Barabanki district

Barabanki district is one of the four districts of Faizabad division, in the central Awadh region of Uttar Pradesh, India. It has a population of 2,673,581, with a population density of 686.50 per square kilometre (1,778.0/sq mi). Barabanki city is the district headquarters.

Barabanki district
Location of Barabanki district in Uttar Pradesh
Location of Barabanki district in Uttar Pradesh
Coordinates (Barabanki, Uttar Pradesh): 26°55′N 81°12′E / 26.92°N 81.20°E / 26.92; 81.20
CountryIndia
StateUttar Pradesh
DivisionFaizabad division (Ayodhya)
HeadquartersBarabanki, Uttar Pradesh
Tehsils
  1. Nawabganj
  2. Fatehpur
  3. Ram Sanehi Ghat
  4. Haidergarh
  5. Ram Nagar
  6. Sirauli Ghauspur
Government
 • District collectorAdarsh Singh IAS
 • Lok Sabha constituenciesBarabanki (Lok Sabha constituency)
 • Vidhan Sabha constituenciesBarabanki (Assembly constituency)
Area
 • Total4,402 km2 (1,700 sq mi)
Population
 (2011)
 • Total3,260,699
 • Density740/km2 (1,900/sq mi)
 • Urban
330,803
Demographics
 • Literacy78.7%
 • Sex ratio910
Time zoneUTC+05:30 (IST)
Vehicle registrationUP-41
Major highwaysNH 27, NH 28B
Average annual precipitation1050 mm
Websitebarabanki.nic.in

Barabanki district is situated between 27°19′ and 26°30′ north latitude, and 80°05′ and 81°51′ east longitude; it runs in a south-easterly direction, confined by the nearly parallel streams of the Ghaghara and Gomti. The extreme length of the district from east to west may be taken at 92 km (57 mi), and the extreme breadth at 93 km (58 mi); the total area is about 3,900 km2 (1,504 sq mi). It borders seven other districts of Uttar Pradesh. With its most northern point it shares borders with the Sitapur district, while its north-eastern boundary is defined by the Ghagra, beyond which lie the districts of Bahraich district and Gonda district. Its eastern border is shared with Faizabad district, and the Gomti forms a natural boundary to the south, dividing it from the Sultanpur district. On the west, it adjoins the Lucknow district.

In 1856, the district came, with the rest of Oudh State, under British rule. During the Indian Rebellion of 1857, the whole of the Barabanki talukdars joined the mutineers, but offered no serious resistance following the capture of Lucknow.[1][2]

Barabanki district stretches out in a level plain interspersed with numerous lakes and marshes. In the upper part of the district the soil is sandy, while in the lower part it is clay and produces finer crops.[2] The district is fed by the rivers Ghaghra (forming the northern boundary), Gomti (flowing through the middle of the district) and Kalyani and their tributaries, for the major part of the year. Some rivers dry out in the summer, and become flooded during the rainy season. The changing course of the river Ghagra alters the land area of the district.

The principal crops are rice, wheat, pulse and other food grains and sugarcane.[2] Both of the bordering rivers of Barabanki are navigable. The district is traversed by two lines of the Northern Railway and North-Eastern Railway, with branches having total length of 131 km (81 mi).[3] The district roadways include connections to National Highway 28, state highways and various link roads.

EntymologyEdit

 
Barabanki Clock Arch

The area was once known as Jasnaul, from Jas, a Raja of the Bhar tribe, who is said to have founded it before 1000 AD. Following the Muslim conquest, the lands were divided into twelve, with the new owners quarrelling so incessantly that they were called the Barah Banke, or twelve quarrelsome men. Banka, in Awadhi, meaning a bully or brave. Others derive the name from ban, meaning wood or jungle, and interpret Barabanki as the twelve shares of jungle.[1]

HistoryEdit

Early history and legendsEdit

Barabanki district is mostly within what was the Pachhimrath division[4] of the kingdom of Rama.[5]

 
Parijat tree at Kintoor, Barabanki

Parijaat tree is a protected baobab tree in the village of Kintoor, and is considered sacred to Hindus.[6] Located near the Kunteshwar Mahadeva temple (established by Kunti), the tree is said to grow from Kunti's ashes.[7] The tree is very old, though its age has not been scientifically determined.[8]

Before 1000 AD, Jas, a raja of the Bhar tribe, is said to have founded the locality of Jasnaul which later became Barabanki.[1]

Medieval IndiaEdit

 
Indian Shia Muslims take out a Ta'ziya procession on day of Ashura in Barabanki, India, Jan 2009.

Muslims made their first permanent settlement in what is now the district at Satrikh, in 1030 AD (421 AH).[1] The Muslim conquest saw Sihali conquered and its sovereign killed, as with Kintur.[1] Bhar chief Sohil Deo (or Sohel Dal) of Sahet-Mahet and Rathor monarch Sri Chandradeo of Kannauj fought a battle in Satrikh village of the district.[5]

In 1049 AD (441 AH), the kings of Kanauj and Manikpur were defeated and driven from Oudh by Qutub-ud-din of Medina. The Muslim invasion was more successful in Bara Banki than elsewhere. In 1189 AD (586 AH), Sihali was conquered by Shekh Nizam-ud-din of Herat, Ansari. Zaidpur was occupied by them in 636 AH, when Sayyad Abd-ul-Wahid turned out the Bhar-pasi,[clarification needed] changing the name of the town from Suhalpur. The colony of Musalman Bhattis is reported to have arrived about the same time, although some place it as early as 1199 AD (596 AH). They came from Bhatnair or Bhattiana, in the Punjab and Rajputana and settled at Mawai Maholara.[1]

