1976 in paleontology

Paleontology or palaeontology is the study of prehistoric life forms on Earth through the examination of plant and animal fossils.[1] This includes the study of body fossils, tracks (ichnites), burrows, cast-off parts, fossilised feces (coprolites), palynomorphs and chemical residues. Because humans have encountered fossils for millennia, paleontology has a long history both before and after becoming formalized as a science. This article records significant discoveries and events related to paleontology that occurred or were published in the year 1976.

List of years in paleontology (table)
In paleobotany
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
In arthropod paleontology
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
In paleoentomology
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
In paleomalacology
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
In reptile paleontology
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
In archosaur paleontology
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
In mammal paleontology
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
In paleoichthyology
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979

FloraEdit

CycadsEdit

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Type locality Location Notes Images

Eostangeria[2]

Gen et Sp nov

valid

Barthel

Middle-Late Eocene

Geisel valley

  Germany

An eostangerioid zamiaceous cycad.

DinosaursEdit

Data courtesy of George Olshevsky's dinosaur genera list.[3]

Newly named dinosaursEdit

Name Status Author Location Notes Image
Alioramus[4] Valid taxon A Tyrannosaur with five knobs on the snout.
Itemirus[5] Valid taxon A close relative of Velociraptor.
Marshosaurus Valid taxon
  • J. H. Madsen
A North American Megalosaur Close Relative of the Piatnitzkysaurus.
Ouranosaurus[6] Valid taxon A sail-backed Iguanodont
Zigongosaurus[7]

Disputed.

  • Hou
  • Chao
  • Chu

Possible junior synonym of Mamenchisaurus.

Newly named birdsEdit

Name Novelty Status Author Age Unit Location Notes Image

Aegialornis broweri [8]

Sp. nov.

Valid

Charles T. Collins

Eocene or Oligocene

Phosphorites du Quercy,

MP 16-28;

Geiseltal

An Apodiformes, Aegialornithidae Lydekker, 1891, transferred to the new genus Mesogiornis Mlíkovský, 2002. by Mlíkovský, 2002.[9]

Aegialornis wetmorei [8]

Sp. nov.

Valid

Charles T. Collins

Eocene or Oligocene

Phosphorites du Quercy,

MP 16-28

An Apodiformes, Aegialornithidae Lydekker, 1891, transferred to the new genus Mesogiornis Mlíkovský, 2002. by Mlíkovský, 2002.,[9] it is the type species of the new genus.

Alexornis antecedens [10]

Gen. nov. et Sp. nov.

Valid

Pierce Brodkorb

Late Cretaceous

Campanian

An Enantiornithes Walker, 1981, Alexornithiformes Brodkorb, 1976, Alexornithidae Brodkorb, 1976.

Anas soporata [11]

Sp. nov.

Valid

Evgeny N. Kurochkin

Miocene-Pliocene

Chirgiz-Nur Formation

An Anatidae, transferred to the genus Dendrocygna by Jíří Mlíkovský & Petr Švec, 1986.[12]

Anser liskunae [11]

Sp. nov.

Valid

Evgeny N. Kurochkin

Middle Pliocene

Zavhan

An Anatidae.

Apteribis glenos [13]

Gen. nov. et Sp. nov.

Valid

Storrs L. Olson

Alexander Wetmore

Holocene

25,000 Ybp

A Threskiornithidae, this is the type species of the new genus.

Aythya spatiosa [11]

Sp. nov.

Valid

Evgeny N. Kurochkin

Early Pliocene

Hyargas Nuur Formation

An Anatidae.

Apus wetmorei [14]

Sp. nov.

Valid

Peter Ballmann

Early Pliocene

Gargano,

MN 14-15

An Apodidae.

Butorides validipes [15]

Sp. nov.

Valid

Kenneth E. Campbell, Jr.

Early Pleistocene

Late Blancan

An Ardeidae.

Columba omnisanctorum [14]

Sp. nov.

Valid

Peter Ballmann

Early Pliocene

Gargano,

ppMN 14-15

A Columbidae.

Eobucco brodkorbi [16]

Gen. nov. et Sp. nov.

Valid

Alan Feduccia

Larry D. Martin

Middle Eocene

Bridger Formation

Described as a Piciformes, Primobucconidae Feduccia et Martin, 1976, now placed in the Coliiformes, Sandcileidae Houde et Olson, 1992, it is the type species of the new genus.

Gigantibis incognita [17]

Gen. nov. et Sp. nov.

