Wuppertal (German pronunciation: [ˈvʊpɐtaːl] (listen)) is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, in and around the Wupper valley, east of Düsseldorf and south of the Ruhr. With a population of approximately 350,000, it is the largest city in the Bergisches Land. Wuppertal is known for its steep slopes, its woods and parks, and its suspension railway, the Wuppertal Schwebebahn. It is the greenest city of Germany, with two-thirds green space of the total municipal area. From any part of the city, it is only a ten-minute walk to one of the public parks or woodland paths.
2004 view of Wuppertal
|• Lord Mayor||Andreas Mucke (SPD)|
|• Governing parties||SPD|
|• City||168.41 km2 (65.02 sq mi)|
|Elevation||100-350 m (−1,050 ft)|
|• Density||2,100/km2 (5,500/sq mi)|
|• Urban||608,000 (Bergisches Dreieck)|
|• Metro||11,300,000 (Rhein-Ruhr)|
|Time zone||CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2)|
In the 18th and 19th centuries, the Wupper valley was one of the largest industrial regions of continental Europe. The increasing demand for coal from the textile mills and blacksmith shops encouraged the expansion of the nearby Ruhrgebiet. Wuppertal still is a major industrial centre, being home to industries such as textiles, metallurgy, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, electronics, automobiles, rubber, vehicles and printing equipment.
The Wuppertal Institute for Climate, Environment and Energy and the European Institute for International Economic Relations are located in the city.
- 1 History
- 2 Main sights
- 3 Wuppertal in the arts
- 4 Notable people from Wuppertal
- 5 Sports
- 6 Education
- 7 Transport
- 8 Controversy
- 9 International relations
- 10 Photo gallery
- 11 See also
- 12 Notes and references
- 13 External links
Wuppertal in its present borders was formed in 1929 by merging the industrial cities of Barmen and Elberfeld with the communities Vohwinkel, Ronsdorf, Cronenberg, Langerfeld and Beyenburg. The initial name Barmen-Elberfeld was changed in a 1930 referendum to Wuppertal (“Wupper Valley”). The new city was administered as part of the Prussian Rhine Province.
Uniquely for Germany, it is a "linear city", owing to the steep hillsides along the river Wupper. Its highest hill is the Lichtscheid, which is 351 metres above sea level. The dominant urban centres Elberfeld (historic commercial centre) and Barmen (more industrial) have formed a continuous urbanized area since 1850. During the succeeding decades, “Wupper-Town” became the dominant industrial agglomeration of northwestern Germany. During the 20th century, this conurbation had been surpassed by Cologne, Düsseldorf and the Ruhr area, all with a more favourable topography.
From July 5, 1933 to January 19, 1934, the Kemna concentration camp was established in Wuppertal. It was one of the early Nazi concentration camps, created by the Third Reich to incarcerate their political opponents after the Nazi Party first gained power in 1933. The camp was established in a former factory on the Wupper in the Kemna neighborhood of the Barmen part of Wuppertal. Wuppertal is famous as an important place of resistance in Germany. The Barmen Declaration or the Theological Declaration of Barmen was a document adopted by Christians in Nazi Germany who opposed the Deutsche Christen philosophy. In the opinion of the delegates to the Synod that met in Wuppertal-Barmen in May 1934, the German Christians had corrupted church government by making it subservient to the state and had introduced Nazi ideology into the German Protestant churches that contradicted the Christian gospel.
During World War II, about 40% of buildings in the city were destroyed by Allied bombing, as were many other German cities and industrial centres. However, a large number of historic sites have been preserved, such as:
- Ölberg, literally “Oil mountain”, Germany’s largest original working class district, is protected as a historic monument. The name came about during the 1920s as the district continued using oil lamps while the surrounding bourgeois residential quarters were electrified. In traditional use, the name "Ölberg" refers to the Mount of Olives in Jerusalem.
- Brill is one of Germany’s largest districts of Gründerzeit villas, i.e. middle class mansions built by industrial entrepreneurs during the second half of the 19th century.