From 1350 to about 1750 AD, Muslim immigrants settled in great number in the district.[5] The Muslims first permanently settled in Oudh.[9]

Rudauli was occupied c. 700 AH, in the reign of Alla-ud-din Khilji, whose forces had destroyed nearly every remaining seat of Chhattri power. Rasulpur was conquered about 1350 AD. Daryabad was founded about 1444 AD by Dariab Khan Subahdar and his brother Fateh Khan colonized. Fatehpur. The villages of Barauli and Barai, near Rudauli, were occupied and became large estates until about the middle of the fifteenth century.[1]

Simultaneously, however, with this latter immigration of the Muslims, there was one of Chhattris. The mysterious tribe of Kalhans, which numbers some twenty thousand persons, are said to be descended from Achal Singh, who came in as a soldier of fortune with Dariab Khan about 1450 AD. Singh had large properties, with a possible capital at Bado Sarai on the old bank of the Ghagra.[1]

The wars had by then shifted to fighting between Muslim princes, with Hindu soldiers employed. The battleground was the Oudh borderland between Sharqis of Jaunpur (where Ibrahim Shah Shargi reigned) and the Lodis of Delhi. Dariab Khan settled Hindu soldiers as garrisons. Oudh clans, said to have emigrated from Gujarat, included the Kalhans, the Ahban, the Pan war, the Gahlot, the Gaur, and the Bais.[1]

The isolated Suryavanshi estate of Haraha and the Suryavanshi Bahrelia estate of Surajpur were established by small colonies of Chhattri soldiers, who had been dismissed from service in 1877.[1]

Mughal era (1526–1732)Edit

During Akbar's reign, the district was divided under the sirkars of Oudh, Lucknow and Manikpur.[1][10] Ain-i-Akbari mentions the following parganas (administrative units) during the reign of the Akbar:[11][relevant? ]

Number Muhals of Ain-i-Akbari Parganas as of 1878 Sarkars of Ain-i-Akbari
1 Ibrahimabad Ibrahimabad Oudh
2 Basorhi Basorhi Oudh
3 Bakteha Baksaha Oudh
4 Daryabad Daryabad Oudh
5 Rudauli Rudauli Oudh
6 Sailuk Sailuk Oudh
7 Subeha Subeha Oudh
8 Satrikh Satrikh Oudh
9 Bhitauli Bhitauli Lucknow
10 Dewa Dewa Lucknow
11 Kumbhi Dewa Lucknow
12 Kursi Kursi Lucknow
13 Kahanjra Kursi Lucknow
14 Siddhaur Siddhaur Lucknow
15 Sidhipur Siddhaur Lucknow
16 Sihali Khiron Lucknow
17 Bhilwal Haidergarh Manikpur

Nawabs of Awadh (1732–1856)Edit

Newal Rae, the naib of wazir Safdar Jang, was defeated and killed at the Kali river by the Bangash Afghans of Farukhabad, who then overran the province except a few of the fortified towns. In 1749 AD, Jang with an army of 60,000 men was defeated. The Mughal authority might have been overthrown had the Oudh Chhattris revolted at this time, but they waited until Jang had bribed or beaten the Rohillas out of the country in 1750 AD (1164 AH).[1]

The tribes gathered themselves together under the leadership of Raja Anup Singh of Ramnagar Dhameri, the Janwar of Balrampur, the Bisens of Gonda, and numerous other lords. The forces assembled for an attack on Lucknow, whose troops had gone into Rohilkhand. The Shekhzadas of Lucknow came out to meet the enemy, joined by the Khanziidas of Mahmudabad and Bilahra, who were connected with them by marriage.[1]

The Musalmans, headed by Nawab Muizz-ud-din Khan of Mahmudabad, were victorious in battle at Chheola Ghat on the Kalyani, on the road to Lucknow. The Balrampur raja was killed and some 15,000 were killed or wounded on both sides. The Khanzadas then rose to power. The Raikwars were proportionately depressed; the estates of both Baundi and Ramnagar were divided, and but a few villages left with the raja. The process of agglomeration commenced again c. 1816, on the death of Saadat Ali Khan II. In 1856, the Ramnagar raja had recovered the family estate and added to it, while his brother of Baundi had similarly added 172 villages to his domain.[1]

There were a total forty-three taluqa. The principal chiefs of Bara Banki during the last years of Nawabi were:[1]

