Sandila is a town and nagar palika parishad in Hardoi district in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh.[1] It serves as a tehsil headquarters within the district.[1] Located midway between Hardoi and Lucknow, Sandila is a well-connected town with roads leading in all directions and a major rail line passing through the south side of town.[2] Important industries include sweets[1] — its laddus are especially well-known[2] — as well as beedi production and zardozi work.[1]

Sandila
Town
Map of Sandila CD block
Map of Sandila CD block
Sandila is located in Uttar Pradesh
Sandila
Sandila
Location in Uttar Pradesh, India
Sandila is located in India
Sandila
Sandila
Sandila (India)
Coordinates: 27°4′48″N 80°31′12″E / 27.08000°N 80.52000°E / 27.08000; 80.52000Coordinates: 27°4′48″N 80°31′12″E / 27.08000°N 80.52000°E / 27.08000; 80.52000
Country India
StateUttar Pradesh
DistrictHardoi
Government
 • TypeMunicipal Council
 • BodyNagar Palika Parishad Sandila
Area
 • Total24.62 km2 (9.51 sq mi)
Elevation
142 m (466 ft)
Population
 (2011)[1]
 • Total58,346
 • Density2,400/km2 (6,100/sq mi)
Demonym(s)Sandilivi
Languages
 • OfficialHindi
 • Additional officialUrdu
Time zoneUTC+5:30 (IST)
Vehicle registrationUP-30

Sandila is the oldest municipality in Hardoi district, established on 14 July 1868.[2] As of 2011, its population is 58,346, in 9,663 households.[1]

HistoryEdit

Nothing much is known about the ancient history of Sandila. According to folk sayings, it was a forested area, believed to be the worship land of legendary sage Shandilya. As per the British chronicles, the history of Sandila town started in the medieval period after Mohammad Ghori’s capture of Delhi throne. Two brothers belonging to the martial Arakh Rajpoot clan viz. Salhia singh and Malhia singh established the towns of Salhiapura (later known as Sandila) and Malhiapura (later known as Malihabad), respectively. Sandila thus became the seat of Arakh power in early 13th century and became a flourishing town under Arakhs Rajpoot. Arakhs held the region till last quarter of the 14th century, when a large army sent by Feroz Shah Tughlaq under his lieutenant Syed Makhdum Alauddin, captured the town and the adjoining areas after a fierce battle with Arakhs. The remains of Arakh rule are seen in form of ruined fortresses in the mounds of Garhi Jindor, Malhaiyya garhi (Malaiyya), Sahinjana tila, Samad Khera, Muslewan garhi, Datli, Naurang garh (Tarauna), Sandi qila, and many others. After the decline of Arakh power, Sandila came under the rule of Delhi sultanate. The folklore of Arakhs (also called Arkawanshis or अर्कवंशी) still sings about the bravery of its heroes, Salhia and Malhia who were the son's of Suryawanshi kingh Maharaja Trilokchand Arkawanshi. In 1952 Biswas a flight lieutenant of Indian Air Force who was working in a Communication Flight unit in Lucknow took charge of the aircraft carrying army officials who were returning to New Delhi after an official visit. After it took off, suddenly a crew member observed an engine malfunction; subsequently a fire broke out. Biswas first tried extinguish it, but it was difficult to control. He decided to attempt a forced landing, and made a belly landing near Sandila town in Uttar Pradesh and successfully saved the lives of all the passengers. Biswas was awarded the Ashoka Chakra for his extraordinary example of bravery, intelligence and rationality.[1] Sandila is also known for its delicacy that's Laddos of Sandila raja kurga parshad all fimaly person king of sandila 1865 Bc adders( rani ka sievala ) and all family other county rest a fimaly

The growth of Sandila was sped up by an influx of refugees, many of whom are said to have been fleeing persecution by Muhammad Shah Tughlaq.[2] His successor Firoz Shah visited Sandila twice, once in 1353 on the way to Lucknow and again in 1374 on the way to Bahraich.[2] The oldest mosque in Sandila, now in ruins, was built in 769 AH on his orders.[2] The Tarikh-i-Mubarak Shahi records that Sandila was ruled by Malik Hisam-ul-Mulk in 1375, and in 1394 it came under the control of Khwaja-i-Jahan, the first ruler of the Jaunpur Sultanate.[2]

