Inside Out (2015 film)

Inside Out is a 2015 American computer-animated film produced by Pixar Animation Studios and distributed by Walt Disney Studios Motion Pictures. It is directed by Pete Docter and co-directed by Ronnie del Carmen, written by Docter, Meg LeFauve, and Josh Cooley, and stars the voices of Amy Poehler, Phyllis Smith, Richard Kind, Bill Hader, Lewis Black, Mindy Kaling, Kaitlyn Dias, Diane Lane, and Kyle MacLachlan. The film is set in the mind of a young girl named Riley (Dias), where five personified emotions—Joy (Poehler), Sadness (Smith), Fear (Hader), Anger (Black), and Disgust (Kaling)—try to lead her through life as she and her parents (Lane and MacLachlan) adjust to their new surroundings after moving from Minnesota to San Francisco.

Inside Out
A group of five emotions–Fear, Anger, Joy, Sadness, and Disgust (arranged left to right), each of whom triggers a such action, in a muticolored polka dot background, with those connecting themselves.
Theatrical release poster
Directed byPete Docter
Screenplay by
Story by
Produced byJonas Rivera
Starring
Cinematography
Edited byKevin Nolting
Music byMichael Giacchino
Production
companies
Distributed byWalt Disney Studios
Motion Pictures
Release date
  • May 18, 2015 (2015-05-18) (Cannes)
  • June 19, 2015 (2015-06-19) (United States)
Running time
95 minutes[2]
CountryUnited States
LanguageEnglish
Budget$175 million[3]
Box office$858.8 million[4]

Docter developed Inside Out for five and a half years. He devised the idea after noticing changes in his daughter's personality as she grew older. Docter and del Carmen remembered past memories for incorporation of those on the film, which Docter allowed to make it. The filmmakers convinced some psychologists to consider the story by researching the mind for precision. The film faced a difficult production due to its changes.

Inside Out debuted out of competition at the 68th Cannes Film Festival on May 18, 2015, and was released in theaters in the United States on June 19. It was well-received by the media for its craftsmanship, screenplay, subject matter, plot, and vocal performances (particularly those of Poehler and Smith). Organizations like the National Board of Review and American Film Institute named Inside Out as one of the top 10 films of 2015. It earned $858.8 million worldwide, and became the seventh highest-grossing film of 2015. Inside Out led the 88th Academy Awards season with two nominations (winning one), and received numerous accolades.

PlotEdit

Within the mind of a girl named Riley are the basic emotions that control her actions—Joy, Sadness, Fear, Disgust, and Anger. Her experiences become memories, stored as colored orbs, which are sent into long-term memory each night. Her five most important "core memories" power aspects of her personality which take the form of floating islands. Joy acts as the leader, and she and the rest of the emotions try to limit Sadness's influence.

At the age of 11, Riley moves from Minnesota to San Francisco for her father's new job. She at first has poor experiences; the new house is cramped and old, her father hardly has any time for her, a local pizza parlor only serves pizza topped with broccoli (which Riley dislikes), and the moving van with their belongings ends up in Texas and will not arrive for weeks. On Riley's first day at her new school, Sadness retroactively turns joyous memories sad, which causes Riley to cry in front of her class and creates a sad core memory. Joy tries to dispose of it by using a vacuum tube but accidentally knocks the other core memories loose during a struggle with Sadness, disabling the personality islands. Joy, Sadness, and the core memories are sucked out of the Headquarters.

In Joy and Sadness's absence, Anger, Fear, and Disgust are left in control, with disastrous results, distancing Riley from her parents, friends, and hobbies. Because of this, her personality islands gradually crumble and fall into the "Memory Dump", where memories are forgotten. Finally, Anger inserts an idea into the console, prompting Riley to run away to Minnesota, believing it will restore her happiness.

