Brave is a 2012 American animated fantasy film produced by Pixar Animation Studios and released by Walt Disney Pictures. The film was directed by Mark Andrews and Brenda Chapman (in the former's feature directorial debut), co-directed by Steve Purcell, and produced by Katherine Sarafian, with John Lasseter, Andrew Stanton, and Pete Docter serving as executive producers. The story was written by Chapman, who also wrote the film's screenplay with Andrews, Purcell, and Irene Mecchi. The film stars the voices of Kelly Macdonald, Billy Connolly, Emma Thompson, Julie Walters, Robbie Coltrane, Kevin McKidd, and Craig Ferguson. Set in the Scottish Highlands, the film tells the story of Princess Merida of DunBroch (Macdonald) who defies an age-old custom, causing chaos in the kingdom by expressing the desire not to be betrothed. When Queen Elinor (Thompson), her mother, falls victim to a beastly curse and turns into a bear, Merida must look within herself and find the key to saving the kingdom. Merida is the first character in the Disney Princess line to be created by Pixar. The film is also dedicated to Pixar chairman and Apple co-founder and CEO Steve Jobs, who died before the film's release.

Brave
A girl with long, curly bright red hair stares at the viewer holding a bow and an arrow. Behind her is the film's title while at the left shows a bear staring at her. She is located in a forest
Theatrical release poster
Directed by
Screenplay by
Story byBrenda Chapman
Produced byKatherine Sarafian
Starring
Cinematography
Edited byNicholas C. Smith
Music byPatrick Doyle
Production
companies
Distributed byWalt Disney Studios
Motion Pictures
Release dates
  • June 10, 2012 (2012-06-10) (SIFF)
  • June 22, 2012 (2012-06-22) (United States)
Running time
93 minutes[1]
CountryUnited States
LanguageEnglish
Budget$185 million[1]
Box office$539 million[2]

Brave is Pixar's first film with a female protagonist, and the first one animated with a new proprietary animation system, called Presto.[3] Originally titled The Bear and the Bow, the film was first announced in April 2008 alongside Up (2009) and Cars 2 (2011). Chapman, who had just wrapped up work as a story artist on Cars (2006), drew inspiration for the film's story from her relationship with her own daughter. Co-directing with Andrews and Purcell, Chapman became Pixar's first female director of a feature-length film.[4] To create the most complex visuals possible, Pixar completely rewrote their animation system for the first time in 25 years.[5][6][7] Brave is the first film to use the Dolby Atmos sound format.[8] The filmmakers created three original tartan patterns for three of the four clans in the film. Patrick Doyle composed the film's musical score.

Brave premiered at the Seattle International Film Festival on June 10, 2012, and was theatrically released in North America on June 22. Receiving generally positive reviews, it was a box office success, grossing $540.4 million against a $185 million budget. The film won the Academy Award,[9][10] the Golden Globe,[11] and the BAFTA Award for Best Animated Feature Film.[12] Preceding the feature theatrically was a short film entitled La Luna, directed by Enrico Casarosa.[13]

Plot edit

In Medieval Scotland, a young Princess Merida of the celt clan Dunbroch celebrates her birthday and is given a bow and arrow by her father, King Fergus, dismaying his wife Queen Elinor. In the forest, Merida encounters a will-o'-the-wisp and Mor'du, a huge demon bear, attacks the family. Fergus and his men fend off Mor'du, though the fight costs the king one of his legs.

Ten years later, Merida discovers she is to be betrothed to the son of one of her father's allies. Failure to consent to the betrothal could harm Dunbroch; Elinor reminds Merida of a legend of a prince whose pride and refusal to follow his father's wishes destroyed his kingdom.

The allied clan chieftains and their first-born sons arrive to compete in the Highland games for Merida's hand in marriage. Twisting the rules, Merida announces that, as her own clan's firstborn, she will compete for her own hand. She easily bests her suitors and, after arguing with Elinor, runs away into the forest. Wisps lead her to the hut of an elderly witch, where she bargains for a spell to "change" Elinor. The witch gives her an enchanted cake.

Elinor eats the cake and is transformed into a bear, unable to speak but retaining most of her human consciousness. Merida returns to the deserted witch's cottage, and discovers a message from the witch: she must "mend the bond, torn by pride" by the second sunrise, or the spell will become permanent. Merida and Elinor encounter Mor'du and realize Mor'du was the prince in the legend. Merida vows not to let the same thing happen to her mother, and concludes she needs to repair the family tapestry she deliberately damaged during their argument.

They return to the castle to find the clans on the verge of war. Merida intends to declare herself ready to choose a suitor as tradition demands, but at Elinor's prompting, she instead allows the firstborns to marry in their own time to whomever they choose. The clans agree, breaking tradition but renewing their alliance.

Losing her humanity, Elinor attacks Fergus and flees the castle. Mistaking the Queen for Mor'du, Fergus pursues the bear with the other clans, locking Merida in the castle. Merida escapes with the assistance of her triplet brothers, who have become bear cubs after eating the enchanted cake. She repairs the tapestry as Fergus and the clans capture Elinor. Merida thwarts them before the real Mor'du arrives. Mor'du targets Merida, but Elinor intercedes, causing Mor'du to be crushed by a falling menhir. This releases the spirit of the prince, who thanks Merida for freeing him and transforms into a wisp. The sun rises for the second time, but Elinor remains a bear. Merida reconciles with her mother, begging to have her back, and unknowingly fulfills the true meaning of the witch's message. This reverses the spell's effects on her mother and brothers.