By the time of Sher Shah Suri, Sandila had become so crowded that one Sayyid Husain founded a new town next to it, called Ashraf Tola.[2] The Sayyids were supporters of Sher Shah, and when Humayun was returned to power, he expelled them and looted the city.[2] The Sayyids' estates were given to the Chandelas instead, but the Sayyids gradually recovered them beginning during the reign of Aurangzeb and then especially under the Nawabs of Awadh.[2]

Up to this point, Sandila had never been a centre of government.[2] In fact, the lack of government officials here made Sandila a convenient refuge for people who wanted to avoid imperial writs.[2] That changed during the reign of Akbar, who transferred the qazi of Mahona to Sandila, and then the other pargana officials came to follow.[2] This is reflected in the Ain-i-Akbari, which lists Sandila as the seat of a pargana in Lucknow sarkar of Awadh subah.[2] It supplied the imperial treasury with a revenue of 10,623,901 dams and contributed a force of 5,000 infantry and 100 cavalry to the imperial army.[2] Sandila itself is recorded as having a brick fort at the time.[2] In addition, another mosque was built in Akbar's time, in 962 AH.[2] Another historic monument is the Bara Khambha, or "hall of twelve pillars", was built in 971 AH; it contains the tomb of Makhdum Sahib, the ancestor of Sandila's preeminent Muslim family.[2]

A third old mosque was built in 1121 AH according to its Persian-language inscription.[2] In 1850 the European traveller W. Sleeman visited Sandila; he described it as somewhat in decline but "well-situated and possessing an excellent climate."[2]

At the turn of the 20th century, Sandila was the 7th-largest city in the Awadh region, with a population of 16,843 people.[2] A slight majority (8,876) were Muslim, while Hindus formed the second-largest religious group (7,948).[2] Sandila then comprised four mohallas: Ashraf Tola, Malkhana, Mandai, and Mahetwana.[2] The town had a tehsil office, a police station, and a town hall, along with a post office, a cattle pound, and a dispensary.[2] There was a middle school, a boys' lower primary school funded by the municipality, a private school in Ashraf Tola, and two girls' lower primary schools.[2] A new sarai, called the Quinn Sarai, had recently been built by Kunwar Durga Parshad near the railway station.[2] Sandila hosted markets on Tuesdays and Saturdays; the main items for sale were paan, ghee, and laddu.[2] It was also known for door pardahs and coloured cotton tablecloths "of a pretty design in large checks."[2] Firewood was also exported to Lucknow via train.[2] The largest source of income for the municipal government was through the collection of octroi.[2]

Apart from this, the Begum Qudsia Aizaz Rasul (2 April 1909 – 1 August 2001) was the only Muslim woman in the Constituent Assembly of India that drafted the Constitution of India. Qudsia was married in 1929 to Nawab Aizaz Rasul, the taluqdar (landowner) of Sandila in Hardoi district of what was then Oudh (now a part of Uttar Pradesh). The match was arranged by Sir Malcolm Hailey and the marriage was entirely harmonious. Two years after the wedding, when Qudsia was fourteen, her father died in 1931. Shortly after this happened, her in-laws came and took her away to Sandila, which was to be her home in life and where she lies buried after her death. In Sandila, Qudsia came to be addressed after her husband's name as "Begum Aizaz Rasool," and this is the name by which she is known in all public records.

GeographyEdit

Sandila is located at 27°05′N 80°31′E / 27.08°N 80.52°E / 27.08; 80.52.[3] It has an average elevation of 142 metres (466 ft). It is around 50 kilometres away from Lucknow, the capital of Uttar Pradesh and is an important tehsil of the district Hardoi.