Valid

Colin J. O. Harrison

Cyril A. Walker

Late Eocene

MP 17

Described as a Threskiornithidae, placed in Aves Incertae Sedis by Olson, 1981,[18] this is the type species of the new genus.

Heterochen vicinus [11]

Sp. nov.

Valid

Evgeny N. Kurochkin

Late Miocene

Hyargas Nuur Formation

An Anatidae, transferred to the genus Anser by Jíří Mlíkovský & Petr Švec, 1986,[12] and made the type species of his new genus Heteroanser by Nikita V. Zelenkov, 2012.[19]

Howardia eous [17]

Gen. nov. et Sp. nov.

Valid

Colin J. O. Harrison

Cyril A. Walker

Late Eocene

MP 17

An Anatidae, this is the type species of this new genus but it is preoccupied by Howardia Berlese et Leonardi, 1896. (Insecta: Hemiptera)so transferred to and becoming the type species of the new genus Palaeopapia Harrison et Walker, 1979 by Colin J. O. Harrison & Cyril A. Walker in 1979.[20]

Jacana farrandi [21]

Sp. nov.

Valid

Storrs L. Olson

Middle Pliocene

Alachua Formatie,

Early Hemphillian

A Jacanidae.

Macrodontopteryx oweni [22]

Gen. nov et Sp. nov.

Valid

Colin J. O. Harrison

Cyril A. Walker

Early Eocene

Ypresian,

MP 8-9

A Pelagornithidae Fürbringer, 1888, this is the typespecies of the new genus.

Milvago alexandri [23]

Sp. nov.

Valid

Storrs L. Olson

Late Pleistocene

Cave deposits

A Falconidae.

Nyctanassa kobdoena [11]

Sp. nov.

Valid

Evgeny N. Kurochkin

Late Miocene

An Ardeidae.

Ogygoptynx wetmorei [24]

Gen. nov et Sp. nov.

Valid

Patricia Vickers Rich

David J. Bohaska

Middle Paleocene

Tiffanian

A Strigiformes, Ogygoptyngidae Rich et Bohaska, 1981.,[25] this is the type species and type genus of the new genus and the new family.

Oreopholus orcesi [26]

Sp. nov.

Valid

Kenneth E. Campbell, Jr.

Pleistocene

La Carolina

A Charadriidae.

Palaeotodus emryi [27]

Gen. nov. et Sp. nov.

Valid

Storrs L. Olson

Oligocene

Brule Formation

A Todidae, this is the type species of the new genus.

Pandion homalopteron [28]

Sp. nov.

Valid

Stuart L. Warter

Middle Miocene

Barstovian

A Pandionidae.

Pelecanus aethiopicus [29]

Sp. nov.

Valid

Colin J. O. Harrison

Cyril A. Walker

Early Middle Pleistocene

Olduvai Series

A Pelecanidae.

Petropluvialis simplex [17]

Gen. nov. et Sp. nov.

Valid

Colin J. O. Harrison

Cyril A. Walker

Late Eocene

MP 17

Described in the Burhinidae, placed in Aves Incertae Sedis by Mlíkovský 2002,[9] according to Mayr et Smith, 2001 [30] closely related to Palaeopapia eous (Harrison et Walker, 1976) and possibly synonymous with this species so they place it in the Anseriformes, this is the type species of the new genus.

Phalacrocorax reliquus [11]

Sp. nov.

Valid

Evgeny N. Kurochkin

Pliocene

A Phalacrocoracidae.

Phoenicopterus aethiopicus [31]

Sp. nov.

Valid

Collin J. O. Harrison

Cyril A. Walker

Early Miocene

Rusinga Island

Maboko Island

A Phoenicopteridae, transferred to the genus Leakeyornis Vickers-Rich & Walker, 1983 by Patricia Vickers Rich & Cyril A. Walker,[32] it is the type species of the new genus.

Piscator tenuirostris [17]

Gen. nov. et Sp. nov.

Valid

Colin J. O. Harrison

Cyril A. Walker

Late Eocene

MP 17

Described in the Phalacrocoracidae, placed in Aves Incertae Sedis by Mlíkovský 2002,[9] this is the type species of the new genus.

Podilymbus wetmorei [33]

Sp. nov.

Valid

Robert W. Storer

Late Pleistocene

Rancholabrean

A Podicipedidae.

Praemancalla wetmorei [34]

Sp. nov.

Valid

Hildegarde Howard

Late Miocene

Monterey Formatie

An Alcidae, transferred to the genus Miomancalla N. A. Smith, 2011 by N. Adam Smith, 2011.[35]

Primobucco olsoni [16]

Sp. nov.