  • Taluqa of Ramnagar – The large property of 253 villages belonged to Raja Sarabjit Singh. The raja was the head of the Raikwar clan, which immigrated to Oudh from the hill country of Kashmir c. 1400.
  • Taluqa of Haraha – Owned by Raja Narindr Bahadur, the head of the Surajbans Thakurs. He was the son of Raja Chbatarpat Singh, and both were afflicted with mental incapacity. The estate consisted of sixty-six villages and paid a revenue of ₹55,000. Certain members of the Raja's family held the estates of Ranimau Qiampur in a separate qubuliat[clarification needed] in the Nawabi, and thus escaped being placed under the taluqdar's sanad.[clarification needed]
  • Taluqa of Surajpur – This estate comprised fifty-six villages. The proprietor was Raja Udatt Partab Singh, the head of Bahrelia Bais Thakurs. He was mentally and physically unfit to manage his estate, but so long as his maternal grandfather, Udatt Narain, lived there was no fear of under-proprietors, tenants or patwaris defrauding the family.[citation needed]
  • Taluqa of Jahangirabad – The taluqdar was a Qidwai Sheikh, Raja Farzand Ali Khan. He inherited the property through marriage to the daughter of Raja Razzaq Bakhsh.
  • The late Raja Singji was a formidable and violent landholder until he was attacked by Maharaja Man Singh with Captain Orr of the British company's frontier police. They killed almost 70 of his inmate robbers. He was captured and taken prisoner to Lucknow, where he died in jail. Many of his inmate robbers escaped and migrated to neighbouring districts. It was mainly owing to the bad example set by Singji that the Daryabad district was so turbulent under the native government, that amils and chakladars were to use a native expression unable to breathe in it (Nak Mein Dam Karta Tha).[relevant? ]
  • Farzand Ali was the inspector in charge of the Sikandarbagh at Lucknow. On one occasion of the last king of Oudh visiting the garden, he was struck with the appearance of this young man, and presenting him with a khilat, directed him to attend at the palace.[relevant? ] With such a signal mark of the royal favour, Farzand Ali's advancement was rapid, and, under the interest of the influential eunuch, Bashir-ud-daula, he obtained a farman designating him the Raja of Jahangirabad. This taluqdar followed the deposed king to Calcutta and was there during the mutinies. Raja Farzand Ali was very intelligent and well able to manage his estate with prudence and circumspection.
  • Taluqa of Barai – Chaudhri Ghulam Farid, a Siddiqi Shekh, was the largest landholder of the Rudauli tahsil. He owned thirty-nine villages. In the settlement at annexation, he gave half of the estate to the children of his cousin, Mumtaz Ahmad.
  • Taluqas of Rudauli and parganas of Bhitauli, Daryabad and Surajpur were other important settlements.[1]

Few other later important taluqas were:

  • Taluqa of Usmanpur – Founded by Raja Kaunsal Singh, who obtained the estate for military service under the Mughal Emperor Humayun. His son Lakhan Singh converted to Islam, and took the name Lakhu Khan.[12]
  • Taluqas of Satrikh – This estate comprised 85 villages. It had been ruled by the Chaudharys, descendants of the original Usmanis who immigrated to Oudh in the early part of the millennium. They were dispossessed for resistance to the British during the 1857 rebellion, and Satrikh estate was ruled by Taluqdar Qazi a.k.a. Kazi Ikram Ahmad.

Rebellion of 1857Edit

Unlike what occurred in the districts of Hardoi, Gonda, and Lucknow, the whole body of the taluqdars in this district joined the cause of the deposed king and the mutineers. They offered no resistance, however, of any moment to the advance of the British troops after the capture of Lucknow in the battle of Nawabganj.[1]

British Raj (1858–1947)Edit

The Sadr station (district headquarters) was placed at annexation and also after the mutinies at Daryabad. However, due to the stagnation of water in the immediate vicinity of the town, and to the prevalence of fever, the headquarters was moved in 1859 to Nawabganj, Bara Banki.[13]

During 1869 census of Oudh, thirteen large towns or kasbahs were identified in the district:[14] Nawabgunj, Musauli, Rasauli, Satrikh, Zaidpur, Sidhaur, Dariabad, Ichaulia, Rudauli, Ram Nagar, Bado Sarai, Kintoor and Fatehpur. The census also noted the following were tahsils and parganas:

Tahsil Pargana
Nawaba Ganj Nawabganj
Patabganj
Satrikh
Sidhaur
Ram Nagar Ramnagar
Bhitouli
Bado Sarai
Fatehpur
Mohammedpur
Sani Ghat Dariabad
Surajpur
Mawai Mahulara
Barsorhi

In 1870, before the addition of two parganas from Lucknow (i.e. Kursi & Dewa) and one pargana each from Rae Bareli and Sultanpur (i.e. Haidergarh and Subeha, respectively), Bara Banki district had area of 3,330 km2 (1,285 sq mi) and had following subdivisions:[13][page needed]

Tahsil
(subdistrict)
Pargana No. of Villages Area Major Talukas & Talukdars
sq miles sq km acres
Nawabaganj Nawabganj 77 78.9 204.3 50,484 I.— Jehangirabad, Raja Farzand Ali Khan
II.— Sohailpur Bhanmau, Mir Buniad Husen and Amjad Husen.
III.— Satrikh, Kazi Sarfraz Ali.
IV.— Simrawan, Bissein Thakur Sheo Sahai.
V.— Shahpur, Ghulam Abbas and Mahomed Amir.
VI.— Gaddia, Shekh Zainulabdin.
VII.— Usmanpur, Thakurain Zahur-un-nissa.
Partabganj 54 56.0 145.0 35,834
Satrikh 43 45.9 118.8 29,358
Siddhaur 224 141.2 365.7 90,377
Daryabad-Rudauli
(later named to Ram Sanehi Ghat)
Daryabad 241 214.0 554.1 136,931 I.— Surajpur Raja Udatpertab Singh, Burhelia Thakur.
II.— Haraha, Raja Narindur Bahadur, Surajbans Thakur.
III.— Kamiar, Shere Bahadur, Kalhans Thakur.
IV.— Rampur, Rai Ibram Bali, Kaisth.
V.— Saidanpur, Latafat-ullah and Inayat-ullah.
VI.— Nirauli, Chaudhri Husen Baksh.
VII.— Amirpur, Inayat Rassul.
VIII.— Purai, Mahomed Abid.
IX.- Daryabad, Rai Rajeshwar Bali.
Surajpur 107 96.3 249.5 61,645
Rudauli 196 172.7 447.4 110,553
Mawai 51 71.0 184.0 45,469
Barsorhi 44 34.3 88.9 21,958
Ramnagar Ramnagar 168 112.1 290.4 71,756 I.— Ramnagar, Raja Sarabjit Singh, Raikwar Thakur.
II.— Bilheri, Raja Ibad Ali.
III.— Mahmudabad, Raja Amir Hussan Khan.
IV.— Bhatwamau, Badshah Husen Khanzada.
V.— Muhammadpur, Ganga Singh, Raikwar.
Fatehpur 251 154.0 398.7 98,532
Muhammadpur 83 61.8 160.1 39,568
Bado Sarai 56 47.7 123.6 30,541
Total 1,595 504.7 1,307.2 323,011