While navigating the vast long-term memory area, Joy and Sadness encounter Bing Bong, Riley's childhood imaginary friend, who suggests riding the "train of thought" back to Headquarters. The three, after extreme inconvenience caused by the islands' dissolution, eventually catch the train but it halts when Riley falls asleep, then derails entirely with the collapse of another island. In desperation, Joy abandons Sadness and tries to ride a "recall tube" back to the Headquarters but the ground below the tube collapses, breaking and sending Joy and Bing Bong plunging into the Memory Dump. A crestfallen Joy discovers a sad memory that turned happy when Riley's parents and friends comforted her. Joy finally understands Sadness's purpose: alerting others when Riley is emotionally overwhelmed and needs help. Joy and Bing Bong try to use Bing Bong's old wagon rocket, which gets energy when the rider sings, to escape the Memory Dump, but are unable to fly high enough due to their combined weight. On their last attempt, Bing Bong jumps out to allow Joy to escape as he fades away.

Joy reunites with Sadness and they return to the Headquarters, but arrive too late as Anger's idea has disabled the console, rendering Riley apathetic. To the surprise of the others, Joy hands control of the console to Sadness, who is able to reactivate it and prompt Riley to return to her new home. As Sadness reinstalls the core memories, transforming them from happy to sad, Riley tearfully confesses to her parents that she misses her old life. Her parents comfort her and admit they also miss Minnesota. Joy and Sadness work the console together, creating a new core memory consisting of happiness and sadness; a new island forms, representing Riley's acceptance of her new life in San Francisco.

A year later, Riley has adapted to her new home, made new friends, and returned to her old hobbies while acquiring a few new ones. Inside the Headquarters, her emotions admire Riley's new personality islands, and all work together on a newly expanded console with room for them all.

Voice castEdit

Themes and analysisEdit

A major aspect of Inside Out is the way emotions and memories are portrayed in the film. The core memories in the film allow Riley to recall previous experiences which control her emotions, and can allow "mental time travel". In the film, memories are shown as translucent globes that encapsulate its events, with a different hue depending on the mood of each memory.[9] Natasha Moore of the Australian ABC News detailed that "as Riley's carefree life gets more complicated, [...] Joy's attempts to deliver uninterrupted happiness become increasingly neurotic."[10]

Another theme was forgetfulness, representing a "common but unsupported theory." The memories became "less colorful and more dim" which turn "dark and gray" due to the progressive age length and can not be recovered. Those were sent to "Memory Dump", where they turn to dust and disappear, which was corresponded to a "decay theory of forgetting," leading to a "permanent loss of information."[9] Antonia Peacocke and Jackson Kernion of Vox mentioned that forgetfulness had records that did not "vanish into thin air at the bottom of your subconscious", and referring the theme sometimes as a "matter of letting a memory record fall into disuse, so much so that the neural pathway to that record gets lost."[11] Emily Yoshida of The Verge described the character Bing Bong a "logical successor" to "forgotten, unloved toys" of the Toy Story franchise.[12]

ProductionEdit

DevelopmentEdit

Pete Docter (left) in 2015 and Ronnie del Carmen in 2009

Inside Out was a project Pete Docter had been developing since late 2009, when the director perceived anxiety made by himself to his adolescent daughter, Elie, as her introversion progressed.[13][14][15] He imagined what happened in the human mind when emotions set in and felt that animation was the ideal form to portray personalities which were biased and caricatured.[16] After working on the animated film Up (2009), Ronnie del Carmen was given an option of becoming a co-director at Docter's invitational request.[17] Docter and del Carmen remembered their own past experiences and histories, allowing the emotions to appear in the film,[18] with del Carmen considered most of its aspects were narrow, so he stated to have an idea. Docter agreed on that, and began making the film.[19] Docter, del Carmen, and producer Jonas Rivera researched the mind and they consulted psychologist Paul Ekman and the University of California, Berkeley professor of psychology Dacher Keltner,[16] while Pixar animator Dan Holland and his team instructed some psychologists and specialists to build a more precise story for the film whose themes are comprehensive.[20]

