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Paleontology or palaeontology (from Greek: paleo, "ancient"; ontos, "being"; and logos, "knowledge") is the study of prehistoric life forms on Earth through the examination of plant and animal fossils.[1] This includes the study of body fossils, tracks (ichnites), burrows, cast-off parts, fossilised feces (coprolites), palynomorphs and chemical residues. Because humans have encountered fossils for millennia, paleontology has a long history both before and after becoming formalized as a science. This article records significant discoveries and events related to paleontology that occurred or were published in the year 1975.

List of years in paleontology (table)
In science
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978

Contents

PaleozoologyEdit

ArthropodsEdit

InsectsEdit

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Cretopone[2]

Gen et sp nov

Valid

Dlussky

Turonian

Beleutinskaya Formation

  Kazakhstan

An ant of uncertain phylogenetic placement.
Type species C. magna

Electrodryinus areolatus[3]

gen et sp nov

jr synonym

Ponomarenko

Eocene

Baltic amber

  Russia

A dryinid wasp, genus synonymized with Deinodryinus

"Palaeomyrmex"[4]

Gen et sp nov.

Jr synonym

Dlussky

Santonian

Taimyr amber

  Russia

A Sphecomyrminae ant. homonym of Palaeomyrmex Heer.
Moved to Dlusskyidris zherichini

MolluscsEdit

BivalvesEdit

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Fordillidae[5]

fam nov

Valid

Pojeta

Lower Devonian

worldwide

New family for Fordilla and Pojetaia

ConodontsEdit

German paleontologist and stratigrapher Heinz Walter Kozur (1942-2013) and G.K. Merrill described the conodont genus Diplognathodus.[6]

VertebratesEdit

DinosaursEdit

Newly named dinosaursEdit

Data courtesy of George Olshevsky's dinosaur genera list.[7]

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Abrictosaurus[8]

gen nov

Valid

Hopson

Early Jurassic

Upper Elliot Formation

Alocodon Gen et sp nov Valid 194 Millions years ago.

Bagaceratops[9]

Gen et sp nov

Valid

Maryańska & Osmólska

Late Cretaceous

Barapasaurus[10]

Gen et sp nov

Valid

Jain, Kutty, Roy-Chowdhury, & Chatterjee

Lower Jurassic

Kota Formation

Bradycneme[11]

Fam, gen, et sp nov

Nomen dubium

Harrison & C. A. Walker

Maastrichtian

Sânpetru Formation

Possibly synonymous with Elopteryx.

Heptasteornis[11]

gen et sp nov

Valid

Harrison & C. A. Walker

Maastrichtian

Sânpetru Formation

alvarezsaurid, originally described as an owl

Lanasaurus[12]

Gen nov

Valid

Gow

Hettangian to Sinemurian

Elliot Formation

"Yubasaurus"

Nomen nudum.

He

informal name for Yandusaurus.

Newly named birdsEdit
Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Anhinga grandis [13]

Sp. nov.

Valid

Larry D. Martin

Robert M. Mengel

Pliocene

Kimball Formation

An Anhingidae.

Botaurus hibbardi [14]

Sp. nov.

Valid

Carolyn Moseley

Alan Feduccia

Late Pliocene

Rexroad Formation

An Ardeidae.

Bulweria bifax [15]

Sp. nov.

Valid

Storrs L. Olson

Holocene

A Procellariidae, Extinct after 1502 arrival of man

Dakotornis cooperi [16]

Gen. et Sp. nov.

Valid

Bruce R. Erickson

Paleocene

Tongue River Formation

Described in the Dakornithidae, now placed in the Graculavidae,
this is the type species of the new genus.

Dysmoropelia dekarchiskos [15]

Gen. et Sp. nov.

Valid

Storrs L. Olson

Middle Pleistocene-Holocene

A Columbidae, this is the type species of the new genus.

Falco antiquus [17]

Sp. nov.

Valid

Cécile Mourer-Chauviré

Middle Pleistocene

MQ 2B

A Falconidae.

Nannococcyx spix [15]

Gen. et Sp. nov.

Valid

Storrs L. Olson

Holocene

A Cuculidae, this is the type species of the new genus. Extinct at the start of the 16th century BC

Primapus lacki [18]

Gen. et Sp. nov.

Valid

Collin J. O. Harrison

Cyril A. Walker

Early Eocene

London Clay,

MP 8-9

An Apodiformes, Aegialornithidae Lydekker, 1891.

Pterodroma rupinarum [15]

Sp. nov.

Valid

Storrs L. Olson

Late Pleistocene-Holocene

A Procellariidae, sometimes placed in the genus Pseudobulweria.
Extinct after 1502 due to deforestation

Puffinus pacificoides [15]

Sp. nov.

Valid

Storrs L. Olson

Pleistocene

A Procellariidae.

Spizaetus schultzi [19]

Sp. nov.

Valid

Larry D. Martin

Pliocene,

Kimballian

Kimball Formation

An Accipitridae.

Upupa antaios [15]

Sp. nov.