In 1871 about half the district was held by 43 talukdars; there were also 5,397 village zemindars (landowners), and 1,354 under-proprietors. The talukas were as follows:[13][page needed]

Name of Taluka Name of Talukdar No. of Villages Area
sq miles sq km acres
Ramnagar Raja Sarabjit Singh 358 169.2 438.2 108,286
Huraha Raja Nurindur Bahadur Singh 66 46.8 121.2 29,960
Bhanmau Mir Umjad Hosein 10 8.2 21.2 5,233
Jehagerabad Raja Farzand Ali Khan 72 35.5 92.1 22,751
Surajpur Raja Talaywand Koer 64 56.9 147.3 36,388
Mahmudabad Raja Amir Hassan Khan 89 44.8 116.1 28,680
Man Singh Maharaja Man Singh 16 20.3 52.6 13,009
Malaraiganj Nawab Ali Khan 11 5.1 13.1 3,235
Shahabpur Mahomed Amir and Gholam Abbas 8 5.6 14.5 3,578
Simrawan Thakur Sheosahai 8 6.5 16.9 4,188
Sohailpur Mir Umjad Hosein 8 3.8 9.9 2,458
Ushdamow Panday Bahadur Singh 16 5.8 14.9 3,684
Usmanpur Thakur Roushan Zama Khan 25 11.4 29.6 7,325
Kharkha Mahomed Hosein 10 7.2 18.6 4,593
Guddia Shaikh Zainulabdin 12 3.0 7.8 1,933
Satrikh Kazi Ikram Ahmed 85 14.7 38.1 9,420
Gootiah Hakim Kurrum Ali 13 8.7 22.5 5,549
Subeha Surfaraz Ahmed 1 0.9 2.3 564
Sulaunpur Nawab Ali Khan 6 6.1 15.8 3,892
Kotwa Abid Ali 1 0.5 1.3 331
Motree Bhugwant singh 1 1.6 4.2 1,040
Tribadiganj Raja Thakurpershad Tribadi 2 1.3 3.3 813
Lillowly Buxshee Harpershad 11 3.9 10.2 2,510
Nurhowl Shaik Boo Ali 3 2.3 5.9 1,465
Mirpur Nusserudeen 4 3.8 9.8 2,416
Baytowly Maharaja Runbir Singh 5 5.5 14.3 3,535
Rampur Thakur Gooman Singh 1 0.6 1.4 357
Jubrahpur Thakur Ruder Pratab Singh 2 1.1 2.8 700
Bilharrah Raja Ibad Ali Khan 41 24.7 64.1 15,838
Muhammadpur Thakur Ganga Singh 26 7.8 20.2 4,981
Bhatwamau Badsha Hasan Khan 23 13.2 34.2 8,459
Rampur Rai Ibram Balli 35 21.2 54.9 13,571
Kumyar Shere Bahadur 10 21.0 54.3 13,430
Sydanpur Latafat-ul-lah and Mayet-ul-lah 13 8.5 22.0 5,428
Pushka Naipal Singh 4 3.3 8.6 2,129
Raneemau Outar Singh 14 8.9 23.0 5,687
Nurrowly Chaudhri Razah Husain 45 36.2 93.7 23,157
Barrai Chaudhri Gholam Farid and Mahboob-ul-Rahamn 46 25.1 64.9 16,039
Purai Meer mahomaed Abid 14 10.5 27.2 6,722
Amirpur Chaudhri Ishan Russul 13 7.1 18.4 4,557
Burrowly Chaudhri Wazeer Ali 25 6.0 15.7 3,871
Nearah Shere Khan 13 4.7 12.1 2,993
Retch Raghunath Singh 1 3.4 8.8 2,183
Total 1,158 682.1 1,766.8 436,574

In 1877, Barabanki was one of the three districts of the then Lucknow division.[15] Its area was 4,580 km2 (1,768 sq mi) and population was 1,113,430.

