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Veszprém (Hungarian pronunciation: [ˈvɛspreːm]; German: Weißbrunn, Slovene: Belomost) is one of the oldest urban areas in Hungary, and a city with county rights. It lies approximately 15 km (9 mi) north of the Lake Balaton. It is the administrative center of the county (comitatus or 'megye') of the same name.

Veszprém

Vesprim (in Latin)
Wesprim / Weißbrunn ‹See Tfd›(in German)
Vesprim ‹See Tfd›(in Croatian)
Vesprím / Besprim (in Slovak) ‹See Tfd›(in Czech)
Belomost (in Slovene)
Veszprém Megyei Jogú Város
Veszprém castle.jpg
Püspöki Jószágigazgatóság, Veszprém.JPGSzent István király és felesége, Gizella, szobra Veszprémben.jpgVeszprem Tuztorony2.jpg
Székesegyház (10682. számú műemlék) 6.jpgVeszprem varkapu.jpg
From top, left to right: Castle Hill, County Library, Statue of King Stephen I. and Queen Gisela, Fire-watch Tower, Veszprém Cathedral and Castle Gate
Flag of Veszprém
Flag
Coat of arms of Veszprém
Coat of arms
Nickname(s): 
City of Queens
Veszprém is located in Hungary
Veszprém
Veszprém
Location of Veszprém
Veszprém is located in Europe
Veszprém
Veszprém
Veszprém (Europe)
Coordinates: 47°05′35″N 17°54′50″E / 47.09296°N 17.91377°E / 47.09296; 17.91377Coordinates: 47°05′35″N 17°54′50″E / 47.09296°N 17.91377°E / 47.09296; 17.91377
Country Hungary
RegionCentral Transdanubia
CountyVeszprém
DistrictVeszprém
Established9th century AD
City status1870
Government
 • MayorGyula Porga (Fidesz-KDNP)
 • Deputy Mayor
 • Town NotaryDr Gábor Mohos
Area
 • City with county rights126.93 km2 (49.01 sq mi)
Elevation
266 m (873 ft)
Population
 (January 1, 2017)
 • City with county rights56,927[1]
 • Rank16th
 • Density448.49/km2 (1,161.6/sq mi)
 • Urban
133,880 (13th)[3]
Demonym(s)veszprémi
Population by ethnicity
 • Hungarians83.9%
 • Germans2.4%
 • Gypsies0.7%
 • Romanians0.1%
 • Serbs0.1%
 • Slovaks0.1%
 • Armenians0.1%
 • Bulgarians0.1%
 • Polish0.1%
 • Ukrainians0.1%
Population by religion
 • Roman Catholic38.9%
 • Greek Catholic0.3%
 • Calvinists7.0%
 • Lutherans2.1%
 • Other1.4%
 • Non-religious20.6%
 • Unknown29.6%
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+2 (CEST)
Postal code
8200
Area code(+36) 88
MotorwaysM8 Motorway (planned)
NUTS 3 codeHU213
Distance from Budapest109 km (68 mi) Northeast
AirportVeszprém
MPPéter Ovádi (Fidesz)
Websitewww.veszprem.hu

Contents

EtymologyEdit

The name of the city originates from a Slavic personal name Bezprem or Bezprym (Proto-Slavic Bezprěmъ) meaning "stubborn", "self-confident, not willing to retreat".[5] Besprem (before 1002), Vezprem (1086), Bezpremensis (1109).[5] The form Vezprem originates in early medieval scribal habits and frequent exchange of B and V under the influence of Greek.[5]

The city was named either after a chieftain, or the son of Princess Judith (elder sister of St. Stephen of Hungary), who settled here after her husband Boleslaus I of Poland expelled her and her son.[citation needed]

Location and legendEdit

Veszprém lies on both sides of the Séd creek, approximately 110 km (68 mi) from Budapest (via the M7 highway and Road 8). It can also be reached from Győr via Road 82 and from Székesfehérvár via Road 8.

According to legend, Veszprém was founded on seven hills. The seven hills are Várhegy (Castle Hill), Benedek-hegy (St. Benedict Hill), Jeruzsálem-hegy (Jerusalem Hill), Temetőhegy (Cemetery Hill), Gulyadomb (Herd Hill), Kálvária-domb (Calvary Hill), and Cserhát.