While Keltner focused on sadness that strengthens relationships,[16] he and Ekman said that the emotions form social lives and interactions, which can be significantly moderated by them.[21] Ekman identified seven emotions with each one of them having "universal signals": anger, fear, sadness, disgust, happiness (who was renamed to joy), contempt, and surprise. Docter corroborated that surprise and fear were similar, leaving the latter retained in Inside Out, and contempt and surprise removed from it.[16][22] A total of 26 emotions, including irritation, envy, greed, gloom, despair, depression, love, schadenfreude, ennui, shame, embarrassment, and hope, were considered for the film before being reduced to their possible value.[23][24][25] The final film's scope featured a condensed story and the emotions' traits, as it was eventually streamlined.[23]

Inside Out is the first Pixar film without input from co-founder and former Apple CEO Steve Jobs, who died in 2011. In addition, the film did not have as much input from the chief creative officer John Lasseter, who has focused on restructuring Walt Disney Animation Studios at the time of its production.[14] Executives at Disney and Pixar were positive at the proposal of making the film, but acknowledged it was difficult to advertise.[26] Lasted for three years on the film's production,[22] Docter felt its development dealt his complex storytelling after spending five and a half years[N 1] on it. Docter also described it as difficult for himself, and did not believe that afterward.[27]

StoryEdit

In 2010, Docter and the filmmakers held a production meeting. They have questions over Inside Out's aspects that included the setting's design, the rules, and the reels. Following this, the story team start working on them,[29] who was recruited by Docter to help develop its plotline.[30] For an attempt to have more diverse input, he referred the story crew having women in their half of its population, as the animation industry being mostly worked by men. The choice to focus the film on a girl came from research that shown females age 11 to 17 were more attuned to expressions and emotions than others. The idea to have Riley play hockey came from del Carmen, who observed that the sport is very popular in Minnesota.[31] Initial ideas for the film, including one which saw Riley falling into a deep depression. Docter removed them as inappropriate.[14] In a discussion with Pixar filmmakers, any changes to the film's storyboard caused the schedule of its production to modify.[32]

Creation of Inside Out through storyboards took two to three years, with seven to eight screenings for Pixar's "brain trust", a small group of creative leaders at Pixar who oversee development on all films. After multiple screenings and suggestions from other filmmakers, it was put into production, and was again evaluated to three months. Editor Kevin Nolting acknowledged that seven versions of the film created before the production began.[33] The filmmakers oversaw development on the characters' personal traits and talents,[32] as well as those contrast.[31] For Joy, the filmmakers described her the most complex one to write for, as she illustrated a broad range of happiness.[34] Amy Poehler helped them to write the character after facing a difficult production. They considered Joy was vulnerable and intangible with LeFauve's help because she was "unapologetically positive".[29] One of the early ideas remained in the film was Joy manipulating youth excessively that set Riley's "social storm".[35] She was included at a Thanksgiving Day pageant, where Riley wanted to cast as the film's lead role, the turkey. Docter deemed that as too "bizarre", and took a replacement.[36] In October 2011, Diane Disney Miller convinced Docter that the film's distractions to be reduced and have a greater focus to its story.[29]

Docter estimated that the development for Inside Out to achieve success in unifying the architecture of Riley's mind and her personal troubles. The concept of personality islands helped develop the film's emotional stakes. In one draft, the characters had new ideas cultivated after they fell to "Idea Fields".[36] Bing Bong came about in one version of the film as part of a refugee camp inside Riley's mind. The difficult part was to have the film's better tone; for example, viewers were attentive by Joy's nature or feel negative about the mess that manipulated Riley. Rivera credited the casting of Poehler for such actions.[35] Production designer Ralph Eggleston recommended the film's depiction to take place at the mind instead of the brain, believing that the usage of their aspects were undeniable.[37] This resulted the removal of some scenes complemented the brain.[32]

