Location of Unnao district in Uttar Pradesh
|• Lok Sabha constituencies||Unnao|
|• Vidhan Sabha constituencies||Unnao|
|• Total||4,558 km2 (1,760 sq mi)|
|• Density||680/km2 (1,800/sq mi)|
|• Sex ratio||0.901 ♂/♀|
|Time zone||UTC+05:30 (IST)|
Unnao District is known as "The Land Of Pen and Sword" (कलम और तलवार की धरती).
Unnao district was created by the British upon their annexation of Oudh State in February 1856. Before then, under the Nawabs of Awadh, the area was divided between several different districts or chaklas: Purwa covered the eastern part, and to the north were Rasulabad and Safipur. The pargana of Auras, meanwhile, was part of the chakla of Sandila, and the parganas of Baiswara were included in the chakla of the same name, whose headquarters were at Rae Bareli. After the British takeover, the district was originally called "Purwa district" with Purwa as its headquarters. This only lasted for a very short period before the headquarters were relocated to Unnao.
Xuanzang, the Chinese pilgrim to India, stayed at Kannauj for 3 months in 636 AD. From here he journeyed a distance of about 26 km and reached the city of Nafotipokulo (Navadevakula) which stood on the eastern bank of Ganga. The city was about 5 km in circumference and had a Deva Temple, several Buddhist monasteries and Stupas.
After that period, this area's history is almost completely obscure, with only the traditions of the later Rajput families as a source. These traditions indicate that today's Unnao district was heavily divided between various groups: the Bhars are said to have ruled in the eastern part, while the central part was inhabited by a mix of tribes including the Lodhs, Lunias, Ahirs, Thatheras, Dhobis, and Kurmis. The mud forts of their rulers are still pointed out, but none of them ruled over a very large area. In the north, the rulers were the Rajpasis, whose capital was the city of Ramkot (now known as Bangarmau). Finally, the area around Safipur was supposedly ruled by Brahmin rajas, with Safipur originally being called "Saipur" after one of them.
In the following centuries, the Rajputs were the main ruling class in this area. The Bais ruled in the south, the Dikhits were prevalent in the central part (their family traditions call this the "kingdom of Dikhitana"), and the north was divided between several smaller clans. Muslim rule was never very strong here, and so the medieval history of Unnao district is essentially a collection of separate family traditions of the ruling Rajput clans, with no specific dates given.
The first major Muslim center in the region was Bangarmau, around the year 1300: according to tradition, one Sayyid Ala-ud-Din conquered the area from the raja of Nawal, then destroyed Nawal and built a new capital at Bangarmau. The shrine over his grave bears an inscription with the date of 702 AH (1302 CE). The next major Muslim conquest was Safipur, said to have happened in 819 AH; a different Sayyid Ala-ud-Din was killed in battle here, and his shrine is venerated by both Hindus and Muslims. His son, Baha-ud-Din, is then said to have later conquered Unnao itself from the Bisen raja of the city, disguising his soldiers as women in order to take the raja's troops by surprise. Other Muslim outposts included Asiwan and Rasulabad.
At the time of Akbar, the entire area of modern Unnao district was included in the sarkar of Lucknow, in Awadh Subah. It consisted of the following mahals: Unnao (called Unam in the Ain-i-Akbari), Sarosi, Harha, Bangarmau, Safipur (then called Saipur), Fatehpur-Chaurasi, Mohan, Asiwan, Jhalotar, Parsandan, Unchgaon, Sidhupur, Purwa (then called Ranbhirpur), Mauranwan, Saron or Sarwan, Kumbhi, Magrayar, Panhan, Patan, Ghatampur, and finally Asoha. This administrative setup remained almost unaltered through the 20th century, although there were a few changes. For example, the pargana of Pariar was formed from parts of Sarosi and Safipur in 1785, and then in the 1800s the pargana of Sarosi became known as Sikandarpur instead (C.A. Elliott wrote in 1862 that it had "recently become habitual" at that time). As another example, Daundia Khera was formed out of Unchgaon and Sidhupur by Rao Mardan Singh around 1800.
There are few references to this area during the later Mughal period, but they become more numerous during under the Nawabs of Awadh. The Nawabs originally maintained a strong central authority over the region, with most of the local zamindars submitting to them without putting up a fight, but gradually their authority here diminished, and the local rulers became practically independent. Under the Nawabi administrative setup, the area covered by today's Unnao district was divided between several districts or chaklas: Purwa, Rasulabad, and Safipur were based here, while Sandila and Baiswara were based outside of the present district but included some of its territory.
When the British annexed Awadh in 1856, they established a new district based at Purwa, but the district headquarters were relocated to Unnao soon after. Unnao was chosen for its central location, and the Deputy Commissioner had been posted here even during the short time when Purwa was the headquarters. At first, the new district was smaller than it is today, with only 13 parganas. In 1869, however, it became much larger: the 7 parganas of Baiswara (Panhan, Patan, Bihar, Bhagwantnagar, Magrayar, Ghatampur, and Daundia Khera) were transferred into Unnao district (from Rae Bareli district), where they became part of the tehsil of Purwa. Also in 1869, the pargana of Auras-Mohan was transferred here from Lucknow district, and Mohan became the seat of a tehsil (replacing Nawabganj).
Some fighting during 1857 sepoy mutiny took place in this area. Following the mutiny, the civil administration was re-established in the district which was named district Unnao, with headquarters at Unnao. The size of the district was however small until 1869, when it assumed its present form. The same year the town of Unnao was constituted a Municipality.
In 2006 the Ministry of Panchayati Raj named Unnao one of the country's 250 most backward districts (out of a total of 640). It is one of the 34 districts in Uttar Pradesh currently receiving funds from the Backward Regions Grant Fund Programme (BRGF).