As per 1877 Gazetteer of the province of Oudh there were:[1]

  • Four tehsils:
    • Nawabganj
    • Ram Sanehi Ghat
    • Fatehpur
    • Haidergarh
  • Nine thanas:
    • Nawabganj
    • Zaidpur
    • Tikaitnagar
    • Sanehi Ghat
    • Bhilsar
    • Fatehpur
    • Kursi
    • Ramnagar
    • Haidergarh
  • Courts, following were officers with civil, criminal and revenue powers:
    • a deputy commissioner
    • two assistant commissioner
    • three extra assistant commissioner
    • four tehsildars
    • four honorary magistrates

Independence movementEdit

In the struggle for independence from 1922 to 1934 during the Khilafat movement, the district participated in the growing movement against foreign fabrics, etc.[16] On 26 October 1942, Brij Bahadur and Hans Raj (a.k.a. Sardar) planted a bomb in a police outpost at Barabanki, known as Barabanki Outpost Bomb Case.[17]

GeographyEdit

Barabanki district is for the most part flat agricultural lands studded with groves. The most elevated point is about 130 metres (430 ft) above sea level, and there are few points of view from which any expanse of the countryside can be surveyed. In the north, the topography is broken by a 6.1-metre (20 ft) ridge running parallel to the Ghaghra at a distance of 1.6 to 4.8 km (1 to 3 mi), which is said to indicate the former right bank of this river. These lands are undulating and richly wooded, while to the south there is a gentle slope down to the Gomti. The district is intersected at various parts by rugged ravines.[1]

Rivers and watersEdit

GhaghraEdit

The principal river in the district is the Ghaghra at a short distance from Bahramghat; it is formed by the Himalaya-fed rivers Chauka and Sarda, which meet in the Fatehpur tahsil. It is 2.4 to 3.2 km (1.5 to 2 mi) wide in the rainy season and about 0.80 km (0.5 mi) wide during the dry season, when the discharge is about 19,000 cubic feet per second (540 m3/s). For 77 km (48 mi), the river divides the Bara Banki district from the districts of Bahraich and Gonda. It flows in a south-easterly direction past Faizabad, and empties into the Ganges at Arrah. This river is navigable for flat-bottomed steamers as far as Bahramghat, and is used by country boats in considerable numbers between Bahramghat and Sarun district. The principal ferries are at Kaithi, Kamiar, and Paska Ghat; a floating bridge operates at Bahramghat during the cold season. The river's flood plains generally have fine crops of rice, but the water sometimes lies too long after the rains and rots them, and the spring crops cannot be sown. The river is not utilized for irrigation.[1]

GomtiEdit

Next in importance is the Gomti, which runs through the tahsil of Haidargarh and some portion of the tehsil Ram Sanehi Ghat, and separates the Bara Banki district from the districts of Lucknow, Sultanpur and Faizabad. Like the Ghagra, it runs in a south-easterly direction, has a well-defined bank and a stream which is fordable in the dry weather, when it is about 37 m (120 ft) wide. The circuitous course of the Gomti covers 169 km (105 mi) though the direct distance is half that distance. It is therefore not very efficient for transportation, though there is considerable traffic by country boats. Its dry weather discharge is 14 cubic metres per second (500 cu ft/s). Its water is at a lower level than the Ghagra, and it is not used for irrigation. At the junction of the Kalyani, the Ghagra is only 92 metres (301 ft) above sea level.[1]

KalyaniEdit

The Kalyani River rises in the Fatehpur tahsil, and empties into the Gomti near the village of Dwarkapur.[1] In the rains of 1872, the Kalyani presented a vast volume of water – 82 metres (269 ft) broad and 103 metres (337 ft) deep – rushing at 9.24 km/h (5.74 mph) with a discharge of 1,459 cubic metres per second (51,540 cu ft/s). In typical monsoons, the maximum discharge is about three-quarters of this.[1] The river is crossed by a railway bridge with six spans of 18 metres (60 ft).[1]

Jamuriha and RethEdit

 
View of Jamuriya Nala (a brook) from Railway Station Road Bridge, Barabanki. This brook flows through Barabanki city, dividing it in half.
 
View of Reth river in Barabanki city as seen from railway bridge crossing over it.

The Jamuriha and Reth, both in the Nawabganj tehsil, are the only other notable streams in this district. Their general characteristics are the same: they have significant flows during rains which have carved steep and rugged banks broken by innumerable ravines. They flow into the Gomti. Haidergarh, Deviganj, Choury and Alapur are settlements on the Reth, while Jamuriha passes through Barabanki city (Barabanki revenue village on one side and Nawabganj Tehsil hq on other).[1]

Tanks, jheels and wetlandsEdit

There are numerous tanks and jheels,[clarification needed] especially in the tehsils of Daryabad, Ram Sanehi Ghat, and Nawabganj. Seven percent of the area is covered with water; many of the tanks are in course of being deepened, earth is removed to replenishing cultivated land, though such efforts are complicated by conflicting rights to the tanks. Some of the jheels are navigable by small boats for sport or pleasure. The finest jheel in this district,[according to whom?] that named Bhagghar, is situated in the Suratganj; it covers less than 2 sq mi[convert: unknown unit] There is another in Dewa, covering about 5 sq[convert: unknown unit] with water and marsh. Parva, Nardahi, and Ganhari Jheel are the major wetlands.[1]

The Gomti-Kalyani doabEdit

This doab is a fertile area of about 146,526 ha (362,070 acres). It is bounded by the Kalyani river to the north, the Gomti river and its tributary to the south, the Sarda Sahayak feeder channel to the west, and the confluence of the Gomti and Kalyani rivers to the east.[18][19]

Administration and divisionsEdit

 
Office of District Magistrate/Collector
 
Barabanki Head Post Office
 
Barabanki Kotwaali

Barabanki is one of the four constituent districts of Faizabad Division. The other districts being Faizabad, Sultanpur and Ambedkar Nagar. The division is headed by the divisional commissioner.