With Mor'du gone, Merida and Elinor work together on a new tapestry, bid farewell to the other clans, and ride their horses together.

Voice cast edit

 
Billy Connolly (middle) at the Australian premiere of the film at the Sydney Film Festival[14]

Production edit

Announced in April 2008 as The Bear and the Bow,[18] Brave is Pixar's first fairy tale.[19][20][21] Writer and director Brenda Chapman considers it a fairy tale in the tradition of Hans Christian Andersen and the Brothers Grimm.[22] She also drew inspiration from her relationship with her daughter.[23] Chapman conceived the project and was announced as the film's director, making her Pixar's first female director,[24] but in October 2010, she was replaced by Mark Andrews after creative disagreements between her and John Lasseter.[25][26] Chapman found the news of her replacement "devastating", but later stated that her "vision came through in the film" and that she remained "very proud of the movie, and that I ultimately stood up for myself."[23][4] Chapman then stated in an interview in 2018 that while she was still bittersweet about being taken off the film and believed that there was no reason to do so creatively, she felt that it "opened more doors for me to have that happen".[26] Brave is also the first Pixar film with a female protagonist and Pixar's first film to have two credited directors.

Following his hiring as director, Mark Andrews did a major overhaul of the story to give more focus on Merida and her troubled relationship with her mother. Among others, he cleared away many magic elements, which he found affected the environment.[27] However, he wanted to stay truthful to Chapman's story. He said: "The bones of the film were totally fine. That was not the issue. What was hanging off the bones, there were problems. There were things that were not working. The focuses and balances that were out of whack."[28]

The end credits include a special tribute to Pixar co-founder and CEO Steve Jobs, who died in 2011.[29]

Casting edit

Brave is the first Pixar film starring a female protagonist.[4] In that respect, Brave was followed by Inside Out, Finding Dory, Incredibles 2, Turning Red, and Elemental, all of whom featured female protagonists. In 2010, Reese Witherspoon, Billy Connolly, Emma Thompson, and Julie Walters joined the cast, with Witherspoon set to voice Merida.[30] According to Andrews, Witherspoon was on the project for "quite some time. She was getting her Scottish accent down, she was working very hard and it was sounding great but as we were continuing with the movie she had other movies lining up, so unfortunately we were unable to continue with her and had to get a replacement."[31] Instead, in 2011 it was revealed that Merida was to be voiced by Scottish actress Kelly Macdonald.[32] In 2017, during a press junket for Illumination's Sing, Witherspoon mentioned that she had to leave the film due to failure to master a Scottish accent.[33]

Music edit

The score for Brave was composed by Patrick Doyle and performed by the London Symphony Orchestra. The orchestra was conducted by James Shearman. To bring some of Scotland's native flavor to the music, Doyle used traditional Celtic instruments such as bagpipes, a solo fiddle, Celtic harps, flutes and the bodhrán (a tunable, handheld frame drum), with an electronically treated dulcimer and cimbalom to give it a more contemporary feel. "I employed many classic Scottish dance rhythms such as reels, jigs, and strathspeys, which not only serve the action but keep it authentic," said Doyle.[34] As part of his research, he spent time in the Hebrides studying "unaccompanied Gaelic psalm singing."[35]

Doyle also composed several songs for the film. The lullaby duet between characters Princess Merida and Queen Elinor entitled "A Mhaighdean Uasal Bhan (Noble Maiden Fair)" appears on three occasions in different variations within the fabric of the score, and uniquely includes Gaelic vocals by Emma Thompson and Peigi Barker, the first Disney film with music featuring the language.[citation needed] The drinking song "Song of Mor'du" (lyrics by Doyle and Steve Purcell) sung by Billy Connolly, Scott Davies, Patrick Doyle, Gordon Neville, Alex Norton and Carey Wilson, features a rich variety of words, sung authentically in Scots, which is distinct from Scottish Gaelic. (Scots being a Germanic language, while Scottish Gaelic is Celtic.)

In addition to Doyle's music, the film features three other original songs; "Learn Me Right" written by Mumford & Sons and performed with Birdy, "Touch the Sky" (music by Alex Mandel, lyrics by Mark Andrews & Mandel) and "Into the Open Air" (music and lyrics by Alex Mandel). Both "Touch the Sky" and "Into the Open Air" were performed by Julie Fowlis, as Merida's off-screen musical thoughts. These two tracks were produced by composer and arranger Jim Sutherland, who is also featured as a performer.

Along with introducing Doyle to a number of specialist Celtic musicians who feature in the score, Sutherland was responsible for discovering the young Gaelic singer Peigi Barker; the voice of Young Merida.

Walt Disney Records released the soundtrack on both CD album and digital download on June 19, 2012.[36]

Tartans edit

 
Clan DunBroch tartan, STA 10641

Pixar created three original tartan patterns for the film for three of the four clans – DunBroch, Dingwall, and MacGuffin. (Clan Macintosh wears a red tartan similar to the nonfictional Clan Mackintosh.)