HistoryEdit

 
Veszprém in the Kingdom of Hungary in 1913

Anonymus Belæ Regis Notarius (the anonymous notary of King Béla III) wrote that a castle already stood here when the Hungarians first occupied the area. The castle was probably a 9th-century Frankish fortress. The castles of Veszprém, Esztergom and Székesfehérvár, were the earliest Hungarian stone castles, which had already been built during the reign of High Prince Géza, a time when motte castles were much more common.

Veszprém had an important religious role during the struggle to make Christianity the official religion of Hungary - Stephen I of Hungary defeated the armies of his chief opponent, Koppány, near Veszprém. The city became the first episcopal seat of Hungary in 1009 and an archiepiscopal seat in 1993. Comitatus Veszprém was one of the earliest historical counties of Hungary.

During the 13th century Mongol invasion of Hungary, Veszprém was protected by its castle.[6]

Veszprém was the favorite city of Queen Gisela, the wife of St. Stephen. For centuries, the queens of Hungary were crowned by the bishop of Veszprém. The city is still often called "the city of queens". In the year 1294 Queen Fenenna confirmed that, at that time, the former(!) Queen Elizabeth had the privilege to collect the donations of the church in the Veszprém County.

Veszprém was among the first Hungarian cities to have a university - students studied law and arts here for several centuries. The university was destroyed by fire in 1276, when Peter I Csák invaded and devastated the Diocese of Veszprém. Veszprém became a university town again in the 20th century.

Veszprém changed hands between Austrians and Ottomans until 1684 after the Battle of Mohács in 1526. It was known as "Pespirim" and was a sanjak centre in Budin Province during Ottoman rule.[citation needed]

The town was plundered by the Turks in 1552,[7] but they could not maintain occupation: the region north of lake Balaton remained in the Kingdom of Hungary (1538–1867) (captaincy between Balaton and Drava). The castle was demolished in 1706. Until 1918, VESZPRIM (also named WESZPRIM and WESPRIM near 1850, and WEISSBRUNN in German) was part of the Austrian monarchy, province of Hungary;[8] in Transleithania after the compromise of 1867 in the Kingdom of Hungary.

During World War II, Veszprém was captured by Soviet troops of the 3rd Ukrainian Front on 23 March 1945 in the course of the Vienna Offensive.

 
The Holy Trinity Square behind Veszprém Cathedral in the Castle Hill

EconomyEdit

The Hungarian automotive plastic spare parts manufacturer Videoton Plastic[9] (part of Videoton), the Hungarian kiosk manufacturer Kiosksystems,[10] the Hungarian shutter manufacturer Roll-Lux,[11] the Hungarian label manufacturer Imprenta,[12] the Hungarian tool manufacturer Solidsteel,[13] the Hungarian technical ceramics manufacturer Bakony Ipari Kerámia,[14] the Hungarian furniture manufacturer Balaton Bútor,[15] the Hungarian machine manufacturer Flexmont,[16] the Hungarian watermanagement company PureAqua,[17] the Hungarian automotive spare parts manufacturer Win-Pres,[18] the Hungarian construction company VEMÉVSZER,[19] the Hungarian metal manufacturer Ferro-Trio,[20] the Hungarian OOK Printhouse,[21] the Hungarian toolmanufacturer Plasticor,[22] the Hungarian machine manufacturer Transmoduls,[23] the Hungarian Prospektus Printhouse[24] have both their headquarters and main production facilities in Veszprém.

The French pharmaceutical company Citoxlab,[25] the Austrian plaster manufacturer Lasselsberger-Knauf,[26] the Swiss electric motor manufacturer Maxon Motor,[27] the Austrian tile manufacturer Bramac,[28] the French automotive spare parts manufacturer Valeo,[29] the German electromagnetical controlsystems manufacturer nass magnet,[30] the German automotive spare parts manufacturer Continental AG,[31] the German automotive spare parts manufacturer Thun,[32] the German sensor manufacturer Pepperl+Fuchs,[33] the Austrian chimney and ventilation system manufacturer Schiedel,[34] the American power supply security company CoreComm,[35] the German sensor manufacturer Balluff,[36] the German automotive spare parts manufacturer Jost,[37] the German health devices manufacturer Beurer,[38] the British-Dutch food producer Unilever[39] and the Hungarian dairy product manufacturer Pannontej[40] operate production plants in the city.

The Dutch General Logistics Systems,[41] the Hungarian Magyar Posta, the German Penny Market,[42] the Hungarian Locargo[43] and the Austrian Persped[44] have logistics centres there.