As of 2003–04, the district contained 7 tehsils, 17 development blocks, 154 nyaya panchayat and 1,140 gram sabhas.[20]

As per 1991 data, there were 1,812 inhabited villages and 31 inhabited villages.[clarification needed] In 2001, there were 14 towns and cities, 2 nagar palika parishads, 1 cantonment area, 10 nagar panchayats and 1 census town.[20]

Land administrationEdit

Barabanki District is divided into six subdivisions, popularly known as tehsils: Nawabganj, Fatehpur, Ramsanehi Ghat, Haidergarh, Ram Nagar and Sirauli Ghauspur. The District Revenue Administration is headed by the District Collector (also known as District Magistrate), with the office at the collectorate, and these tehsils are under the charge of sub-divisional magistrates.

DevelopmentEdit

District-level developmental activities are coordinated by the Chief Development Officer whose office is at the DRDA[expand acronym] at the collectorate. The district-level offices for monitoring the developmental activities of Blocks at Barabanki are located at Vikas Bhawan.[clarification needed] Block development officers, who head each of the 15 development blocks of the district, carry out the development schemes on behalf of the government. The development blocks are: Banki, Masauli, Dewa, Harakh, Fatehpur, Haidergarh, Dariyabad, Suratganj, Siddhaur, Pure Dalai, Nindura, Trivediganj, Ram Nagar, Sirauli Ghauspur and Banikodar.

Law and orderEdit

The law and order administration is jointly coordinated by the District Magistrate and the Superintendent of Police. The district is subdivided into 22 police stations (thanas), each of which is headed by an inspector or sub-inspector of police. 12 police stations are rural and 9 are rural.[clarification needed][20] These police stations are: Haidergarh, Satrikh, Dariyabad, Baddupur, Dewa, Kursi, Zaidpur, Mohammadpur, Ram Nagar, Fatehpur, Safderganj, Kotwali, Ramsanehi Ghat, Asandra, Subeha, Tikait Nagar, Lonikatra, Masauli, Kothi, Ghungter, Badosarai and Jahangirabad

UrbanEdit

The district has 14 urban administrative bodies for its towns, which are:

  • Nawabganj Nagar Parishad for Barabanki Town
  • Fatehpur Nagar Panchayat for Fatehpur Town Area
  • Zaidpur Nagar Panchayat for Zaidpur Town Area
  • Dariyabad Nagar Panchaya for Dariyabad Town Area
  • Ramnagar Nagar Panchayat for Ramnagar Town Area
  • Satrikh Nagar Panchayat for Satrikh Town Area
  • Haidergarh Nagar Panchayat for Haidergarh Town Area
  • Dewa Nagar Panchayat for Dewa Town Area
  • Siddhaur Nagar Panchayat for Siddhaur Town Area
  • Tikaitnagar Nagar Panchayat for Tikaitnagar Town Area
  • Rudauli Nagar Parishad for Rudauli Town
  • Banki Nagar Panchayat for Banki Town Area
  • Cantonment Board for Cantonment Area in Barabanki
  • Rampur Bhavanipur Census Town
  • Subeha Nagar panchayat for Subeha town (effective 2008)

ElectoralEdit

Parliament and State AssemblyEdit

Barabanki district has seven state-assembly constituencies which fall under two parliamentary constituencies. They are:

No. No of Assembly Constituency Name of Assembly Constituency Assembly Constituency Reservation Status Total Booths in Assembly Constituency Net Voters in Assembly Constituency No of Parliamentary Constituency Name of Parliamentary Constituency Parliamentary Constituency Reservation Status Net Voters in Parliamentary Constituency Ref
1 266 Kursi General 343 295030 53 Barabanki Scheduled castes (SC) 1435692 [21]
2 267 Ram Nagar General 323 260400 [22]
3 268 Barabanki General 322 289765 [23]
4 269 Zaidpur SC 359 302189 [24]
5 272 Haidergarh SC 327 288308 [25]
6 270 Dariyabad General 337 304073 54 Faizabad (partial) General 1506120 [26]
7 271 Rudauli (partial) General 304 282890 [27]
State AssemblyEdit

Sitting MLAs (2013):[28]

  • Sakendra Pratap Verma, 266 Kursi, BJP
  • Sharad Kumar Awasthi, 267 Ramnagar, BJP
  • Dharamraj Singh Yadav, 268-Barabanki, SP
  • Gaurav rawat, 269 JAIDPUR, SP
  • Satish Sharma, 270-Dariyabad, BJP
  • Baijnath Rawat, 272-Haidergarh, BJP
State CouncilEdit

Barabanki district sends two members to state-council. Sitting members are:[28]

  1. Rajesh Yadav 'Raju'
  2. Ram Naresh Rawat

Basic amenitiesEdit

Following is the list of public amenities (1999–2002 data):[20]

Road transportEdit

National Highway 28 (NH-28) passes through the district. It is well connected to other cities by means of roadways. Passenger road transport services in Uttar Pradesh started in 1947 with the operation of bus service on the LucknowBarabanki route by UP Government Roadways.[29]

  • Bus Station/Bus Stop 93

RailwayEdit

Both the Northern Railway and the North Eastern Railway pass through Barabanki district, with a total of 131 km (81 mi) of broad-gauge line and 19 stations.