Valid

Storrs L. Olson

Holocene

An Upupidae. Extinct before or around 1502

PterosaursEdit

New taxaEdit
Name Status Authors Location Notes

Puntanipterus

Valid

Bonaparte Sanchez, T.M

Quetzalcoatlus

Valid

Lawson, Douglas A.[20]

  USA(  Texas)

  Canada(  Alberta)

Incertae sedisEdit

New taxaEdit
Name Status Authors Notes

Gluteus minimus

Valid

Richard Arnold Davis & Holmes A. Semken, Jr.[21]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Gini-Newman, Garfield; Graham, Elizabeth (2001). Echoes from the past: world history to the 16th century. Toronto: McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd. ISBN 9780070887398. OCLC 46769716.
  2. ^ Dlussky G.M. 1975. Superfamily Formicoidea Latreille, 1802. Family Formicidae Latreille, 1802. In: Rasnitsyn A.P. (ed.), Hymenoptera Apocrita of Mesozoic. Trudy Paleontologiceskogo Instituta Akademija Nauk SSSR: 114-122 [in Russian].
  3. ^ Guglielmino, A.; Olmi, M. (2011). "Revision of fossil species of Deinodryinus, with description of a new species (Hymenoptera, Dryinidae)". ZooKeys. 130: 495–504. doi:10.3897/zookeys.130.1326. PMC 3260777. PMID 22259295.
  4. ^ Grimaldi, D.; Agosti, D.; Carpenter, J. M. (1997). "New and rediscovered primitive ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) in Cretaceous amber from New Jersey, and their phylogenetic relationships". American Museum Novitates. 3208: 1–43.
  5. ^ Elicki, O.; Gürsu, S. (2009). "First record of Pojetaia runnegari Jell, 1980 and Fordilla Barrande, 1881 from the Middle East (Taurus Mountains, Turkey) and critical review of Cambrian bivalves" (PDF). Paläontologische Zeitschrift. 83 (2): 267–291. doi:10.1007/s12542-009-0021-9.
  6. ^ Kozur, H. & Merrill, G.K. 1975. Genus Diplognathodus. In : Kozur, H. Beiträge zur Conodontenfauna des Perm. Geologisch-Paläontologische Mitteilungen, Innsbruck, pages 9-10
  7. ^ Olshevsky, George. "Dinogeorge's Dinosaur Genera List". Retrieved 2008-08-07.
  8. ^ Hopson, J.A. 1975. On the generic separation of the ornithischian dinosaurs Lycorhinus and Heterodontosaurus from the Stormberg Group (Upper Triassic) of South Africa. South African Journal of Science 71: pp. 302–305.
  9. ^ Maryanska, T. and H. Osmólska, H. 1975. Protoceratopsidae (Dinosauria) of Asia. Palaeontol. Polonica 33: pp. 133-182.
  10. ^ Jain, S.L., T.S. Kutty, T. Roychowdhury, S. Chatterjee. 1975. The sauropod dinosaur from the Lower Jurassic Kota Formation of India. Proc. R. Soc. London 2 A 188: pp. 221-228.
  11. ^ a b Harrison, C.J.O., C.A. Walker. 1975. The Bradycnemidae, a new family of owls from the Upper Cretaceous of Romania. Palaeontology 18: pp. 563-570.
  12. ^ Gow, C.E. 1975. A new heterodontosaurid from the Red Beds of South Africa showing evidence of tooth replacement. Zool. Linnaean Soc. London 57: pp. 335-339.
  13. ^ Larry D. Martin & Robert M. Mengel (1975). "A New Species of Anhinga (Anhingidae) from the Upper Pliocene of Nebraska" (PDF). Auk. 92 (1): 137–140. doi:10.2307/4084425.
  14. ^ Carolyn Moseley & Alan Feduccia (1975). "Upper Pliocene Herons and Ibises from North America". University Michigan Museum Paleontology, Papers on Paleontology. 12: 71–74.
  15. ^ a b c d e f Storrs L. Olson (1975). "Paleornithology of St. Helena Island, South Atlantic Ocean" (PDF). Smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiology. 23: 1–60. doi:10.5479/si.00810266.23.1.
  16. ^ Bruce R. Erickson (1975). "Dakotornis cooperi, a New Paleocene Bird from North Dakota". Scientific Publications of the Science Museum of Minnesota (new series). 3: 1–7.
  17. ^ Cécile Mourer-Chauviré (1975). "Les Oiseaux du Pléistocène Moyen et Supérieur de France". Documents des Laboratoires de Géologie de la Faculté des Sciences de Lyon. 64: 1–624.
  18. ^ Collin J. O. Harrison & Cyril A. Walker (1975). "A New Swift from the Lower Eocene of Britain". Ibis. 117 (2): 162–164. doi:10.1111/j.1474-919x.1975.tb04203.x.
  19. ^ Larry D. Martin (1975). "A New Species of Spizaetus from the Pliocene of Nebraska" (PDF). Wilson Bulletin. 87 (3): 413–416.
  20. ^ Lawson, Douglas A. 1975. "Pterosaur from the Latest Cretaceous of West Texas: Discovery of the Largest Flying Creature." Science, 187: 947-948.
  21. ^ Richard Arnold Davis & Holmes A. Semken, Jr. (1975). "Fossils of uncertain affinity from the Upper Devonian of Iowa". Science. 187 (4173): 251–254. doi:10.1126/science.187.4173.251. JSTOR 1739069. PMID 17838783.