The US 78th Infantry Division under Major general Edwin P. Parker Jr. captured Wuppertal against scant resistance on April 16, 1945. Wuppertal became a part of the British Zone of Occupation, and subsequently part of the new state of North Rhine-Westphalia in West Germany.
Population development since 1929:
Largest groups of foreign residents by 31.12.2017
Main sights include:
- Schwebebahn or floating tram. One of the city’s greatest attractions is the globally unique suspended monorail Wuppertaler Schwebebahn, which was established in 1901. The tracks are 8 m (26.25 ft) above the streets and 12 m (39.37 ft) above the Wupper. In 1950, a young elephant named Tuffi was forced to ride the Wuppertal Schwebebahn (monorail), as a promotion for the Althoff Circus. The swinging tram upset the elephant, and she trumpeted, charged, and plummeted 40 feet into the river below. Tuffi suffered minor injuries; she lived until 1989. In 1999, the Schwebebahn had its thus far only fatal accident.
- Wuppertaler Schwebebahn Kaiserwagen A guided tour of the suspension railway in a special tram.
- Wuppertal Opera (Opernhaus Wuppertal).
- Concerthall Stadthalle , a fine piece of turn-of-the-century architecture with outstanding acoustics. Home of the Wuppertal Symphony Orchestra (Sinfonieorchester Wuppertal) (Stadthalle).
- Wuppertal Dance Theatre (Tanztheater Wuppertal), a world-famous centre of modern dance founded by the choreographer Pina Bausch.
- Engels' house (Engels-Haus), 18th century-architecturally typical of the region, it houses a permanent display of materials associated with the co-founder of modern Communism, Friedrich Engels.
- Wuppertal Zoo, a large, nicely landscaped zoo.
- Botanischer Garten Wuppertal, a municipal botanical garden.
- Arboretum Burgholz, an extensive arboretum.
- Von der Heydt Museum is an important art gallery with works from the 17th century to the present time. The first of Picasso’s works that ever appeared in public was displayed here.
- Skulpturenpark Waldfrieden, a sculpture park with exhibition hall, founded by sculptor Tony Cragg.
Wuppertal in the artsEdit
- In the 1974 Wim Wenders movie Alice in the Cities, the main characters visit Wuppertal.
- Part of the action of Le Feu de Wotan (1984) of the comic book Yoko Tsuno series by Roger Leloup take place in Wuppertal and its Schwebebahn.
- The play Die Wupper by Else Lasker-Schüler is set in Elberfeld.
- The 2000 movie The Princess and the Warrior, by Tom Tykwer, was filmed in Wuppertal.
- The 2001 movie No Regrets (Nichts Bereuen), by Benjamin Quabeck, was filmed in Wuppertal.
- In the 2011 movie Pina, several of the dance sequences take place in and around Wuppertal. In several sequences, the elevated tram is used as a setting, as well as a backdrop.
Notable people from WuppertalEdit
- Pina Bausch, one of the most significant choreographers of our time. Born in Solingen, died in Wuppertal, she brought international fame to the Wuppertal Dance Theater.
- Friedrich Bayer, (1825–1880), founder of the Friedrich Bayer paint factory, later Bayer AG.
- Greta Bösel (1908–1947), German concentration camp guard executed for war crimes
- Arno Breker, (1900–1991), German sculptor.
- Peter Brötzmann, (born 1941), free jazz musician.
- Rudolf Carnap, (1891–1970), philosopher of science.
- Udo Dirkschneider, singer of heavy-metal band Accept and U.D.O.
- George Dreyfus, bassoonist, composer.
- Hermann Ebbinghaus, psychologist who studied memory.
- Friedrich Engels, (1820–1895), philosopher, historian, coauthor of The Communist Manifesto (with Karl Marx).
- Daniel Gerlach (born 1977), journalist
- Christoph Maria Herbst, (born 1966), German actor and comedian.