Valid

Alan Feduccia

Larry D. Martin

Early Eocene;

Middle Eocene

Green River Formation

Described as a Piciformes, Primobucconidae Feduccia et Martin, 1976, made the type species of the new genus Cyrilavis Martin, 2010 [36] and placed in the stem Psittaciformes, Halcyornithidae Harrison et Walker, 1972.

Pseudodontornis longidentata [22]

Sp. nov.

Valid

Colin J. O. Harrison

Cyril A. Walker

Early Eocene

Ypresian,

MP 8-9

A Pelagornithidae Fürbringer, 1888.

Strix? perpasta [14]

Sp. nov.

Valid

Peter Ballmann

Early Pliocene

Gargano,

MN 14-15

A Strigidae, transferred to the genus Bubo by Mlíkovský 1998.[37]

Tenuicrus magnum [17]

Gen. nov. et Sp. nov.

Valid

Colin J. O. Harrison

Cyril A. Walker

Late Eocene

MP 17

A Phoenicopteriformes, Juncitarcidae, this is the type of this new genus but it is preoccupied by Tenuicrus Womersley, 1940. (Arachnida: Acarina)so transferred to and becoming the type species of the new genus Kashinia Harrison et Walker, 1979 by Colin J. O. Harrison & Cyril A. Walker in 1979.[20]

Tetrao macropus [38]

Sp. nov.

Valid

Dénes Jánossy

Late Pliocene

MN 18

A Phasianidae.

Thambetochen chauliodous [13]

Gen. nov. et Sp. nov.

Valid

Storrs L. Olson

Alexander Wetmore

Holocene

Molokai, Oahu, Maui

The first described moa-nalo, an Anatidae.

Uintornis marionae [39]

Sp. nov.

Valid

Alan Feduccia

Larry D. Martin

Middle Eocene

Bridger Formation

Described in the Piciformes, Primobucconidae Feduccia & Martin, 1976, transferred to the Coliiformes, Sandcoleidae Houde et Olson, 1992 by Peter W. Houde & Storrs L. Olson, 1992.[40]

Villetus grandis [17]

Gen. nov. et Sp. nov.

Valid

Colin J. O. Harrison

Cyril A. Walker

Late Eocene

MP 14-16

Described in the Scolopacidae, placed in Aves Incertae Sedis by Mlíkovský 2002,[9] this is the type species of the new genus.

Villetus waltoni [17]

Sp. nov.

Valid

Colin J. O. Harrison

Cyril A. Walker

Late Eocene

MP 14-16

Described in the Scolopacidae, placed in Aves Incertae Sedis by Mlíkovský 2002.[9]

PlesiosaursEdit

New taxaEdit

Name Status Authors Notes

Georgia[41]

