска партија
SDP Social democracy
Pro-Europeanism
Žarko Rakčević
Ranko Krivokapić
1998–2016
Liberal Party of Montenegro
Liberalna partija Crne Gore
Либерална партија Црне Горе
LP Liberalism
Montenegrin nationalism
Andrija Popović 2012–2016
Bosniak Party
Bošnjačka stranka
Бошњачка странка
BS Bosniak minority interests
Social conservatism
Rafet Husović 2009-2012
Croatian Civic Initiative
Hrvatska građanska inicijativa
Хрватска грађанска иницијатива
HGI Croatian minority interests
Conservatism
Marija Vučinović 2006–2012
Civic Party of Montenegro
Građanska partija Crne Gore
Грађанска партија Црне Горе
GP Liberalism
Pro-Europeanism
Krsto Pavićević 2002–2006
Liberal Democrats
Liberalni Demokrati
Либерални демократи
LD National liberalism
Montenegrin nationalism
Jevrem Brković 2001–2006
People's Concord of Montenegro
Narodna sloga Crne Gore
Народна слога Црне Горе
NSCG Liberal conservatism
Souverainism
Novak Kilibarda 2001–2006
People's Party
Narodna stranka
Народна странка
NS Conservatism
Christian democracy
Novak Kiibarda 1998–2001

Electoral performanceEdit

Parliamentary electionsEdit

Parliament of Montenegro
Year Popular vote % of popular vote Overall seats won Seat change Government Member parties
1998 170,080 48.87%
42 / 75
  government DPS-SDP-NS
2001 153,946 42.04%
36 / 75
  6 government DPS-SDP
2002 167,166 48.0%
39 / 75
  3 government DPS-SDP-GP-NSCG
2006 164,737 48.62%
41 / 81
  2 government DPS-SDP-HGI
2009 168,290 51.9%
48 / 81
  7 government DPS-SDP-HGI-BS
2012 165,380 45.60%
39 / 81
  9 government DPS-SDP-LPCG

Presidential electionsEdit

President of Montenegro
Election year Candidate Party # 1st round votes % of votes # 2nd round votes % of votes
2003 Filip Vujanović DPS 1st 139,574 64.2% N/A
2008 Filip Vujanović DPS 1st 171,118 51.89% N/A
2013 Filip Vujanović DPS 1st 161,940 51.21% N/A

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Slomp, Hans (2011). Europe, A Political Profile: An American Companion to European Politics. ABC-CLIO. p. 592. ISBN 978-0-313-39182-8. Retrieved 4 July 2018.
  2. ^ Djukanovic's bloc wins absolute majority in snap poll
  3. ^ Milo Djukanovic wins a sixth term with 50,8% of the vote
  4. ^ Ako vlada preživi, DPS smenjuje Ranka Krivokapića, dan.co.me (January 2016)
  5. ^ Parties and Elections in Europe: The database about parliamentary elections and political parties in Europe, by Wolfram Nordsieck

External linksEdit