Unnao district is divided into 6 tehsils: Unnao, Hasanganj, Safipur, Purwa, Bighapur, and Bangarmau. There are 16 development blocks: Ganj Moradabad, Bangarmau, Fatehpur Chaurasi, Safipur, Miyanganj, Auras, Hasanganj, Nawabganj, Purwa, Asoha, Hilauli, Bighapur, Sumerpur, Bichia, Sikandarpur Sirausi, and Sikandarpur Karan.
The current elected representative from Unnao to the Lok Sabha, in the Parliament of India, is Shakshi Maharaj. The district had 6 Vidhan Sabha seats, namely Unnao, Purwa, Bhagwantnagar, Mohan, Safipur and Bangarmau. However, after delimitation in 2008, areas under Harha were merged with other Vidhan Sabha seats. Thus, the district now has only 6 Vidhan Sabha seats. Other prominent Qasba of Unnao include Karowan B.K., Safipur, Neotani, Asiwan, Bangarmau, Mohaan, Magarwara, Shuklaganj, Purwa Maurawan, and Baksar. The district magistrate is Ravindra Kumar.
The Unnao Lok Sabha Constituency had the largest number of registered voters for the 2009 Lok Sabha elections, post de-limitation, with about 1.9 million voters, making it India's largest parliamentary seat.
Member of Legislative Council—Kanpur Graduate Seat---Arun Pathak (BJP, elected 23/01/2015) (Kanpur city, Kanpur Dehat and Unnao districts are represented by this seat).
According to the 2011 census Unnao district has a population of 3,108,367, roughly equal to the nation of Mongolia or the US state of Iowa. This gives it a ranking of 112th in India (out of a total of 640). The district has a population density of 682 inhabitants per square kilometre (1,770/sq mi) . Its population growth rate over the decade 2001-2011 was 15.19%. Unnao has a sex ratio of 901 females for every 1,000 males, and a literacy rate of 68.29%.
|Unnao district: mother-tongue of population, according to the 2011 Census.|
|Mother tongue code||Mother tongue||People||Percentage|
The district follows the usual 10+2+3 pattern of education, as elsewhere in India. Some notable schools and institutions of the district are :
2013 gold treasure incidentEdit
In October 2013, Archaeological Survey of India took up the excavation near Daundia Khera village in Unnao district amid reports of over 1000 tonnes of gold deposits buried beneath the ruins of an old fort, which belonged to Ram Baksh Singh, a revolutionary of 1857. The preliminary investigation of ASI and GSI also confirmed a non-magnetic anomalous zone occurring at 5–20 m depth indicative of possible non-conducting, metallic contents and/or some alloys.
- "Home". District Unnao. Retrieved 12 February 2021.
- Nevill, H.R. (1903). Unao: A Gazetteer, Being Volume XI Of The District Gazetteers Of The United Provinces Of Agra And Oudh. Allahabad: Government Press. pp. 90, 113–39, 171, 217, 240–1. Retrieved 7 April 2021.
- "History of the District". Unnao District Website. Retrieved 24 August 2016.
- Ministry of Panchayati Raj (8 September 2009). "A Note on the Backward Regions Grant Fund Programme" (PDF). National Institute of Rural Development. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 April 2012. Retrieved 27 September 2011.
- "Introduction". Unnao: An Official Website of the District. Retrieved 2 November 2016.
- Rastogi, Divyansh (23 February 2020). "यूपी सरकार के प्रशासनिक फेरबदल: 13 IAS अफसर इधर से उधर- अखिलेश सिंह सहारनपुर के नए DM" [Administrative reshuffle of UP government: 13 IAS officers from here to there – new DM of Akhilesh Singh Saharanpur]. Jagran.com (in Hindi). Retrieved 23 February 2020.
- Decadal Variation In Population Since 1901
- "District Census 2011". Census2011.co.in. 2011. Retrieved 30 September 2011.
- US Directorate of Intelligence. "Country Comparison:Population". Retrieved 1 October 2011.
M Mongolia 3,133,318 July 2011 est.
- "2010 Resident Population Data". U. S. Census Bureau. Retrieved 30 September 2011.
- C-16 Population By Mother Tongue – Uttar Pradesh (Report). Office of the Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 15 July 2020.
- M. Paul Lewis, ed. (2009). "Awadhi: A language of India". Ethnologue: Languages of the World (16th ed.). Dallas, Texas: SIL International. Retrieved 28 September 2011.
- "Know More About College". St. Jude's College. Retrieved 12 September 2019.
- "St. Lawrence School, Unnao". St. Lawrence School. 2016. Archived from the original on 22 August 2018. Retrieved 12 September 2019.
- "S.V.M. Inter College, Sant Pooran Das Nagar, Unnao". Facebook. 2017. Retrieved 23 February 2020.
- "'Peepli Live' in Unnao: ASI begins hunt for 1,000-tonne 'buried treasure'". Retrieved 19 October 2013.
- "ASI begins Excavation at Unnao in search of Gold Deposits". Retrieved 19 October 2013.
- "Famous Personalities". Unnao District Website. 2010. Archived from the original on 16 January 2018. Retrieved 15 December 2018.
- "अखिलेश यादव की बैठक के दौरान सपा नेता उमाशंकर चौधरी की हार्ट अटैक से मौत" [During a party meeting, Samajwadi Party leader Umashankar Chaudhary died from a heart attack]. Amar Ujala (in Hindi). 22 July 2017. Retrieved 15 December 2018.
- "सपा की बैठक के दौरान उमा शंकर चौधरी को हार्ट अटैक, अस्पताल में निधन" [Uma Shankar Chaudhary dies in hospital, heart attack during Samajwadi Party meeting]. Dainik Jagran (in Hindi). 23 July 2017. Retrieved 15 December 2018.