The Walt Disney Company registered the Clan DunBroch tartan within the Scottish Register of Tartans upon the release of the film. The tartan consists of ocean blue for the North Sea, subdued scarlet for bloodshed during the clan wars, deep green for the Scottish Highlands, navy blue for the eventual unity of the four clans, and gray for the Scottish people. In selecting the color scheme, Pixar took historical considerations, stating that "[t]here was a concerted effort to use hues that were indicative of the less saturated dyeing techniques [used] during the ancient period in which the fantasy film is set."[37]

The registration was celebrated at the film's British premiere in Edinburgh, where Scottish First Minister Alex Salmond presented a certificate to director Mark Andrews. However, Member of the Scottish Parliament Alex Johnstone criticized the registration (as well as other fiction-based entries such as one for Peter Rabbit) as "shallow and irreverent." Johnstone contended that the 2008 legislation that created the Scottish Register of Tartans was intended to prevent such entries and protect Scotland's heritage.[38]

The registration was not the first for Disney; the company also registered a tartan pattern for the Clan McDuck in 1942.[39]

Release edit

The film was initially set for release on Holiday 2011,[40] but the date was moved to June 15, 2012,[41] and later to June 22, 2012.[42] On April 3, 2012, Pixar screened the film's first 30 minutes, which received a positive reaction.[43] The film premiered on the last day of the Seattle International Film Festival on June 10, 2012.[44] It had its Australian premiere on June 11, 2012, at the Sydney Film Festival,[45] its domestic premiere on June 18, 2012, at Hollywood's Dolby Theatre as part of the Los Angeles Film Festival,[46] its European premiere at the Taormina Film Festival in Sicily on June 23, 2012, and its British premiere at the Edinburgh International Film Festival on June 30, 2012, with Kelly Macdonald, Robbie Coltrane, Craig Ferguson, Brian Cox, Kevin McKidd, Ewen Bremner, Kate Dickie, Julie Fowlis, Patrick Doyle, Daniela Nardini and Alex Salmond in attendance.[47][48][49]

In the United States and Canada, Brave is the first feature-length film to use the Dolby Atmos sound format.[50] Almost half of the 14 theaters set up to show the film in Atmos are in California (Burbank, Century City, Fremont, Hollywood, San Francisco, and Sherman Oaks), with the others located in seven other states (Lake Buena Vista, Florida; Kansas City, Missouri; Paramus, New Jersey; Las Vegas, Nevada; Chicago; West Plano, Texas; Vancouver, Washington) and Toronto, Ontario.[51] It was released in other theaters with Dolby Surround 7.1. In total, it was released in 4,164 theaters, a record-high for Pixar. The previous record was held by Cars 2 (4,115 theaters).[52] 2,790 of the theaters included 3D shows.[53]

Home media edit

Brave was released on Blu-ray, Blu-ray 3D, DVD, and digital download on November 13, 2012. It includes La Luna and a new short film, The Legend of Mor'du, which explores the history of Mor'du, from The Witch's perspective.[54][55] The DVD contains audio commentary by director Mark Andrews, co-director/screenwriter Steve Purcell, story supervisor Brian Larsen, and editor Nick Smith.[citation needed] In 2019, Brave was released on 4K Ultra HD Blu-ray.[56][57]

Reception edit

Box office edit

Brave earned $237.3 million in North America, and $303.2 million in other countries, for a worldwide total of $540.4 million.[2] It was the 13th highest-grossing film of 2012,[58] the eighth highest-grossing Pixar film,[59] and the third highest-grossing animated film that year behind Ice Age: Continental Drift ($875.3 million) and Madagascar 3: Europe's Most Wanted ($746.9 million).

In North America, pre-release tracking suggested the film would open between $55 million to $65 million in North America,[60][61] which is slightly below average for a Pixar film,[53] as trackers initially suggested that as a "princess story", the film might not appeal as much to male audiences.[53]

It opened on June 22, 2012, with $24.6 million and finished its opening weekend with $66.3 million (the same amount as Cars 2, Pixar's previous film), at the upper end of the numbers analysts predicted.[62] This was the seventh largest opening weekend in June,[63] and the sixth largest for a Pixar film.[64] Despite pre-release tracking indications, the audience was estimated to be 43% male and 57% female.[65] In North America, it is the ninth highest-grossing Pixar film,[59] the highest-grossing 2012 animated film,[66] and the eighth highest-grossing film of 2012.[67]

Outside North America, the film earned $14 million from 10 markets on its opening weekend, finishing in third place behind Madagascar 3: Europe's Most Wanted and Snow White and the Huntsman.[68] Overall, its largest openings occurred in France and the Maghreb region ($6.5 million), Mexico ($5.53 million), and Russia and the CIS ($5.37 million). In total earnings, its highest-grossing countries were the U.K., Ireland and Malta ($34.9 million), France and the Maghreb region ($26.8 million), and Mexico ($21.6 million).[69]

Critical response edit

On the review aggregator website Rotten Tomatoes, 79% of 256 critics' reviews are positive, with an average rating of 7/10. The website's consensus reads: "Brave offers young audiences and fairy tale fans a rousing, funny fantasy adventure with a distaff twist and surprising depth."[70] Metacritic, which uses a weighted average, assigned the film a score of 69 out of 100, based on 37 critics, indicating "generally favorable" reviews.[71] Audiences polled by CinemaScore during the film's opening weekend gave it an average grade of "A" on a scale from A+ to F.[65]