An early version of Inside Out focused on Joy and Fear getting lost together. In July 2012, Pixar filmmakers held an evaluation screening of the film. Docter gradually felt the story nonfunctional, and was reluctant to have himself fired. He considered his failure to resign from the film,[16] influencing his stroll. In 2013, Docter was unaware of where Joy had learned from Fear, who helped her to develop her characterization.[32] He overlooked his co-workers and friends, before doing so for Pixar. Even so, Docter reached a breakthrough by covering emotions and relationships to the film.[26] Its storyboarding was rewritten for his epiphany caused Sadness had a "much juicier" role,[32] and he decided to replace Fear with Sadness. He met with Rivera and del Carmen to inform the change of plans, and they reacted positively to it much to his surprise. At the screening, he told his superiors that new plans for the film were in order. The film remained in production despite a fearsome moment.[16]

Screenwriter Michael Arndt initially worked for a year on Inside Out's script, calling it "brilliantly creative" but "incredibly challenging". Arndt received an "Additional Story Material" credit after he left the project in early 2011.[38][39] Over the course of storyboarding, it had 27 sequences and 178,128 outlines,[29] with 127,781 of them were finished.[32] In early 2013, the filmmakers made seven to eight distinct openings for the film.[29] Josh Cooley and Meg LeFauve were credited as co-writers of the screenplay following their contributions during the rewrite. Docter, Cooley, and LeFauve included experiences with raising their own children into the screenplay. Cooley highlighted those as emotions and subsequently created them.[40]

CastingEdit

Inside Out's voice cast of emotions, Amy Poehler, Lewis Black, Mindy Kaling, Bill Hader, and Phyllis Smith, were first announced in August 2013.[5] With the release of the film's first trailer in December 2014, it was revealed that Diane Lane and Kyle MacLachlan were cast in the film as Riley's parents.[7]

Hader was cast as Fear based on his feeling that weaseled the way, as he was interested at Pixar.[41] He took a studio tour over a week, and was benefited in the story room. Hader's casting was assumed by the end of his stay, but he asked to contact fellow Saturday Night Live (SNL) veteran Poehler, whom the team viewed as perfect for the character of Joy. He phoned Poehler and told the story to her whose role was the driving force in Inside Out.[42] When the story was pitched to Kaling, she broke down in tears, said that it sounded "really beautiful" and agreed to join the cast.[16]

Rivera chose Smith after watching a lunch scene in Bad Teacher (2011), in which Docter remarked, "I think we found our Sadness."[43] As Inside Out contained several veterans of SNL, the film's team spent a week at that program for research on a live television sequence.[41] Richard Kind was cast to voice Bing Bong, who tried to convey the same "sort of innocence" of his previous Pixar roles, and wound up not taking part in pre-release promotion as the producers decided to keep the character a secret.[44]

Animation and designEdit

Inside Out was produced by a team of 48 animators, including Shawn Krause, Victor Navone, and Jamie Roe (directing); and approximately 350 artists (35 of whom for lightning, which was led by cinematographer Kim White, and 10 for layout) and technicians. Two other animation teams were also produced: one was separate for abstract sequence and another was crowded for the character process.[22][28] Art design of the film was intended to reflect 1950s Broadway musicals.[14] Docter imagined that with emotions for characters, they could "push the level of caricature" to both design and "style of movement" to degrees. To this end, they emulated the styles of animators Tex Avery and Chuck Jones.[36] Docter informed Krause and Navone to push the graphic caricature of each character rather than sticking to the rigid behavior of each RenderMan model. This required an artist to draw over characters in the film during dailies, using a Wacom Cintiq.[45] The team worked on its first scenes was the dinnertime one for over three years.[33]