The Hungarian owned Vöröskő electrical retailer (holder of the brand Euronics in Hungary) is also based in the city.

The Veszprém Aréna provides place besides sport events for exhibitions and conferences.[45]

DemographicsEdit

YearPop.±%
1870 14,279—    
1880 14,726+3.1%
1890 14,807+0.6%
1900 16,223+9.6%
1910 16,864+4.0%
1920 17,513+3.8%
1930 19,991+14.1%
1941 24,025+20.2%
1949 20,682−13.9%
1960 28,222+36.5%
1970 40,415+43.2%
1980 57,249+41.7%
1990 63,867+11.6%
2001 62,851−1.6%
2011 61,721−1.8%
2018 59,732−3.2%
2021!60,000+0.4%
2031!58,000−3.3%
2041!56,000−3.4%

According to the 2011 census beside the 83.9% Hungarian majority the city has a historical German minority numbering 2.4% of the population. The second largest ethnic group is the Roma with 0.7%. The others are all marginal.[4]

The religious affiliation of the citizens has a Catholic majority with 38.9% Roman Catholic and 0.3% Greek Catholic. The Calvinists (7.0%) have the second, the Lutherans (2.1%) the third largest denomination in the city. 20.6% are not religious.[4]

Notable citizensEdit

International relationsEdit

TourismEdit

GalleryEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ [http://nepesseg.com/veszprem/veszprem#3 2017. év: Magyarország állandó lakosságának száma az év első napján (2017. január 1.) XLS táblázat. Nyilvantarto.hu (Hozzáférés: 2017. április 6.)
  2. ^ Veszprém - Alpolgármesterek
  3. ^ Eurostat, 2016
  4. ^ a b c d KSH - Veszprém, 2011
  5. ^ a b c Krajčovič, Rudolf (2005). Živé kroniky slovenských dejín [Living Chronicles of the Slovak History] (in Slovak). Bratislava: Literárne informačné centrum. p. 61. ISBN 80-88878-99-3.
  6. ^ There were two 13th century Mongol invasions of Hungary, in 1241-42 and in 1285-86. It is unclear whether Veszprém was attacked during both invasions or only one of them, and when the castle was built. King Béla IV organised the building of many stone fortresses after the first invasion.
  7. ^ German Wikipedia.
  8. ^ Handbook of Austria and Lombardy-Venetia Cancellations on the Postage Stamp Issues 1850-1864, by Edwin MUELLER, 1961.
  9. ^ Videoton plastic
  10. ^ Kiosksystems - Cégünkről - Bemutatkozás
  11. ^ Roll-Lux - Történetünk
  12. ^ Imprenta - Cégtörténet
  13. ^ Solidsteel - Főoldal
  14. ^ Bakony Ipari Kerámia - veol.hu - HIRDETÉS March 1, 2018
  15. ^ Balaton Bútor
  16. ^ - Flexmont
  17. ^ PureAqua
  18. ^ Win-Pres
  19. ^ VEMÉVSZER
  20. ^ Ferro-Trio
  21. ^ OOK Nyomda - Rólunk
  22. ^ Plasticor - About Us
  23. ^ Transmoduls - About Us
  24. ^ Prospektus Nyomda - Company profile - History
  25. ^ Citoxlab - Contact Us
  26. ^ Lasselsberger-Knauf - Húsz éve nem ugrott ekkorát a veszprémi építőipari gyártó - August 3, 2017
  27. ^ Maxon Motors - Production sites
  28. ^ Bramac - Rólunk - Cégkrónika
  29. ^ Valeo
  30. ^ nass magnet
  31. ^ - Continental AG - Veszprém
  32. ^ Thun - Locations
  33. ^ Pepperl-Fuchs
  34. ^ Schiedel
  35. ^ CoreComm - Cégünkről
  36. ^ Balluff
  37. ^ Jost - Vállalat - Cégtörénet
  38. ^ Beurer - Company - sites
  39. ^ Unilever - Ice Cream Factory
  40. ^ Pannontej - Rólunk
  41. ^ GLS
  42. ^ 59 üzletet szolgál ki új veszprémi logisztikai központjából a Penny Market - October 17, 2017
  43. ^ Locargo
  44. ^ Persped - Rólunk
  45. ^ Veszprém Aréna
  46. ^ "Nemzetközi kapcsolatok". Retrieved 1 May 2014.
  47. ^ Kursk guide
  48. ^ "Miasta Partnerskie". Retrieved 1 May 2014.

External linksEdit