DemographicsEdit

Historical population
YearPop.±%
1901 16,843—    
1911 15,241−9.5%
1921 14,074−7.7%
1931 15,034+6.8%
1941 17,526+16.6%
1951 17,400−0.7%
1961 18,407+5.8%
1971 22,365+21.5%
1981 29,700+32.8%
1991 38,605+30.0%
2001 48,899+26.7%
2011 58,346+19.3%
Source: 2011 Census of India[1]

The 2011 Census of India recorded the population of Sandila as 58,346 people, of whom 30,400 were male and 27,946 female.[1] The corresponding sex ratio of 919 females to every 1000 males was the highest among towns in Hardoi district.[1] Among the 0-6 age group, the sex ratio was 910, which was slightly above the district urban average of 906.[1] Members of scheduled castes made up 8.13% of the town's population, and members of scheduled tribes made up 0.03%.[1] The literacy rate of Sandila was 65.79% (counting only people age 7 and up); it was higher among men and boys (70.99%) than women and girls (60.15%).[1] In terms of employment, Sandila had the highest percentage of main workers (i.e. people employed for at least 6 months per year) among towns in Hardoi district, with 27.15% falling into this category.[1] Marginal workers made up 3.91%, and non-workers made up 68.94%.[1] Employment status varied heavily according to gender, with 51.34% of men but only 9.01% of women being either main or marginal workers.[1]

Religions in Sandila
Religion Percent
Muslims
53.97%
Hindus
45.49%
Others†
0.54%
Distribution of religions
Includes Sikhs (0.18%), Buddhists (<0.05%).

EconomyEdit

As of 1971, the economy of Sandila was described as a mixture of the industrial, service, and commercial sectors (in that order).[4] The main items imported were groundnuts, cloth, and grains; the main items manufactured were handloom cloth, brass utensils, and beedies; and the main exports were groundnuts, grain, and handloom cloth.[4]

In 1981, Sandila was home to four medium- and large-scale factories, including two each in the public and private sectors.[5] These included the Laxmi Sugar & Oil Mills Ltd., the oldest large-scale factory in the district, which was established in 1935 and as of 1981 was producing 24,000 tonnes of sugar.[5] Raw sugarcane was supplied from Hardoi as well as parts of Sitapur district.[5] There was also a textile mill, run by U.P. State Textiles Corporation Ltd., which at the time employed almost 1,000 weavers and was equipped with 25,000 spindles; an expansion was planned at the time that would double its size.[5] A medium-scale factory run by U.P. Metal Industries Ltd. had been functioning since 1976 and was producing some 1,000 tonnes of metal pipe annually.[5] The fourth, the Hardoi Co-operative Vanaspati Mills Ltd., was still under construction at the time.[5]

Also described in 1981, the main powerlines connecting Lucknow's hydroelectric power supply to Hardoi run through Sandila; they include both a 132-kilovolt line and a 66-kilovolt one.[5] The lion's share of electricity consumption in the district at the time was for irrigation and water supply, making up 57.34% of the total consumption.[5]

SanitationEdit

As of 1971, Sandila was one of two towns in Hardoi district (along with Hardoi itself) that had arrangements for mechanical transport and removal of night soil.[4]

As of 2011, the drainage system employed in Sandila is open sewers, and 6,000 flush toilets have been installed in the town.[1]

VillagesEdit

At the turn of the 20th century, it was noted that many villages in Sandila pargana were unusually large because of past political instability.[2] In (then-) recent years, "numberless hamlets have sprung up as offshoots of the larger villages," due to secure conditions.[2]

As of 2011, Sandila CD block has the following 97 villages:[1]