Roger Ebert of the Chicago Sun-Times gave the film 3 out of 4 stars. He wrote, "The good news is that the kids will probably love it, and the bad news is that parents will be disappointed if they're hoping for another Pixar groundbreaker. Unlike such brightly original films as Toy Story, Finding Nemo, WALL-E, and Up, this one finds Pixar poaching on traditional territory of Disney." He said that the film did have an uplifting message about improving communication between mothers and daughters, "although transforming your mother into a bear is a rather extreme first step".[72] Peter Debruge of Variety gave a positive review of the film, writing that the film "offers a tougher, more self-reliant heroine for an era in which princes aren't so charming, set in a sumptuously detailed Scottish environment, where her spirit blazes bright as her fiery red hair". Debruge said that "adding a female director, Brenda Chapman, to its creative boys' club, the studio Pixar has fashioned a resonant tribute to mother-daughter relationships that packs a level of poignancy on par with such beloved male-bonding classics as Finding Nemo".[73]

Conversely, Todd McCarthy of The Hollywood Reporter gave it a negative review, stating that the film "diminishes into a rather wee thing as it chugs along, with climactic drama that is both too conveniently wrapped up and hinges on magical elements that are somewhat confusing to boot".[74] Leonard Maltin on IndieWire said, "I'll give it points for originality, but that story twist is so bizarre that it knocked me for a loop. The movie tries to make up for this detour with a heart-tugging, emotional finale, but the buildup to that moment has been undermined, so it doesn't have the impact it should."[75]

Some reviewers saw the Merida character as a novel break from the traditional line of Disney princesses. There were some dissonance and criticism among viewers and organized feminists when her character was scheduled to be "crowned" a Disney princess, only for artists to render her thinner, with less frizzy hair, and rounder eyes, more like the other princesses from previous Disney movies. This inspired girl-empowerment website A Mighty Girl to file a petition that Disney not alter their character.[76][77] One of the 262,196 signatories was Brenda Chapman, the director of the film, who felt that Disney had "betrayed the essence of what we were trying to do with Merida — give young girls and women a better, stronger role model",[78] and that the makeover was "a blatantly sexist marketing move based on money".[79] The online petition was considered a success, as shortly after it appeared Disney removed the redesigned image from their official website, in favor of Merida's original film appearance.[80] Disney later clarified the situation, assuring that Merida would remain in her original form.[81][82]

Accolades edit

Awards
Award Category Recipients Result
Academy Awards[10] Best Animated Feature Mark Andrews and Brenda Chapman Won
Alliance of Women Film Journalists
Best Animated Female Kelly Macdonald (Merida)
American Cinema Editors Best Edited Animated Feature Film Nicholas C. Smith, A.C.E.
Annie Awards[83][84] Best Animated Feature Nominated
Animated Effects Feature Production Bill Watral, Chris Chapman, Dave Hale, Keith Klohn, Michael K. O'Brien
Character Animation Feature Production Dan Nguyen
Jaime Landes
Travis Hathaway
Music in an Animated Feature Production Patrick Doyle, Mark Andrews, Alex Mandel
Production Design in an Animated Feature Production Steve Pilcher Won
Voice Acting in an Animated Feature Production Kelly Macdonald as Merida Nominated
Writing in an Animated Feature Production Brenda Chapman, Irene Mecchi, Mark Andrews and Steve Purcell
Editorial in an Animated Feature Production Nicholas C. Smith, ACE, Robert Graham Jones, ACE, David Suther Won
BAFTA Awards[12] Best Animated Film
Chicago Film Critics Association Best Animated Feature Nominated
Cinema Audio Society Outstanding Achievement in Sound Mixing for Motion Pictures Animated Won
Critics' Choice Awards[85] Best Animated Feature Nominated
Best Song Mumford & Sons and Birdy (for "Learn Me Right")
Golden Globe Awards[86][87] Best Animated Feature Film Mark Andrews and Brenda Chapman Won
Grammy Awards[88] Best Song Written for Visual Media Mumford & Sons and Birdy (for "Learn Me Right") Nominated
Houston Film Critics Society Best Animated Film
Best Original Song "Learn Me Right"
"Touch the Sky"
International Film Music Critics Association Awards Best Original Score for an Animated Feature Patrick Doyle
Kids' Choice Awards[89] Favorite Animated Movie
Online Film Critics Society Best Animated Feature
Phoenix Film Critics Society Best Animated Film
Producers Guild of America Animated Theatrical Motion Picture Katherine Sarafian
San Diego Film Critics Society Best Animated Film
Satellite Awards[90] Motion Picture, Animated or Mixed Media
Original Song "Learn Me Right" – Mumford & Sons and Birdy
Saturn Awards[91] Best Animated Film Mark Andrews and Brenda Chapman
St. Louis Gateway Film Critics Association Best Animated Film
Toronto Film Critics Association Best Animated Feature
Visual Effects Society[92] Outstanding Animation in an Animated Feature Motion Picture Mark Andrews, Brenda Chapman, Steve May, Katherine Sarafian, Bill Wise Won
Outstanding Animated Character in an Animated Feature Motion Picture – Merida Kelly Macdonald, Travis Hathaway, Olivier Soares, Peter Sumanaseni, Brian Tindall
Outstanding Created Environment in an Animated Feature Motion Picture – The Forest Tim Best, Steve Pilcher, Inigo Quilez, Andy Whittock
Outstanding FX and Simulation Animation in an Animated Feature Motion Picture Chris Chapman, Dave Hale, Michael K. O'Brien, Bill Watral
Washington D.C. Area Film Critics Association Best Animated Feature Nominated
Women Film Critics Circle[93] Won

Video game edit

A video game based on the film was published by Disney Interactive Studios on June 19, 2012,[94] for the PlayStation 3, Xbox 360, Wii, PC, and Nintendo DS.[95] A mobile video game, Temple Run: Brave (a Brave variation of Temple Run), was released on June 14, 2012, for iOS and Android,[96] and on June 7, 2013, for Windows Phone.[97]