- Carolina Hermann, (born 1988), figure skater
- Felix Hoffmann, (1868–1946), German scientist born in Ludwigsburg, inventor of Aspirin while working in Wuppertal at Bayer.
- Werner Hoyer, (born 1951), politician (FDP), President of the European Investment Bank
- Ignaz Kirchner (1946–2018), actor
- Linda Kisabaka, (born 1969), middle distance runner.
- Hans Knappertsbusch, (1888–1965), orchestra conductor.
- Peter Kowald, (1944–2002), free jazz musician.
- Hans Peter Luhn, (1896–1964), computer scientist.
- Else Lasker-Schüler, (1869–1945), expressionist poet.
- Harald Leipnitz, (1926-2000), actor.
- Kurt Franz, (1914–1998), former SS Officer of the Treblinka extermination camp, major perpetrator of genocide during the Holocaust. Born in Düsseldorf, died in Wuppertal.
- Ulrich Leyendecker, composer.
- Reimar Lüst, astrophysicist.
- Hans Moller, painter.
- Steffen Möller, satirist, and actor in Poland.
- Sylkie Monoff, international singer-songwriter.
- Simone Osygus, swimmer.
- Siegfried Palm, cellist, director of Hochschule für Musik Köln, Intendant of Deutsche Oper Berlin.
- Julius Plücker, physicist.
- Kolja Pusch, (born 1993), football player
- Johannes Rau, (1931–2006), German politician (SPD), former Federal President of Germany.
- Hans Reichel, (1949–2011), German composer, recording artist, and inventor of the Daxophone.
- Emil Rittershaus (1834 – 1897), German poet.
- Alice Schwarzer, (born 1942), one of the leaders of the German second wave feminism.
- Annette Seiltgen (born 1964), operatic singer
- Hans Singer, economist.
- Ilse Steppat, actress.
- Rita Süssmuth, former President of the German Parliament.
- Horst Tappert, (1923–2008), German actor.
- Helmut Thielicke, theologian.
- Stephen Timoshenko, (1878–1972), Russian engineer and academician.
- Udo Dirkschneider, musician Accept.
- Bettina Tietjen, (born 1960), television presenter.
- Tom Tykwer, (born 1965), movie director (Run Lola, Run, The Princess and the Warrior), cofounder of syndicate X-Filme.
- Günter Wand, (1912–2002), composer and orchestra conductor.
- Ute Vinzing, (born 1936), opera singer (soprano)
- Henrik Freischlader, (born 1982), blues guitarist, singer, songwriter, producer.
- Wolf Hoffmann, (born 1959), metal guitarist, initiator of the musical band Accept.
- Armin T. Wegner (1886-1978), soldier, medic, human rights activist
In football, Wuppertal's most popular club is Wuppertaler SV who currently play in the Regionalliga West, the fourth tier of the German football league system. Playing their home games at the city's Stadion am Zoo, the club, which enjoyed its last season in a nationwide division during the 2009–10 season, looks back on a rich and eventful history since its establishment as the result of a 1954 merger between the two main Wuppertal clubs SSV 04 Wuppertal and TSG Vohwinkel 80. The club spent a total of seven seasons in the top flight of German football, three of which in the Bundesliga, which they were promoted to during 1972. In their first season in the nationwide first division, the club reached a remarkable fourth place and qualified for the UEFA Cup for the first and only time in its history. After a first-round defeat by Polish side Ruch Chorzów and another two widely unsuccessful Bundesliga campaigns, the club disappeared from the top flight again, though, and has yet to return.
During 2004, the club merged with local rivals SV Borussia Wuppertal to form Wuppertaler SV Borussia, though the name change remained the only visible attribute of the merger with the club's colours and crest remaining unaltered. The additional "Borussia" was scrapped again during 2013 due to fans' demand amidst a change of leadership which was brought about to lead the club through necessary insolvency proceedings which have been completed as of September 2014.