The characters in real world and design of Inside Out resembled Pixar films Toy Story 3 (2010) and Up. Navone described that as more natural; however, it was unsatisfactory, so he decided to tightened the aspects. Meanwhile, the emotions acted as sketches were superior to the filmmakers, despite the rules broke within such boundaries.[22] Within the mind, the layout and cinematography took inspiration in Casablanca (1942). Pixar researched films within the Hollywood's golden age for set constructions. They do "moving master shots", combining them to one scene, the longest of which were 48 seconds or 1,200 frames.[46]

Through the simulation department, the motion of the characters' hair and their garments were added.[32] In envisaging how the mind's interior would be depicted, the filmmakers concentrated on the word "electrochemical" and was considered for various options using electricity.[47] Eggleston's production design arrived, moving forward for added placements that included their original inspiration for lighting Joy. His diagram made of pastels shaped her, considering that she had increased illumination.[46] Each emotion had the carbonated movements[48] that were made out of energy and particles instead of "skin and solid".[49] Pixar co-founder Edwin Catmull believed their characteristics have a lesser extent of humanoid forms as well as brighter colors and strange shapes of those due to possessing force fields.[50] For the character Joy to be lighten up, the RenderMan team turned real light from a geometry.[46] They worked for eight months on Joy's aura, but encountered difficulties related to time and budget; however, Lasseter requested that it be applied for each emotion as Eggleston recalled, "You could hear the core technical staff just hitting the ground, the budget falling through the roof".[51] The rendering process took 33 hours.[50] The majority of Inside Out were all unified to a single image.[32]

To accommodate international audiences, two scenes in Inside Out were changed in numerous countries, as Docter stated that the technology can allow transition of scenes' aspects to become easier. A Japanese version showed Riley being disgusted by green bell peppers, rather than broccoli, to reflect the fact that broccoli is generally less undesirable to Japanese children. Many countries showed a soccer game instead of hockey, as soccer has wider global popularity. Within the film, 28 graphic changes over 45 individual shots were made for all versions.[52][53] The animation process lasted for one and a half year.[22]

MusicEdit

Inside Out: Original Soundtrack
Soundtrack album by
ReleasedJune 16, 2015
GenreSoundtrack
Length59:52[54]
LabelWalt Disney
Pixar soundtrack chronology
Monsters University
(2013)
Inside Out: Original Soundtrack
(2015)
The Good Dinosaur
(2015)
Michael Giacchino chronology
Jurassic World: Original Motion Picture Soundtrack
(2015)
Inside Out
(2015)
Zootopia
(2016)
 
Composer Michael Giacchino in 2017

In May 2014, Michael Giacchino was announced to compose Inside Out's score.[55] In late 2014, Docter felt its score "bittersweet" and "nostalgic" while in the music session after he "grew up playing the violin and bass".[29] The producers first met with Giacchino to discuss the film's concept and screen it for him. In response, he composed an eight-minute suite of music, unconnected to the film, based on his emotions viewing it. Rivera remarked that as both Giacchino and Docter were musicians, and they discussed the film in terms of story and character.[36] Docter took a four-year discussion where his piano sessions considered forgetfulness, and a chewing gum advertising jingle was disturbing.[56] Walt Disney Records released the soundtrack on June 16, 2015.[57]

MarketingEdit

The marketing campaign for Inside Out began on October 2, 2014, when the teaser trailer for the film was released[58] alongside the first theatrical release poster. Angie Han of /Film said that Inside Out's teaser trailer was a "nice reminder of how unique and inventive Pixar can be when it's at its best", in which the film earned a spot on the website's 2015 list of "must-see" films,[59] and Joanna Robinson of Vanity Fair described it as "Herman's Head with Amy Poehler".[60]

On December 8, 2014, the first trailer of Inside Out was released.[7] Germain Lussier of /Film acted Inside Out's first trailer as "the opposite",[61] with Phil De Semlyen of Empire called it as "the high-concept conceit" while surrounding a full sequence to "help us wrap our minds", which avoided its plot that was "darting around".[62] The second trailer for Inside Out was debuted on The Ellen DeGeneres Show on March 10, 2015.[63] While Han wrote that Inside Out's second trailer allowed the crier viewer to "bring tissues" to the film,[64] Anthony Domanico of CNET mentioned it had a concurrent way of being "incredibly cute and powerful".[65]