Possible sequel edit

In 2013, Scottish publication The Scotsman asked director Mark Andrews about the possibility of a sequel. Andrews said:

I don't know if there will be another one. We never make a film at Pixar to have a sequel. It is always nice when you do and we kind of have a philosophy that if we find the right story then we will. Surely the marketing and success of Brave says that you can have one and they will come.[98]

Other media edit

Television edit

Films edit

Video games edit

  • Merida is a playable character in Disney Infinity 2.0 and Disney Infinity 3.0. As with the other playable characters in the game, a tie-in figure for Merida was also released. In addition, a Toy Box Game based on the movie is available. Many items from the movie are also available to be placed in the toy box. With a power disc, Merida's horse Angus can be summoned.[102]
  • Merida appears as a playable character in the mobile game Disney Heroes: Battle Mode.
  • Merida, Queen Elinor, King Fergus, Lords Dingwall, Lord MacGuffin and Lord Macintosh appear as playable characters in the video game Disney Magic Kingdoms, in addition to some attractions based on locations in the film. In the game, the characters are involved in new storylines that serve as a continuation of the events in the film.[103]
  • Merida appears as a playable character in the mobile game Disney Sorcerer's Arena.
  • Merida appears as a secret playable character in Lego The Incredibles.[104]

References edit

  1. ^ a b "Brave (2012)". Box Office Mojo. Archived from the original on August 16, 2012. Retrieved December 14, 2012.
  2. ^ a b "Brave (2012)". Box Office Mojo. Archived from the original on August 17, 2016. Retrieved August 20, 2016.
  3. ^ "Our Story". www.pixar.com. October 27, 2021. Archived from the original on October 27, 2021. Retrieved October 27, 2021.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h "'Brave' director Brenda Chapman breaks silence: Getting taken off film 'heartbreaking... devastating... distressing'". Entertainment Weekly. August 15, 2012. Retrieved June 22, 2020.
  5. ^ Stein, Joel (March 5, 2012). "Pixar's Girl Story". Time. Retrieved August 1, 2012.
  6. ^ Cavna, Michael (June 22, 2012). "Pixar's Brave: Director Mark Andrews on the duality of teens, the singularity of his mission — and what a man in a kilt brings to Pixar". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on October 27, 2014. Retrieved March 28, 2014.
  7. ^ Williams, Steve (May 28, 2012). "Why Pixar's 'Brave' Is Different From Any Films They've Created Before". Team Locals. Archived from the original on April 7, 2014. Retrieved March 28, 2014.
  8. ^ Savitz, Eric. "Disney/Pixar's Brave First Film With Dolby Atmos Audio". Forbes. Archived from the original on January 4, 2022. Retrieved January 4, 2022.
  9. ^ Boardman, Madeline (February 24, 2013). "Best Animated Film: 'Brave' Wins At 2013 Academy Awards". huffingtonpost.com. Archived from the original on December 5, 2013. Retrieved October 6, 2013.
  10. ^ a b "OSCARS: 85th Academy Award Nominations – Only 9 Best Pictures; 'Lincoln' Leads With 12 Nods, 'Life Of Pi' 11, 'Les Misérables' And 'Silver Linings Playbook' 8, 'Argo' 7, 'Skyfall' And 'Amour' And 'Zero Dark Thirty' And 'Django Unchained' 5". Deadline. January 10, 2012. Archived from the original on January 12, 2013. Retrieved January 10, 2012.
  11. ^ Globe, Golden (December 13, 2012). "Golden Globes 2013: full list of nominations". guardian.co.uk. London. Archived from the original on April 21, 2013. Retrieved January 3, 2013.
  12. ^ a b Bahr, Lindsey (February 10, 2013). "BAFTA winners announced, 'Argo' picks up Best Film and Director awards". Entertainment Weekly. Archived from the original on February 12, 2013. Retrieved April 14, 2013.
  13. ^ Rizvi, Samad (August 19, 2011). "D23 2011: La Luna Will Play Before Brave, New Toy Story Toon Title Announced". The Pixar Times. Archived from the original on December 30, 2011. Retrieved January 24, 2012.
  14. ^ Kushigemachi, Todd (May 29, 2012). "Sydney fest ramps up for June 6 bow". Variety. Archived from the original on November 16, 2018. Retrieved March 21, 2015.
  15. ^ Lesnick, Silas; Murphy, Matt (August 20, 2011). "D23 Expo: Previewing Pixar's Brave". ComingSoon. Archived from the original on October 9, 2011. Retrieved August 21, 2011.
  16. ^ Connelly, Brendon (April 4, 2012). "Yes, The Pizza Planet Truck Is In Brave, And That's Not All". Bleeding Cool. Archived from the original on April 6, 2012. Retrieved April 5, 2012.
  17. ^ O'Neill, Callum. "Acting". The Scottish Voice. Archived from the original on August 31, 2013. Retrieved June 2, 2012.
  18. ^ Nichols, Michelle (April 8, 2008). "Disney previews 10 new animated movies, most 3-D". Reuters. Archived from the original on September 24, 2015. Retrieved November 19, 2011.