Another noteworthy Wuppertal football club is Cronenberger SC from the district of Cronenberg. Their greatest success to date is reaching the 1952 German amateur football championship final which they lost 5–2 against VfR Schwenningen. Today, they play one tier below WSV in the Oberliga Nordrhein.
Famous players include Günter Pröpper who scored 39 of WSV's 136 Bundesliga goals and West Germany international Horst Szymaniak, as well as Cronenberg's Herbert Jäger who represented Germany at the 1952 Summer Olympics in Helsinki during his stay with the club.
In handball, Wuppertal's most successful team is Bergischer HC, playing in the top-tier Handball-Bundesliga which they were promoted to for the second time during 2013, reaching 15th place during the 2013–14 campaign and therefore staying among the top scorers for a second consecutive season. BHC originates from a 2006 cooperation between the management, squad and main sponsor of LTV Wuppertal and rivals SG Solingen from the nearby city of the same name. The club advertises itself as a representative of the entire Bergisches Land region. The team plays its home games at both Wuppertal's Uni-Halle (3,200 seats) and Solingen's Klingenhalle (2,600 seats).
Wuppertal's past most successful club are the aforementioned LTV Wuppertal. LTV spent most of their seasons in the second and third tiers, before they merged with Wuppertaler SV's handball section in 1996 to form HSG LTV/WSV Wuppertal. The handball combination was promoted to the Bundesliga after its inaugural season, finishing 8th before dissolving again in 1998. However, the mere departure of Wuppertaler SV still allowed LTV Wuppertal, whose professional team were renamed HC Wuppertal, to play another three seasons in the Bundesliga before returning to the 2nd division and re-introducing its old name. After the establishment of BHC in 2006, LTV lost its financial base and was relegated several times, currently playing in the fifth-tier Verbandsliga.
In volleyball, SV Bayer Wuppertal was one of Germany's leading men's teams for many years during the 1990s and 2000s. The team was part of the well-known mass-sports club originating in Leverkusen and was promoted to the Bundesliga in 1978. Reacting to low attendances, the eponymous Bayer AG decided to relocate the volleyball team to Wuppertal in 1992, where there also was a Bayer-funded club. After the move, the club won various titles, including the German championship in 1994 and 1997 and the German Cup in 1995. In addition to that, they finished runners-up to Greek side Olympiacos S.C. in the 1995-96 European Cup Winners' Cup, losing the final in five sets.
After the wide-reaching retreat of Bayer AG from less popular professional sport during 2008, the club acquired the name Wuppertal Titans and later A!B!C Titans Berg. Land. However, the loss of their main sponsor eventually resulted in the team having to terminate during 2012. Presently, they once more play by the name of Bayer Wuppertal in the third-tier Regionalliga, unable to promote with their current financial set-up.
Perhaps one of the most successful Wuppertal sports clubs was the women's basketball team of Barmer TV (known as BTV Wuppertal between 1994 and 2000, BTV Gold-Zack Wuppertal between 2000 and 2002 and Wuppertal Wings internationally). An 11-time German champion and 12-time German Cup winner, they won a remarkable ten consecutive doubles between 1993 and 2002. During 1996, they even won the European Cup as the first and so far only German side, beating Italy's SFT Como in the final. A year later, they narrowly missed out on back-to-back trebles, losing to French side CJM Bourges in the newly christened EuroLeague's final.
In 2002, the club withdrew from the Bundesliga due to financial troubles, their then-main sponsor Gold-Zack Werke filing for insolvency a year later. After a decade-long stay in amateur divisions, Barmer TV returned to the second-tier 2nd Bundesliga North in 2014.
Wuppertal co-hosted the 1998 FIBA World Championship for Women as one of seven host cities.
In roller hockey (also known as rink hockey), Wuppertal club RSC Cronenberg are one of the most successful German teams, having won the German championship and the German Cup in both men's and women's competitions. In total, the men won 13 German championships and nine cups, the women ten championships and nine cups. Both teams play their home games at Alfred-Henckels-Halle.
Four institutions of higher education are in Wuppertal.