Television advertisements of Inside Out began airing on January 17, 2015. While Inside Out was ranked fourth on the "Top Movie Commercials by Weekly TV Spend", $22.8 million were spent on 58 versions of commercials aired 1,261 times on 34 networks overall as of June 17, mostly aired on Disney Channel and Disney XD, and most of the money going to NBC and ABC.[66] With its following week to June 23 being its last time as one of the top five projects with the highest commercial spending, Inside Out topped at second place, and 73 commercials aired a total of 1,417 times on 35 networks, bringing the film's overall television advertisement spending to $28.9 million.[67]

ReleaseEdit

TheatricalEdit

Inside Out debuted out of competition at the 68th Cannes Film Festival on May 18, 2015, followed by a premiere on June 16, at the El Capitan Theatre in Los Angeles. Two events featured its cast and crew and was attended by the audience.[68][69][70] Inside Out was originally going to be released on May 30, 2014,[71] but in April 2012, the film was pushed back to June 19, 2015 as Disney scheduled The Good Dinosaur for the original date instead.[72]

Released in 3D,[73] Inside Out was one of the first films to use Dolby Vision format in Dolby Cinema.[74] Before the film's release, it underwent a test screening for children, since executives were concerned that it was too complicated for younger viewers.[34] In theaters, it was accompanied by a short film, Lava (2014).[75]

Home mediaEdit

Walt Disney Studios Home Entertainment released Inside Out through digital download on October 13, 2015, and on Blu-ray and DVD in November.[76][77] Physical copies contain behind-the-scenes featurettes, audio commentary, deleted scenes,[78] and two shorts, Lava and Riley's First Date? (2015).[79][80]

In its first week, Inside Out sold 802,344 DVDs and 1.2 million Blu-rays as the most sold film on both formats in the United States.[81] That same week, Inside Out topped the Nielsen VideoScan First Alert chart, which tracks overall disc sales, as well as the dedicated Blu-ray sales chart with 57% of unit sales coming from Blu-ray.[82] Overall, Inside Out sold 2.9 million DVDs and 2.6 million Blu-rays, adding them up to get a total of 5.5 million copies, and made $121.1 million through home media releases.[81]

ReceptionEdit

Box officeEdit

Inside Out earned $356.9 million in the United States and Canada and $501.9 million in other territories for a worldwide total of $858.8 million,[4] making it the seventh highest-grossing film of 2015.[83] Deadline Hollywood calculated the net profit of the film to be $279.51 million, accounting for production budgets, marketing, talent participations, and other costs, with box office grosses, and ancillary revenues from home media, placing it sixth on their list of 2015's "Most Valuable Blockbusters".[3]

Released alongside Dope on June 19, 2015, Inside Out made $34.3 million on its first day, including $3.7 million from Thursday night previews. It went on to take second place at the opening weekend with $90.4 million from 3,946 theaters, 3,100 of which were in 3D,[84] making it the first Pixar film not to debut at first.[85] The film's successful opening has been attributed to its Cannes premiere, CinemaCon press screening, its critical reception (particularly the 98% Rotten Tomatoes score), good word-of-mouth, Father's Day weekend, and a successful Tuesday night Fathom Events screening.[86][87] Its second weekend saw the box office drop by 42% to $52.1 million,[88] and Inside Out grossed another $29.8 million the following weekend.[89] Inside Out completed its theatrical run in the United States and Canada on December 10, 2015.[90] In July 2020, due to the COVID-19 pandemic closing most theaters worldwide and limiting what films played, Inside Out returned to 442 theaters (mostly drive-ins) and grossed $340,000, the third-highest for the weekend behind The Empire Strikes Back (1980) and Black Panther's (2018) re-releases.[91]