  19. ^ "Brave (2012)". Christian Answers. Archived from the original on June 27, 2012. Retrieved July 6, 2012.
  20. ^ Imondi, Bethany (June 21, 2012). "Pixar's Princess Takes on a New Role". The Hoya. Archived from the original on March 3, 2016. Retrieved July 6, 2012.
  21. ^ "The Daily Rotation Brave Review". The Daily Rotation. June 22, 2012. Archived from the original on August 27, 2012. Retrieved July 6, 2012.
  22. ^ Vespe, Eric (April 9, 2008). "Quint discusses the Pixar half of the Disney Animation Presentation! UP! WALL-E! TOY STORY 3! NEWT! THE BEAR & THE BOW!". Ain't It Cool News. Archived from the original on April 10, 2008. Retrieved April 9, 2008.
  23. ^ a b Chapman, Brenda (August 14, 2012). "Stand Up for Yourself, and Mentor Others". New York Times. Archived from the original on August 25, 2012. Retrieved September 9, 2012.
  24. ^ Powers, Lindsay (October 14, 2010). "Pixar announces first female director". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on December 29, 2010. Retrieved March 29, 2011.
  25. ^ Sperling, Nicole (May 25, 2011). "When the glass ceiling crashed on Brenda Chapman". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on September 26, 2020. Retrieved June 22, 2020.
  26. ^ a b Radulovic, Petrana (December 17, 2018). "Prince of Egypt director Brenda Chapman: 'We wanted to do something that reached more adults'". Polygon. Archived from the original on December 29, 2018. Retrieved December 28, 2018.
  27. ^ "/Film Interview: Mark Andrews, Director of Pixar's Brave". May 16, 2012. Archived from the original on June 20, 2021. Retrieved April 11, 2021.
  28. ^ "Director Mark Andrews Talks Taking Over Brave and the End Result of 'John Carter'". Archived from the original on August 11, 2014. Retrieved April 11, 2021.
  29. ^ Pixar's 'Brave' Pays Ghostly Tribute to Steve Jobs Archived September 12, 2017, at the Wayback Machine. May 25, 2012.
  30. ^ "Pixar Reveals First Logo for BRAVE". Collider. September 23, 2010. Archived from the original on January 5, 2020. Retrieved April 17, 2020.
  31. ^ Reynolds, Simon (April 4, 2012). "'Brave' preview: Mark Andrews on Pixar's Scotland-set fantasy tale". Digital Spy. Archived from the original on January 16, 2017. Retrieved January 15, 2017.
  32. ^ Young, John (March 28, 2011). "Pixar's 'Brave': First Look art -- EXCLUSIVE PHOTOS". Entertainment Weekly. Archived from the original on March 23, 2015. Retrieved January 15, 2017.
  33. ^ Gordon, Naomi (January 12, 2017). "Reese Witherspoon admits she had to quit a movie because her Scottish accent was so bad". Cosmopolitan. Archived from the original on June 22, 2020. Retrieved June 22, 2020.
  34. ^ "Sounds Of The Highlands; Disney-Pixar's "Brave" Transports Moviegoers to Ancient Scotland with Oscar-Nominated Composer Patrick Doyle, Plus Performers Julie Fowlis and Birdy (with Mumford & Sons)" (Press release). Walt Disney Records. May 21, 2012. Retrieved May 22, 2012.
  35. ^ Cornwell, Tim (July 1, 2011). "Scotland's Pixar tale hits the right note". The Scotsman. Archived from the original on September 8, 2011. Retrieved September 6, 2011.
  36. ^ "Amazon.com: Brave: Various Artists, Patrick Doyle, James Shearman: Music". Amazon. Archived from the original on July 6, 2012. Retrieved July 6, 2012.
  37. ^ Scotland, National Records of. "Tartan Details - The Scottish Register of Tartans". Archived from the original on April 9, 2016. Retrieved June 14, 2016.
  38. ^ "Scottish Register of Tartans criticized after approving Disney designs Archived October 25, 2014, at the Wayback Machine". Deadline. January 3, 2013.
  39. ^ MacDuck #2 Archived October 25, 2014, at the Wayback Machine at The Scottish Register of Tartans.
  40. ^ "Disney and Pixar's Full Animated Line-Up Through 2012! | FirstShowing.net". www.firstshowing.net. April 9, 2008. Retrieved November 14, 2023.
  41. ^ Sciretta, Peter (April 23, 2010). "Pixar To Release Monsters Inc Sequel And Brave In 2012". /Film. Retrieved November 14, 2023.
  42. ^ Lang, Brent (March 16, 2011). "Disney Changes Release Date for 'The Brave'". TheWrap.com. Archived from the original on March 21, 2011. Retrieved March 29, 2011.
  43. ^ Bastoli, Mike (April 4, 2012). "Brave Preview Draws Cheers". Big Screen Animation. Archived from the original on July 20, 2012. Retrieved May 5, 2012.
  44. ^ "Brave". Seattle International Film Festival. June 10, 2012. Archived from the original on May 24, 2012. Retrieved June 11, 2012.
  45. ^ Bunbury, Stephanie (June 8, 2012). "'Brave': A Fairytale Beginning". The Sydney Morning Herald. Archived from the original on June 26, 2012. Retrieved June 11, 2012.
  46. ^ Patten, Dominic (May 18, 2012). "'Brave' Premiere To Open Dolby Theatre But Will Dolby Mix Be Ready?". Deadline Hollywood. Archived from the original on May 23, 2012. Retrieved May 19, 2012.
  47. ^ "Robbie Coltrane and Kelly MacDonald among stars to attend Edinburgh premiere of Brave". The Scotsman. Archived from the original on June 25, 2016. Retrieved May 25, 2016.