Village name Total land area (hectares) Population (in 2011)
Gogawan Dew 137.5 1,625
Gahira 183.1 1,038
Padri Gahirawaly 50.4 249
Terwa Pahelwan 188.9 975
Bhirka 217.6 1,576
Yarka 43.4 553
Mahgawan 1,165.4 8,057
Mawai Brahman 54.1 579
Parihawan 165.7 1,758
Shekhwapur 60.6 593
Raheriyamau 43 370
Gopalpur 164.8 1,190
Narendarpur 100.6 1,019
Rasulpur 326.6 2,332
Rahimabad Grant 190.5 1,144
Mawae Musalmanabad 211.3 1,393
Lohrai 173.5 1,252
Mahroniya 236.8 1,594
Lumamau 678.3 5,546
Kinhoti 182.6 2,146
Atsaliya 898.8 6,060
Malehra 920.5 5,846
Chanohiya 1,177.8 5,537
Paharpur 37.6 271
Jajmau 97.2 1,052
Bhitauly 355.8 1,782
Jamu 550.5 3,745
Bhadehana 136.8 1,035
Umartaly 239.2 1,157
Shivnagara 244.1 1,331
Gogawan Umray 373.9 1,373
Mahamau 107.8 654
Khutehana 146.3 897
Gausapur 44.4 625
Mahamadwur Belwaran 467.9 2,386
Mirnagar Ajjgawan 861.6 6,690
Bibipur 45.9 454
Tarf Malikana 276.8 515
Hakimpur 34.7 2
Tarf Ashraf Tola 128.6 2,082
Tarf Mandie 206.8 1,146
Jamkura 440 3,707
Atamau 376.9 2,299
Bharighna 296.2 2,407
Baghuwamau 311.4 1,689
Talauly 596.6 3,778
Jamsara 437.7 2,132
Gangau 168.2 917
Saray Marukpur 165.8 1,151
Rampur Ashu 222.6 1,026
Kurna Timruk 351.4 2,960
Edulpur 44.6 152
Jallalpur 92.6 1,294
Hardalmau 275.1 2,607
Kudauri 332.3 2,711
Sunderpur 356.8 2,541
Gauswa Donga 734.3 4,178
Behsary 80.8 749
Maleya 756.8 3,290
Gajaudin Nagar 247 983
Padry 174.4 1,111
Meetau 651.4 4,732
Makhadum Pura 89.2 923
Mahatwana 278.9 2,131
Alampur 235 1,123
Begamgang 431.1 5,324
Tikra Daudpur 129.4 851
Sanie 474.8 2,909
Tiloeya Kalan 246.1 2,836
Narayanpur 256.3 2,021
Tiloeya Khurd 193.8 1,599
Bada Danda 58.9 270
Uttar Kaund 300.2 2,315
Atwawary 147.9 1,648
Pahtoeya 195.4 1,235
Kakraly 748.8 4,966
Shank 939 4,536
Tikra Barar 223.7 1,707
Beremau 125.6 536
Gaudora 268.6 2,527
Majh Gaon 384.3 2,908
Mau Chena 111 1,019
Sarwa 1,089.2 4,520
Kasimabad 324.4 262
Purwa Man 265.4 2,185
Bariya 241.8 2,259
Barahi 549.3 3,028
Gauswa 69.6 552
Tikra Kalla 419.5 2,375
Sunda 275.4 1,623
Narayanpur 209.2 1,331
Kirtapur 51 159
Mandoly 633.2 4,065
Sikrohry 275 3,886
Jawar 422.9 3,471
Kally Khera 68 657
Som 528.4 5,040

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r "Census of India 2011: Uttar Pradesh District Census Handbook - Hardoi, Part A (Village and Town Directory)" (PDF). Census 2011 India. pp. 15–16, 32–52, 435–54, 578–82, 589. Retrieved 19 June 2021.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af Nevill, H.R. (1904). Hardoi - A Gazetteer. Allahabad: Government Press. pp. 121, 133–5, 249–57. Retrieved 19 June 2021.
  3. ^ Falling Rain Genomics, Inc - Sandila
  4. ^ a b c Census 1971 Uttar Pradesh: District Census Handbook Part X-A: Village & Town Directory, District Hardoi (PDF). 1972. pp. viii–xi, 8–9. Retrieved 19 June 2021.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h Census 1981 Uttar Pradesh: District Census Handbook Part XIII-A: Village & Town Directory, District Hardoi (PDF). 1982. pp. 4, 6–7. Retrieved 19 June 2021.