Valid

Otschev

preoccupied by a genus of mollusk, renamed to Georgiasaurus in 1977

Valid

SynapsidsEdit

Non-mammalianEdit

Name Status Author Discovery year Age Unit Location Notes Image

Valid

Valid

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Gini-Newman, Garfield; Graham, Elizabeth (2001). Echoes from the past: world history to the 16th century. Toronto: McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd. ISBN 9780070887398. OCLC 46769716.
  2. ^ Barthel, M (1976). Eozäne Floren des Geiseltales: Farne und Cycadeen. Abhandlungen des Zentralen Geologischen Institutes. Paläontol Ab-handl.
  3. ^ Olshevsky, George. "Dinogeorge's Dinosaur Genera List". Archived from the original on 2011-07-15. Retrieved 2008-08-07.
  4. ^ Kurzanov, S.M. 1976. A new Late Cretaceous carnosaur from Nogon-Tsav, Mongolia [in Russian]. Sovm. Sov.-Mong. Paleontol. Eksped. Trudy 3: pp. 93-104.
  5. ^ Kurzanov, S.M. 1976. Braincase structure in the carnosaur Itemirus n. gen. and some aspects of the cranial anatomy of dinosaurs. Paleontol. Zhurnal 1976: pp. 127-137.
  6. ^ Taquet, P. 1977. Dinosaurs of Niger. Nigerina Field 42 (1): pp. 1-8.
  7. ^ Hou, L., X. Chao, and (first name?) Chu. 1976. New discovery of sauropod dinosaurs from Sichuan. Vertebrata PalAsiatica 14: pp. 160- 165.
  8. ^ a b Charles T. Collins (1976). "A Review of the Lower Miocene Swifts (Aves: Apodiae)" (PDF). In Collected Papers in Avian Paleontology Honoring the 90th Birthday of Alexander Wetmore Ed.: Storrs. L. Olson; Smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiology. 27: 129–132.
  9. ^ a b c d e f Jírí Mlíkovský (2002). "Cenozoic Birds of the World Part 1: Europe" (PDF). Praha Ninox Press: 1–407. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-05-20. Retrieved 2014-09-13.
  10. ^ Pierce Brodkorb (1976). "Discovery of a Cretaceous Bird, Apparently Ancestral to the Orders Coraciiformes and Piciformes" (PDF). In Collected Papers in Avian Paleontology Honoring the 90th Birthday of Alexander Wetmore Ed.: Storrs. L. Olson; Smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiology. 27: 67–73.
  11. ^ a b c d e f Evgeny N. Kurochkin (1976). "[New Data on Paleocene Birds of Western Mongolia]". Transactions of the Joint Soviet-Mongolian Paleontological Expedition. 3 (4): 51–67.
  12. ^ a b Jíří Mlíkovský & Petr Švec (1986). "Review of the Tertiary Waterfowl (Aves: Anseridae) of Asia" (PDF). Vestnik Ceskoslovenske Spolecnosti Zoologicke. 50: 249–272. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-03-03. Retrieved 2014-09-25.
  13. ^ a b Storrs L. Olson & Alexander Wetmore (1976). "Preliminary Diagnoses of Two Extraordinary New Genera of Birds from Pleistocene Deposits in the Hawaiian Islands" (PDF). Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington. 89: 247–258. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2014-09-13. Retrieved 2014-09-13.
  14. ^ a b c Peter Ballmann (1976). "Fossile Vögel aus dem Neogen der Halbinsel Gargano (Italien) Zweiter Teil". Scripta Geologica. 38: 1–59.
  15. ^ Kenneth E. Campbell, Jr. (1976). "An Early Pleistoceen Avifauna from Haile XVA, Florida" (PDF). Wilson Bulletin. 88 (2): 345–347.
  16. ^ a b Alan Feduccia & Larry D. Martin (1976). "The Eocene Zygodactyl Birds of North America (Aves: Piciformes)" (PDF). In Collected Papers in Avian Paleontology Honoring the 90th Birthday of Alexander Wetmore Ed.: Storrs. L. Olson; Smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiology. 27: 101–110.
  17. ^ a b c d e f g Colin J. O. Harrison & Cyril A. Walker (1976). "Birds of the British Upper Eocene". Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society. 59 (4): 323–351. doi:10.1111/j.1096-3642.1976.tb01017.x.
  18. ^ Storrs L. Olson (1981). "The Generic Allocation of Ibis pagana Milne-Edwards, with A Review of the Fossil Ibises (Aves: Threskiornithidae)" (PDF). Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 1 (2): 165–170. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.510.7434. doi:10.1080/02724634.1981.10011888.
  19. ^ Nikita V. Zelenkov (2012). "Neogene Geese and Ducks (Aves: Anatidae) from Localities of the Great Lakes Depression, Western Mongolia". Paleontological Journal. 46 (11): 607–619. doi:10.1134/S0031030112060123. S2CID 84232041.
  20. ^ a b Colin J. O. Harrison & Cyril A. Walker (1979). "New Names for Two Upper Eocene Bird Genera". Tertiary Research. 2 (3): 110.
  21. ^ Storrs L. Olson (1976). "A Jacana from the Pliocene of Florida (Aves: Jacanide)" (PDF). Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington. 89: 259–264.[permanent dead link]
  22. ^ a b Colin J. O. Harrison & Cyril A. Walker (1976). "A Review of the Bony-Toothed Birds (Odontopterygiformes): with the Description of Some New Species". Tertiary Research Special Papers. 2: 1–72.