  48. ^ "Scotland in focus as Brave premieres in Edinburgh". The Herald Scotland. July 2012. Archived from the original on June 16, 2016. Retrieved May 25, 2016.
  49. ^ "Disney/Pixar's Brave set for UK premiere at Edinburgh International Film Festival". Scottish Daily Record. Archived from the original on July 1, 2016. Retrieved May 25, 2016.
  50. ^ Giardina, Carolyn (April 24, 2012). "CinemaCon 2012: Pixar's 'Brave' to Test Dolby's New Atmos Format". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on April 27, 2012. Retrieved April 25, 2012.
  51. ^ Lawler, Richard (June 16, 2012). "Dolby confirms 14 theaters for inaugural screening of Pixar's 'Brave' with Atmos audio". Engadget. Archived from the original on June 18, 2012. Retrieved June 17, 2012.
  52. ^ "Pixar Movies at the Box Office" Archived August 4, 2019, at the Wayback Machine. Box Office Mojo.
  53. ^ a b c Subers, Ray (June 21, 2012). "Forecast: Pixar Aims for 13th-Straight First Place Debut with 'Brave'". Box Office Mojo. Archived from the original on June 23, 2012. Retrieved June 22, 2012.
  54. ^ "'Brave' 3D Blu-ray Bonus Features to Include New 'Mor'du' Short, Alternate Opening, Bloopers and Much More". Stitch Kingdom. August 22, 2012. Archived from the original on August 25, 2012. Retrieved August 22, 2012.
  55. ^ Koch, Dave (August 27, 2012). "The Legend of Mor'du Short Announced For Brave Blu-ray". Big Cartoon News. Archived from the original on December 3, 2012. Retrieved August 27, 2012.
  56. ^ "New Releases: Sept. 10, 2019". Media Play News. Archived from the original on September 21, 2020. Retrieved October 25, 2021.
  57. ^ Heller, Emily (March 3, 2020). "A bunch of Pixar movies, including Up and A Bug's Life, come to 4K Blu-ray". Polygon. Archived from the original on March 4, 2020. Retrieved October 25, 2021.
  58. ^ "2012 Yearly Box Office Results - Box Office Mojo". boxofficemojo.com. Archived from the original on April 2, 2016. Retrieved January 26, 2015.
  59. ^ a b "Pixar". boxofficemojo.com. Archived from the original on August 16, 2016. Retrieved January 26, 2015.
  60. ^ McClintock, Pamela (June 21, 2012). "Box Office Preview: 'Brave' to Slay 'Abraham Lincoln' With About $60 Million". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on June 25, 2012. Retrieved June 22, 2012.
  61. ^ Kaufman, Amy (June 22, 2012). "'Brave' expected to easily defeat 'Abraham Lincoln' at box office". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved June 22, 2020.
  62. ^ "Brave (2012) – Daily Box Office Results" Archived November 16, 2018, at the Wayback Machine. Box Office Mojo.
  63. ^ "Top June Opening Weekends at the Box Office". boxofficemojo.com. Archived from the original on August 30, 2019. Retrieved January 26, 2015.
  64. ^ "Pixar Movies Opening Weekends" Archived August 4, 2019, at the Wayback Machine. Box Office Mojo.
  65. ^ a b Cunningham, Todd (June 24, 2012). "'Brave' and Princess Merida Beat Up the Boys at Box Office: $66.7M". The Wrap. Archived from the original on August 15, 2012. Retrieved August 1, 2012.
  66. ^ "Animation 2012". boxofficemojo.com. Archived from the original on November 16, 2018. Retrieved January 26, 2015.
  67. ^ "2012 Yearly Box Office Results - Box Office Mojo". boxofficemojo.com. Archived from the original on January 29, 2015. Retrieved January 26, 2015.
  68. ^ Segers, Frank (June 24, 2012). "Foreign Box Office: 'Madagascar 3' Tops Weak Weekend". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on June 27, 2012. Retrieved June 29, 2012.
  69. ^ "Brave (2012) – International Box Office Results" Archived November 16, 2018, at the Wayback Machine. Box Office Mojo.
  70. ^ "Brave (2012)". Rotten Tomatoes. Fandango. Retrieved November 18, 2023.
  71. ^ "Brave". Metacritic. Fandom, Inc. Archived from the original on March 10, 2020. Retrieved September 25, 2019.
  72. ^ Roger Ebert (June 20, 2012). "Brave". Chicago Sun-Times. Archived from the original on April 24, 2013. Retrieved June 21, 2012.
  73. ^ Debruge, Peter (June 10, 2012). "Brave". Variety. Archived from the original on June 22, 2020. Retrieved June 22, 2020.
  74. ^ McCarthy, Todd (June 10, 2012). "Brave: Film Review". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on June 11, 2012. Retrieved June 11, 2012.
  75. ^ Maltin, Leonard (June 2012). "Brave—movie review". IndieWire. Archived from the original on September 15, 2013. Retrieved May 26, 2013.
  76. ^ "Say No to the Merida Makeover and Keep Our Hero Brave!". kwww.amightygirl.com. A Mighty Girl. Archived from the original on June 7, 2013. Retrieved May 13, 2013.
  77. ^ June, Daniel (May 10, 2013). ""Brave's" Merida Gets a Makeover, Upsetting Feminists and Others". JD Journal. Archived from the original on September 21, 2013. Retrieved May 12, 2013.