- University of Wuppertal (Bergische Universität Wuppertal)
- FOM University of Applied Sciences
- Cologne University of Music, section Wuppertal
- College of Theology, Wuppertal/Bethel (Theologische Zentrum Wuppertal)
The privately financed Junior Uni is a unique German initiative to educate youth from the age of 4 to 18 in science outside the school program.>"Official website Junior Uni Wuppertal - Bergisches Land" (in German). Retrieved March 14, 2013.</ref>
Wuppertal is well connected to the rail network. The town lies on the Cologne–Hagen and the Düsseldorf–Hagen railway lines, and is a stop for long-distance traffic. The central station is located in the district of Elberfeld. Regionalbahn trains and some Regional-Express trains also stop at Oberbarmen, Barmen, Ronsdorf and Vohwinkel. There are also S-Bahn stations in Langerfeld, Unterbarmen, Steinbeck, Zoologischer Garten and Sonnborn.
The rail services that operate on the mainline through the valley are the RE 4 (Wupper-Express), RE 7 (Rhein-Münsterland-Express), RE 13 (Maas-Wupper-Express), RB 48 (Rhein-Wupper Bahn) and four Rhine-Ruhr S-Bahn services: the S 7, S 8, S 9 and S 68 (peak hours only). Every 30 minutes, it is served by a long-distance (Intercity-Express, InterCity, EuroCity or City Night Line) service in each direction.
With the exception of the line from Wuppertal to Solingen (operated as the S 7) and the Prince William Railway to Essen (now S-Bahn line S 9), all of the branch lines connecting to main line in the city of Wuppertal are now closed. This includes, among others, the Düsseldorf-Derendorf–Dortmund Süd railway (the Wuppertaler Nordbahn), the Burgholz Railway, the Wuppertal-Wichlinghausen–Hattingen railway, the Wupper Valley Railway and the Corkscrew Railway. Thus, there were once 31 stations in the Wuppertal area, including nine stations on the mainline. Nowadays only ten are serviced any more.
There is also the Wuppertal Suspension Railway
In July 2014, three Palestinians living in Germany tried to damage the Wuppertal synagogue with molotov cocktails. A year later, a court found them guilty of attempted arson, the crime was motivated by anti-Semitism, and sentenced the men to 200 hours of community service. The court said the three men wanted to draw “attention to the Gaza conflict” with Israel. In January 2017, a regional appeals court upheld the decision, calling the arson attempt a justified expression of criticism of Israel’s policies.
Twin towns — sister citiesEdit
Wuppertal is twinned with:
Notes and referencesEdit
- "Bevölkerung der Gemeinden Nordrhein-Westfalens am 31. Dezember 2018" (in German). Landesbetrieb Information und Technik NRW. Retrieved 10 July 2019.
- Marvin Brendel. "110 Jahre Aspirin" (in German). GeschichtsPuls. Retrieved May 22, 2011.
- "Official website Vorwerk - Kobold vacuum cleaners". Retrieved May 22, 2011.
- "Official website European Institute for International Economic Relations". Retrieved March 2, 2013.
- Stanton, Shelby, World War II Order of Battle: An Encyclopedic Reference to U.S. Army Ground Forces from Battalion through Division, 1939-1946, Stackpole Books (Revised Edition 2006), p. 147
- de:Einwohnerentwicklung von Wuppertal
- Martin Verdächtigte Palästinenser gestehen - Geständnis zum Brandanschlag auf Wuppertaler Synagoge, Abendzeitung vom 14. Januar 2015
- Weinthal, Benjamin (February 7, 2015). "German Judge: Torching of Synagogue Not Motivated by Anti-Semitism". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved June 1, 2018.
- Weinthal, Benjamin (January 13, 2017). "German Court Calls Synagogue Torching An Act to Criticize Israel". The Jerusalem Post.
- "Twin cities of the City of Kosice". Magistrát mesta Košice, Tr. Retrieved July 27, 2013.