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System/
Period
Series/
Epoch
Stage/
Age
Age (Ma)
Cretaceous Lower/
Early
Berriasian younger
Jurassic Upper/
Late
Tithonian ~145.0 152.1
Kimmeridgian 152.1 157.3
Oxfordian 157.3 163.5
Middle Callovian 163.5 166.1
Bathonian 166.1 168.3
Bajocian 168.3 170.3
Aalenian 170.3 174.1
Lower/
Early
Toarcian 174.1 182.7
Pliensbachian 182.7 190.8
Sinemurian 190.8 199.3
Hettangian 199.3 201.3
Triassic Upper/
Late
Rhaetian older
Subdivision of the Jurassic system
according to the ICS, as of 2017.[1]

In the geologic timescale, the Kimmeridgian is an age or stage in the Late or Upper Jurassic epoch or series. It spans the time between 157.3 ± 1.0 Ma and 152.1 ± 0.9 Ma (million years ago). The Kimmeridgian follows the Oxfordian and precedes the Tithonian.[2]

Contents

Stratigraphic definitionEdit

The Kimmeridgian stage takes its name from the village of Kimmeridge on the Dorset coast, England. The name was introduced in literature by Swiss geologist Jules Thurmann in 1832.[citation needed] The Kimmeridge Clay Formation has its name from the same type location. It is the source for about 95% of the petroleum in the North Sea.[citation needed]

Historically, the term Kimmeridgian has been used in two different ways. The base of the interval is the same but the top was defined by British stratigraphers as the base of the Portlandian (sensu anglico) whereas in France the top was defined as the base of the Tithonian (sensu gallico). The differences have not yet been fully resolved; As of 2004 Tithonian is the uppermost stage of the Jurassic in the timescale of the ICS.[3]

The base of the Kimmeridgian is at the first appearance of ammonite species Pictonia baylei in the stratigraphic column.[4] A global reference profile for the base (the GSSP of the Kimmeridgian stage) had in 2009 not yet been assigned.[citation needed] The top of the Kimmeridgian (the base of the Tithonian) is at the first appearance of ammonite species Hybonoticeras hybonotum. It also coincides with the top of magnetic anomaly M22An.[4]

SubdivisionEdit

The Kimmeridgian is sometimes[weasel words] subdivided into Upper and Lower substages.[citation needed] In the Tethys domain, the Kimmeridgian contains seven ammonite biozones:[citation needed]

PalaeontologyEdit

†AnkylosaursEdit

Ankylosaurs of the Kimmeridgian
Taxa Presence Location Description Images
Morrison Formation, Wyoming, USA The smallest and the earliest well-known ankylosaur. Its skull measures only 29 cm in length, and its total body length is an estimated three to four meters.
 
Gargoyleosaurus skeleton
  • Mymoorapelta maysi
Morrison Formation, Colorado, USA A poorly known early ankylosaurian.

BirdsEdit

Birds of the Kimmeridgian
Taxa Presence Location Description Images
  • Archaeopteryx lithographica
 
Life restoration of Archaeopteryx lithographica

†OrnithopodsEdit

Ornithopoda of the Kimmeridgian
Taxa Presence Location Description Images
Kimmeridgian to Tithonian Wyoming, USA Camptosaurus could be more than 7.9 meters (26 feet) long, and 2.0 meters (6.6 feet) tall at the hips. It had heavy bodies but, as well as walking on four legs (quadrupedal), they could rear up to walk on two legs (bipedal). This genus is probably closely related to the ancestor of the later iguanodontid and hadrosaurid dinosaurs. It probably ate cycads with its parrot-like beak.
 
Camptosaurus
 
Othnielosaurus

†PlesiosaursEdit

Plesiosaurs of the Kimmeridgian
Taxa Presence Location Description Images
 
Liopleurodon
Bajocian-Tithonian

†SauropodsEdit

Sauropods of the Kimmeridgian
Taxa Presence Location Description Images
  • Amphicoelias
 
Europasaurus holgeri
  • Europasaurus holgeri
Kimmeridge Clay Formation, England
Morrison Formation, Colorado
Kimmeridge Clay Formation, Dorset, England The genus is preoccupied by a name Edward Drinker Cope coined in 1869.