Communication servicesEdit

  • Urban Post Office 26
  • Rural Post Office 339
  • Telegraph Office 19
  • Telephone Connections 25691

Public distribution systemEdit

  • Rural fair-price shops 1094
  • Urban fair-price shops 118
  • Bio-gas plants 4645
  • Cold storage 16

ElectricityEdit

  • Total electrified billages 1103
  • Total electrified towns/cities 13
  • Electrified Schedule Caste localities 1149

Water supplyEdit

Area covered under water supply using taps/ handpumps of India Mark-2:

  • Village 1812
  • Towns/city 14

DemographicsEdit

 
Decadal Growth Rate of Population (1901–2011) of Barabanki District
 
Sex Ratio (1901–2011) of Barabanki District

According to the 2011 census, Barabanki district had a population of 3,260,699.[30] It then ranked 107th out of India's 640 districts).[30] The district had a population density of 740 inhabitants per square kilometre (1,900/sq mi).[30] Its population growth rate over the decade 2001–2011 was 26.40%.[30] Barabanki had a sex ratio of 887 females for every 1,000 males,[30] and a literacy rate of 47.39%.[30]

As per the report Provisional Population Totals Paper 1 of 2011 Uttar Pradesh Series 10 of the 2011 India Census,[31] Barabanki district ranked 28th out of 71 districts of UP by population, with 1.63% of the state's total. In 2001 census it ranked 32nd. Population density is ranked 46th, with an increase from 623 in 2001 to 739 in 2011.[inconsistent] The district was 56th for literacy, with overall literacy rate of 63.76%.[inconsistent] Indian census, 2011 in its Provisional Population Totals report for Uttar Pradesh gives following stat for the district:[32]

Total population Males Females Percentage decadal growth 2001–2011 Sex ratio Density (persons per km2.) Child population (0–6 years) Child sex ratio (0–6 years) Male literacy Female literacy Total literacy
3,260,699 1,707,073 1,553,626 21.96 910 741 519,867 932 70.27 52.34 61.75

Annual Health Survey 2010-11[33] gave following stats for the district:

Crude birth rate Crude death rate Natural growth rate Infant mortality rate Neo-natal mortality rate Post neo-natal mortality rate Under-five mortality rate Sex ratio at birth
/
Sex ratio (0–4 years)
/
Sex ratio (all ages)
/
Total 26.0 7.6 18.4 71 55 16 95 930 922 893
Urban 26.4 7.7 18.7 72 57 15 97 936 933 896
Rural 21.1 6.1 15.0 - - - - 838 780 857

As per Annual Health Survey 2010-11[34] district's stats for wealth index were:

Lowest (20%) Highest (20%)
Total 33.8 7.1
Urban 35.2 4.9
Rural 10.3 42.9
Historical population
YearPop.±% p.a.
19011,025,624—    
1911942,608−0.84%
1921895,722−0.51%
1931925,401+0.33%
19411,011,287+0.89%
19511,099,754+0.84%
19611,234,931+1.17%
19711,424,536+1.44%
19811,740,799+2.03%
19912,112,782+1.96%
20012,673,581+2.38%
20113,260,699+2.01%
source:[35]

As per AHS 2010–11,[36] the district's effective literacy rate was 67.6 (rural 66.5, urban 80.9); for males it stood at 77.1 (rural 76.4, urban 85.8) and for females it was 56.9 (rural 55.3, urban 75.3).

1.518% of total population had some form of disability. Per 100,000 persons, the rate of severe injury was 188, major injury was 122, and minor injury was 423. Out of 100,000 persons, 691 were suffering from diarrhoea/dysentery, 966 were suffering from acute respiratory infection (ARI), 3,698 suffered from some kind of fever, 139 were suffering from diabetes, 418 were suffering from hypertension, 234 were suffering from tuberculosis, 578 were suffering from asthma/chronic respiratory diseases, and 801 were suffering from arthritis. 5,592 suffered from an acute illness. 98.3% of those suffering from acute illness received treatment (6.6% from a government source). 5,036 had symptoms of chronic illness, of which 83.1% sought medical care. 4,964 were suffering from any kind of chronic illness of which 45.5% received treatment (20.3% from a government source).

18.3% of population was having habit of chewing tobacco while 1.1% were in habit of chewing without tobacco.[clarification needed] 15% of population smoked, and 4.2% drank alcohol.

Minorities[clarification needed] comprised about 23% of the total population of the district. Barabanki is a category "A" district (i.e. having socio-economic and basic amenities parameters below the national average).[37]

ReligionEdit

Religion in Barabanki district[38][39]
Religion Percent
Hinduism
76.84%
Islam
22.61%
Christianity
0.15%
Jainism
0.09%
Sikhism
0.06%
Buddhism
0.05%
Other Religions
0.01%
Not Stated
0.20%

According to the 2011 Census, the largest religious groupings are Hindus (76.84 per cent), followed by Muslims (22.61 per cent), those who didn't state any religion (0.20 per cent), Christians (0.15 per cent), Jains (0.09 per cent), Sikhs (0.06 per cent), Buddhists (0.05 per cent) and adherents of other religions (0.01 per cent).[38][39]

LanguagesEdit

Bara Banki district: mother-tongue of population, according to the 2011 Census.[40]

  Awadhi (2.11%)
  Hindi (91.54%)
  Urdu (6.16%)
  Others (0.19%)

At the time of the 2011 Census of India, 93.74% of the district population spoke Hindi (or a related language) and 6.16% Urdu as their first language.[40]

One of the many languages spoken in the district is Awadhi, a vernacular in the Hindi continuum spoken by over 38 million people, mainly in the Awadh region of India.[41]