  78. ^ Melissa, Silverstein (May 13, 2013). "Brave Director Brenda Chapman Responds to Merida Coronation". Women and Hollywood. Archived from the original on June 22, 2020. Retrieved June 22, 2020.
  79. ^ Liberatore, Paul (May 11, 2013). "'Brave' creator blasts Disney for 'blatant sexism' in princess makeover". Marin Independent Journal. Archived from the original on May 18, 2013. Retrieved May 14, 2013.
  80. ^ "CinemaBlend.com". Disney Pulls Merida's Makeover After Outcry. May 15, 2013. Archived from the original on June 9, 2013. Retrieved September 12, 2013.
  81. ^ Exclusive: Disney bravely responds to Merida makeover outrage, says 2D new look was for "limited" use only Archived April 9, 2017, at the Wayback Machine Retrieved May 24, 2013
  82. ^ Bahr, Lindsey (May 15, 2013). "'Brave': Merida remains the girl you know and love - EXCLUSIVE". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved June 22, 2020.
  83. ^ "Annie Award Nominations Unveiled". Deadline. December 3, 2012. Archived from the original on October 18, 2020. Retrieved December 3, 2012.
  84. ^ Beck, Jerry (February 2, 2013). "Annie Award Winners". Cartoon Brew. Archived from the original on February 6, 2013. Retrieved February 3, 2013.
  85. ^ Hammond, Pete (December 11, 2012). "'Lincoln', 'Les Miserables', 'Silver Linings' Top List Of Nominees For 18th Annual Critics Choice Movie Awards". Deadline. Archived from the original on December 12, 2012. Retrieved December 11, 2012.
  86. ^ "70th Golden Globe Awards Nominations". Deadline. December 13, 2012. Archived from the original on April 25, 2022. Retrieved December 13, 2012.
  87. ^ "Golden Globe Awards 2013 Winners List". MTV News. January 13, 2013. Archived from the original on January 16, 2013. Retrieved January 13, 2013.
  88. ^ Goodacre, Kate (December 6, 2012). "Grammy Awards 2013: The major nominees". Digital Spy. Archived from the original on September 25, 2015. Retrieved December 13, 2012.
  89. ^ Stone, Abbey (March 23, 2013). "Kid's Choice Awards Winners: Kristen Stewart Beats Jennifer Lawrence and More". Hollywood.com. Archived from the original on February 22, 2014. Retrieved May 24, 2013.
  90. ^ Kilday, Gregg (December 3, 2012). "Satellite Awards Nominates 10 Films for Best Motion Picture". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on December 7, 2012. Retrieved December 4, 2012.
  91. ^ Truitt, Brian (February 20, 2013). "'The Hobbit' leads Saturn Awards with nine nomination". USA Today. Archived from the original on February 21, 2013. Retrieved August 25, 2017.
  92. ^ "VES Awards: 'Life Of Pi' Wins 4 Including Feature, 'Brave', 'Game Of Thrones' Other Big Winners". Deadline. February 5, 2013. Archived from the original on June 19, 2014. Retrieved February 7, 2013.
  93. ^ "CRITICAL WOMEN ON FILM: Women Film Critics Circle Awards 2012". Archived from the original on February 17, 2013. Retrieved June 14, 2016.
  94. ^ Rizvi, Samad (April 24, 2012). "Exclusive: A Chat With The 'Brave' Video Game Producer". The Pixar Times. Archived from the original on May 3, 2012. Retrieved May 5, 2012.
  95. ^ Cork, Jeff (March 19, 2012). "Disney Pixar Announces Brave: The Video Game". Game Informer.
  96. ^ Tong, Sophia (June 4, 2012). "Temple Run: Brave announced, coming to iOS and Android devices". Games Radar. Archived from the original on December 28, 2013. Retrieved June 4, 2012.
  97. ^ Buckingham, Alan (June 7, 2013). "Temple Run braves Windows Phone 8". BetaNews. Archived from the original on June 9, 2013. Retrieved June 7, 2013.
  98. ^ Ferguson, Brian (April 10, 2013). "Sequel to Disney-Pixar's Brave on the cards". The Scotsman. Archived from the original on June 3, 2013. Retrieved April 28, 2013.{{cite news}}: CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link) accessed 24 September 2022.
  99. ^ Prudom, Laura (July 11, 2015). "'Once Upon a Time' Previews Merida from 'Brave,' Dark Swan for Season 5". Archived from the original on March 13, 2016. Retrieved June 14, 2016.
  100. ^ Wagmeister, Elizabeth (September 1, 2015). "'Brave' Princess Merida to Appear on Disney Junior's 'Sofia the First'". Archived from the original on August 2, 2016. Retrieved June 14, 2016.
  101. ^ Breznican, Anthony (July 14, 2017). "Wreck-It Ralph sequel will unite the Disney princesses — and Star Wars!". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved November 4, 2018.
  102. ^ "Merida and Maleficent Are Coming to Disney Infinity". Disney Blogs. Archived from the original on September 12, 2014. Retrieved October 18, 2022.
  103. ^ "Update 46: Brave | Livestream". YouTube. December 13, 2020. Archived from the original on November 23, 2021. Retrieved October 18, 2022.
  104. ^ Balanza, Albert (May 24, 2018). "The Lego Incredibles Video Game Will Include Secret Playable Disney Pixar Characters". Brick Show. Archived from the original on November 19, 2021. Retrieved July 20, 2018.

Further reading edit

External links edit