†StegosaursEdit

Stegosaurs of the Kimmeridgian
Taxa Presence Location Description Images
England and France A large stegosaurid
 
Dacentrurus
 
Stegosaurus
Upper Shaximiao Formation, Sichuan, China Had relatively small dorsal plates and greatly enlarged shoulder spines, twice the length of the shoulder blades. Estimated to have been about 4 metres long.
Morrison Formation, Wyoming, USA Had alternating plates on its back and four spikes on its tail. Appears more closely related to Dacentrurus than Stegosaurus.
Tanzania A 4 meter long stegosaurian with spikes on its flanks. The length of the thigh bone compared with the rest of the leg indicates that Kentrosaurus was a slow and inactive dinosaur.
Loe-ein Formation, Tibet, China The fragmentary condition of the only known skeleton places doubt on the validity of this genus
Kimmeridgian to Early Tithonian Morrison Formation, Colorado, Utah, Wyoming, USA Averaging around 9 metres (30 feet) long and 4 metres (13 feet) tall, the quadrupedal Stegosaurus is one of the most easily identifiable dinosaurs, due to the distinctive double row of kite-shaped plates rising vertically along its arched back and the two pairs of long spikes extending horizontally near the end of its tail.

†ThalattosuchiansEdit

Thalattosuchians of the Kimmeridgian
Taxa Presence Location Description Images
C. suevicus
Germany A relatively small metriorhynchid genus.
 
Dakosaurus, a marine crocodilian.
 
Metriorhynchus, a marine crocodilian.
D. maximus
Germany type species of the genus, is known from Western Europe (England, France, Switzerland and Germany) of the Late Jurassic (Late Kimmeridgian-Early Tithonian).
  1. M. geoffroyii
  2. M. hastifer
England, France and Switzerland An opportunistic carnivore that fed on fish, belemnites and other marine animals and possible carrion. Metriorhynchus grew to an average adult length of 3 meters (9.8 feet).
  1. T. carpenteri
  2. T. coryphaeus
  3. T. mexicanus
Kimmeridge Clay Formation, Wiltshire, England; Oaxaca, Mexico

†Theropods (non-avian)Edit

Non-avian theropods of the Kimmeridgian
Taxa Presence Location Description Images
 
Allosaurus
 
Ceratosaurus
 
Elaphrosaurus
 
Torvosaurus
  • Aviatyrannis jurassica
Guimarota Mine, Portugal Small 5 kg tyrannosauroid. Avityrannis along with Stokesosaurus represents the oldest known tyrannosauroids.
  • Coelurus fragilis
Morrison Formation, Wyoming Small theropod about 2 metres in length
  • Elaphrosaurus bambergi
Tendaguru Beds, Tanzania Probably a ceratosaur about 6 meters long
  • Marshosaurus bicentesimus
Cleveland-Lloyd Quarry, Brushy Basin Member, Morrison Formation, Utah and possibly Colorado
  • Tanycolagreus topwilsoni
Morrison Formation, Wyoming
  • Torvosaurus tanneri
  • Torvosaurus gurneyi

NautiloidsEdit

Nautiloids of the Kimmeridgian
Taxa Presence Location Description Images
 
An illustration of a variety of fossil nautiloids.

†AmmonitesEdit

Ammonites of the Kimmeridgian
Taxa Presence Location Description Images
 
Lithacosphinctes achilles.

†BelemnitesEdit

Belemnites of the Kimmeridgian
Taxa Presence Location Description Images
 
Small belemnite fossils

Palaeontological sitesEdit

ReferencesEdit

NotesEdit

LiteratureEdit

  • Gradstein, F.M.; Ogg, J.G. & Smith, A.G.; 2004: A Geologic Time Scale 2004, Cambridge University Press.
  • Thurmann, J.; 1832: Sur Les Soulèvemens Jurassiques Du Porrentruy: Description Géognostique de la Série Jurassique et Théorie Orographique du Soulèvement, Mémoires de la Société d'histoire naturelle de Strasbourg 1: pp 1–84, F. G. Levrault, Paris.(in French)

External linksEdit