Bara Banki district: mother-tongue of population, according to the 2011 Census.[40]
Mother tongue code Mother tongue People Percentage
002007 Bengali 635 0.02%
006030 Awadhi 68,876 2.11%
006102 Bhojpuri 2,141 0.07%
006142 Chhattisgarhi 217 0.01%
006240 Hindi 2,984,773 91.54%
016038 Punjabi 1,199 0.04%
022015 Urdu 200,893 6.16%
028001 Arabic/Arbi 170 0.01%
040001 English 763 0.02%
others 1,032 0.03%
Total 3,260,699 100.00%

EconomyEdit

The district's economy is primarily based on agriculture.[42] Agriculture, bio-gas plants, animal husbandry, and small-scale industries provide direct and indirect employment.[43][44]

AgricultureEdit

 
Farmer with bullock cart

In Barabanki the net irrigated area is 84.2% (compared to the Uttar Pradesh average of 79%). The intensity[clarification needed] of irrigation in Barabanki is 176.9% (compared to the state average of 140%). Most of irrigation in Barabanki is done through private tube wells (69%) and canals (30%).

Subsistence agriculture is practised in Barabanki, with up to five crops rotated per year.[45] The dominant crops are cereals (occupying 68.4 per cent of cropped areas), mainly paddy (rice) (34.4%) and wheat (31.3%). Other crops include pulses (10.1%) and sugarcane 3.6%), and potatoes[46] (2.8%). Wheat, rice and maize are chief food crops of the district.[47][48] Opium, menthol oil, sugarcane, fruits (mango, banana, etc.), vegetables (potato, tomato, mushroom, etc.), flowers (gladiolus, etc.), spices, etc. are the chief cash crops[49][50][51][52][53][54] for export.[55] Barabanki has been major hub of opium production since British rule; the district opium officer, based at Afeem Kothi, is the only one in the state.[56]

Barabanki leads the country in menthol farming, with 81 km2 (20,000 acres) under cultivation.[55][57][58]

Apart from crop farming, livestock-based farming,[59] broiler farming,[52] and fish cultivation is also prevalent in the district.[52] Bee keeping is practised in the Dewa block of the district.[43][52]

The district is home to a Regional Agriculture Seed Testing & Demonstration Station of the federal Department of Agriculture.[60] In 2004, a Krishi Vigyan Kendra (KVK, agricultural science centre) was established in the district under Narendra Dev University of Agriculture and Technology.[61] The Institute for Integrated Society Development established a Rural Technology Development and Dissemination Centre in 2002 at Nindura Block of Barabanki District.[43] National Fertilizers Limited has established a Soil Testing Lab in the district.[62] Information and Communication Technologies has a centre in the district.[63]

Cottage industryEdit

Weaving products including scarfs, shawls and stoles, some of which are exported.[67][68] These products are broadly categorised as rayon fibre or cotton yarn. Barabanki scarves were displayed at a national handloom expo.[69][relevant? ] Barabanki has also emerged as an handkerchief production hub.[70]
Zardozi- In 2013 the Geographical Indication Registry (GIR) accorded the Geographical Indication (GI) registration to the Lucknow Zardozi – the world-renowned textile embroidery from Lucknow. The Zardozi products manufactured in areas in Lucknow and six surrounding districts of Barabanki, Unnao, Sitapur, Rae Bareli, Hardoi and Amethi became a brand and can carry a registered logo to confirm their authenticity.[71][relevant? ]

IndustryEdit

There are six industrial areas in the District Barabanki,[72]

  • UPSIDC Agro Park, Kursi Road, Barabanki[73]
  • Industrial Area, Dewa Road, Barabanki
  • Industrial Area, Rasool Panah, Fatehpur, Barabanki
  • Mini Industrial Area, Ismailpur, Dewa, Barabanki
  • Mini Industrial Area Amarsanda, Barabanki
  • Mini Industrial Area Sohilpur, Harkh, Barabanki

The companies and factories include:

The Company is engaged in manufacturing of polyester staple fibre, polyester, and tow with technology from Du Pont, USA.
  • U.P. State Spinning Mill, Barabanki
  • U.P. State Sugar Corp. Ltd., Barabanki
  • DSM Sugar, Rauzagaon, Barabanki, U.P.[76]
  • Hally Industries pvt. Ltd., Barabanki – supplies welding electrodes and owns a wire-drawing unit and a rice mill
  • J.R. Agro Industries Limited[77][78] – operates a solvent extraction plant and a vegetable oil refinery.
  • J.R. Organics Ltd. (formally Somaiya Organics Ltd.)
  • Bharat Rubber Industries – supplies rubber and rubber-related products/[79]
  • Shree Shyam Industries, Tehsil Fatehpur

Solar power plantEdit

The first 2 megawatt-capacity solar power plant project of Uttar Pradesh is situated in Sandauli village of Barabanki district, it was inaugerated on 10 May 2012 and become operational in January 2013.[80][81] The plant was set up by Technical Associates Ltd.[82]

CultureEdit

Cultural heritageEdit

In 2011–12 almost 2 million people visited the twin sites of Deva Sharif shrine and Mahadeva temple.[83]

Notable peopleEdit

EducationEdit

Schools and intermediate collegesEdit

Engineering collegesEdit

Polytechnic instituteEdit

Other professional institutionsEdit

Research institutionsEdit

  • International Rice Research Institute, Tikarhar Road, Kursi, Barabanki[105]
  • Centre for Research and Development of Waste and Marginal Lands, Hemapurwa-Baina, Tikarhar Road, Kursi, Barabanki[105]

ReferencesEdit

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