  23. ^ Storrs L. Olson (1976). "A New Species of Milvago from Hispaniola, with Notes on Other Fossil Caracaras from the West Indies (Aves: Falconidae)" (PDF). Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington. 88 (3): 355–366.[permanent dead link]
  24. ^ Patricia Vickers Rich & David J. Bohaska (1976). "The World's Oldest Owl: A New Strigiform from the Paleocene of Southwestern Colorado" (PDF). In Collected Papers in Avian Paleontology Honoring the 90th Birthday of Alexander Wetmore Ed.: Storrs. L. Olson; Smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiology. 27: 87–93.
  25. ^ Patricia Vickers Rich & David J. Bohaska (1981). "The Ogygoptyngidae, a New Family of Owls from the Paleocene of North America" (PDF). Alcheringa. 5 (2): 95–102. doi:10.1080/03115518108565424. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2020-07-27. Retrieved 2022-05-14.
  26. ^ Kenneth E. Campbell, Jr. (1976). "The Late Pleistocene Avifauna of La Carolina, Southwestern Ecuador" (PDF). In Collected Papers in Avian Paleontology Honoring the 90th Birthday of Alexander Wetmore Ed.: Storrs. L. Olson; Smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiology. 27: 155–168.
  27. ^ Storrs L. Olson (1976). "Oligocene Fossils Bearing on the Origins of the Todidae and the Motmotidae (Aves: Coraciiformes)" (PDF). In Collected Papers in Avian Paleontology Honoring the 90th Birthday of Alexander Wetmore Ed.: Storrs. L. Olson; Smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiology. 27 (27): 111–119. doi:10.5479/si.00810266.27.1.
  28. ^ Stuart L. Warter (1976). "A New Osprey from the Miocene of California (Falconiformes: Pandionidae)" (PDF). In Collected Papers in Avian Paleontology Honoring the 90th Birthday of Alexander Wetmore Ed.: Storrs. L. Olson; Smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiology. 27: 133–139.
  29. ^ Colin J. O. Harrison & Cyril A. Walker (1976). "A New Fossil Pelican from Olduvai". Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History), Geology Series. 27 (4): 315–320. doi:10.5962/p.313817.
  30. ^ Gerald Mayr & Richard Smith (2001). "Ducks, Rails and Limicoline Waders (Aves: Anseriformes, Gruiformes, Charadriiformes) from the Lowermost Oligocene of Belgium" (PDF). Praha Ninox Press. 34 (5): 547–561. doi:10.1016/s0016-6995(01)80069-3.
  31. ^ Collin J. O. Harrison & Cyril A. Walker (1976). "Cranial Material of Oligocene and Miocene Flamingos: With a Description of a New Species". Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History), Geology Series. 27: 305–314. doi:10.5962/p.313816.
  32. ^ Patricia Vickers Rich & Cyril A. Walker (1983). "A New Genus of Miocene Flamingo from East Africa". Ostrich. 54 (2): 95–104. doi:10.1080/00306525.1983.9634452.
  33. ^ Robert W. Storer (1976). "The Pleistocene Pied-billed Grebes (Aves: Podicipedidae)" (PDF). In Collected Papers in Avian Paleontology Honoring the 90th Birthday of Alexander Wetmore Ed.: Storrs. L. Olson; Smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiology. 27: 147–153.
  34. ^ Hildegarde Howard (1976). "A New Species of Flightless Auk from the Miocene of California (Alcidae: Mancallinae)" (PDF). In Collected Papers in Avian Paleontology Honoring the 90th Birthday of Alexander Wetmore Ed.: Storrs. L. Olson; Smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiology. 27: 141–146.
  35. ^ N. Adam Smith (2011). "Taxonomic Revision and Phylogenetic Analysis of the Flightless Mancallinae (Aves, Pan-Alcidae)" (PDF). ZooKeys (91): 1–116. doi:10.3897/zookeys.91.709. PMC 3084493. PMID 21594108. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2014-10-20. Retrieved 2014-09-25.
  36. ^ Larry D. Martin (2010). "Paleogene Avifauna of the Holarctic" (PDF). Vertebrata PalAsiatica. 48 (4): 367–374.
  37. ^ Jíří Mlíkovský (1998). "Two New Owls (Aves: Strigidae) from the Early Miocene of the Czech Republic, with Comments on the Fossil History of the Subfamily Striginae" (PDF). Buteo. 10: 5–21.
  38. ^ Dénes Jánossy (1976). "Plio-Pleistocene Bird Remains from the Carpathian Basin. I. Galliformes. 1. Tetraonidae". Aquila. 82: 13–36.
  39. ^ Alan Feduccia & Larry D. Martin (1976). "The Eocene Zygodactyl Birds of North America (Aves: Piciformes)" (PDF). In Collected Papers in Avian Paleontology Honoring the 90th Birthday of Alexander Wetmore Ed.: Storrs. L. Olson; Smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiology. 27: 101–110.
  40. ^ Peter W. Houde & Storrs L. Olson (1992). "A Radiation of Coly-like Birds from the Eocene of North America (Aves: Sandcoleiformes New Order)" (PDF). In Papers in Avian Paleontology Honoring Pierce Brodkorb. Ed: Jonathan J. Becker, Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County, Science Series. 36: 137–160.
  41. ^ Otschev, V.G. (1977). "A substitution for the preoccupied name Georgia penzensis". Paleontological Journal. 11: 118.