Worldwide, Inside Out made $40.3 million in its opening weekend in 37 markets.[92] On its opening weekend elsewhere, the top countries were China ($11.7 million), the United Kingdom ($11.4 million), Mexico ($8.6 million), Russia and the CIS ($7.6 million), Italy ($7.4 million), Germany ($7.1 million), and South Korea ($5.2 million).[93] In Russia, it was the first Pixar film to gross more than one billion rubles.[94] The film's top international markets were the United Kingdom ($59.4 million), Japan ($32.8 million), South Korea ($32.6 million), Germany ($31.6 million), and France ($30.1 million).[81]

Critical responseEdit

As of May 2021, the review aggregator website Rotten Tomatoes reported an approval rating of 98% with an average score of 8.90/10 based on 374 reviews. Its critical consensus reads, "Inventive, gorgeously animated, and powerfully moving, Inside Out is another outstanding addition to the Pixar library of modern animated classics."[95] As of May 2021, Metacritic, which uses a weighted average, assigned the film a score of 94 out of 100 based on 55 critics, indicating "universal acclaim".[96] Audiences polled by CinemaScore gave the film an average grade of "A" on an A+ to F scale.[86] It was listed on many critics' top ten lists in 2015, ranking fourth.[97] Before the release of Inside Out, fans and critics concerned Pixar with the sequels' overdependence, which occurred the announcement of Toy Story 4 (2019), and their films declining in quality.[14][98] Likewise, DreamWorks Animation's competition with Pixar was disappointed within the latter's absence, leading to speculation that computer-animated films were "in a funk".[14]

Several journalists praised Inside Out for its craftsmanship, which they saw as an exercise of Docter's expertise,[99] as the film was considered a return of Pixar's form by numerous film critics.[100] Peter Debruge (Variety), Kenneth Turan (Los Angeles Times), and Todd McCarthy (The Hollywood Reporter) received consistent praise of the film: Debruge and Turan described it as the best while Debruge encouraged its creativity, and McCarthy considered it "audacious". Turan also felt the film was "sophisticated and simple", packed with engaging visuals and being responsible to emotions.[101][102][103] From The New Yorker, Anthony Lane acknowledged the originality of the film was "hard to top",[104] and Richard Brody described that as "sentimental", presenting solutions and narrow aspects of Riley's imagination.[105]

The scriptwriting, plot, and subject matter were sources of praise.[106] Scott Mendelson, writing for Forbes, believed its qualities of narration provided a purpose, calling the film "a remarkably successful telling of an uncommonly complicated yarn."[107] Ann Hornaday (The Washington Post) and A. O. Scott (The New York Times) impacted its subject matter to be entertaining,[6][108] and these were collectively summarized for exemplifying the human movements by Brian Truitt (USA Today) and Kurt Loder (Reason).[109][110] Matt Zoller Seitz of RogerEbert.com emphasized the film's script, which had clear connections to its aspects, that Joy's comprehension should "what things mean, and what the other emotions ought to 'do' for Riley".[111]

Reviews for the actors' performances were very positive in the media,[73][112] often singling out Poehler and Smith for further praise,[107][113] with their work described as "wonderful" and "excellent".[114][115] Joy was viewed as a heartful character and Sadness was a superfluous disapproval to the "secret side" by Tim Grierson of Paste,[116] whereas Vox's Alex Abad-Santos felt that because of its appealing voice cast.[73] While Seitz took Sadness to have more value of her contribution,[111] others, such as Jessica Kiang (IndieWire) and Tasha Robinson (The Dissolve), cited character development as one of its strengths.[117][118]

Inside Out appeared on professional rankings from BBC, The New York Times, Empire, and The Independent based on retrospective appraisal, as one of the greatest films of the twenty-first century.[119] It appeared on several lists of the best films of the 2010s in 2019, by outlets including: IndieWire,[120] The A.V. Club,[121] The Independent,[122] RogerEbert.com,[123] /Film,[124] Time Out London,[125] and the Los Angeles Times.[126] Similarly, it has appeared on several lists of the best animated films, including: USA Today (2018),[127] Rolling Stone (2019),[128] Esquire (2020),[129] Parade, Complex, and Empire (2021).[130][131][132]

AccoladesEdit

Inside Out led the 88th Academy Awards season with two nominations (including Best Original Screenplay). The film received Best Animated Picture.[133] Aside from fourteen nominations earned at the 43rd Annie Awards, the film won ten awards (including Directing in an Animated Feature Production for Docter, Voice Acting in an Animated Feature Production for Smith, and Best Animated Feature).[134] At the 73rd Golden Globe Awards, it won Best Animated Feature Film.[135] Among the film's nominations include three Critics' Choice Awards (winning one)[136] and two British Academy Film Awards (winning one).[137] It was named one of the ten best films of 2015 by the National Board of Review (which won Best Animated Film) and the American Film Institute.[138][139]

Cultural impactEdit

An Internet meme reaction sparked AlDub's reference to Inside Out, using Joy and Disgust to emphasize their differentiations.[140] During the COVID-19 pandemic, it was one of the 35 films recommended people watch by The Independent.[141]

Other mediaEdit

Disney Infinity 3.0 (2015) includes an Inside Out playset featuring the emotions as playable characters,[142] with each of those have a different special ability that allows them to pass through obstacles. The playset is the follow-up to the film and describes as a platform game.[143] A mobile Puzzle Bobble-style game, Inside Out: Thought Bubbles, was released in 2015 for some app stores.[144][145] Lasting for three levels, Google started a Made with Code event for the film that December, named "Inside HQ", with fans wishing to start a programming on the tutorial to recreate scenes using Blocky, a mini-game whose snippets used to resolve issues.[146]

Emotions at Play with Pixar's Inside Out is an exhibit at the Children's Museum of Pittsburgh, that has been in operation since 2021. It features activities based on set pieces from the film.[147]

Possible sequelEdit

In June 2015, Pete Docter said that there are no plans for a possible sequel and added that he wanted to improve more of the studio's "original fare", which he teased, "Never say never".[148] In January 2016, Docter stated that a sequel is possible, and that he and Pixar will explore ideas.[149] In a July 2016 interview, Pixar president Jim Morris said that while demand for a sequel is high, the company has committed its resources to several original movie concepts and that no sequels to any of Pixar's other films, including Inside Out, were being contemplated at that time.[150]

LawsuitEdit

In June 2017, Denise Daniels, a child psychologist from Minnesota, filed a lawsuit against Disney and Pixar for breach of contract. Daniels had been working on a creative project, The Moodsters, with a theme very similar to Inside Out and had discussed prospects of a TV production with Disney and Pixar executives, including with the film's eventual director Pete Docter.[151] Daniels said that she presented in detail her idea for "color-coded, anthropomorphic" characters represented different types of emotion, used as the children's learning tool for "better understand[ing]". The discussions were held between 2006 and 2009, and Daniels argued that they carried an implied contract for her to be compensated if the ideas were used by Disney. In January 2018, her suit was dismissed by judge Philip Gutierrez, who ruled that since Daniels had released materials related to the project publicly at the time of the conversations, there were no grounds for an implied contract between Disney and Daniels.[152] Daniels appealed to the Ninth Circuit, who upheld the District Court's ruling in March 2020 that Pixar's film did not infringe on Daniels's characters. The decision stated that simply creating "color-coded" characters based on emotions was not enough to be copyrighted, but instead would have required these characters to carry similar characterization elements, as they had previously determined in DC Comics v. Towle in 2015.[153]

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Rappler and USA Today reported the duration of the film's development to be five years[18][27] while the Associated Press added a half to it.[28]

ReferencesEdit

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