Transportation in the Klang Valley

  (Redirected from Transport in Kuala Lumpur)

Transportation in the Klang Valley, which includes Kuala Lumpur – the capital city of Malaysia – consists of highly-developed intermodal infrastructure. This includes an extensive road network, an integrated railway network, airports, and other modes of public transport. The Klang Valley is an urban conglomeration consisting of the city of Kuala Lumpur, as well as surrounding towns and cities in the state of Selangor. The Klang Valley has the country's largest airport, the Kuala Lumpur International Airport (KLIA), as well as the country's largest intermodal transport hub and railway station, Kuala Lumpur Sentral.

KL Sentral is the main railway station in Kuala Lumpur, with connecting Bus and Monorail routes nearby.

Currently, there are multiple modes of public transport including buses, rail, taxis, and motor-taxis[1] serving the region. However, Kuala Lumpur, with a population of 1.79 million in the city[2] and six million in its metropolitan area,[3] is experiencing the effects and challenges of rapid urbanisation and urban planning issues. To resolve these issues, the Kuala Lumpur City Hall (DBKL) has plans to initiate programmes that would improve the public transportation system and increase its sustainability and decrease its environmental impact in the Klang Valley. The Kuala Lumpur Structure Plan 2020, in particular, intends to address the unprecedented growth and changes in Kuala Lumpur’s urban transportation landscape.[4]

History of public transport in Kuala LumpurEdit

In the 19th century and early 20th century, most Kuala Lumpur citizens and tin miners used rickshaws, elephants, sampans, and bull- or horse-drawn carriages as basic public transportation (as in transport by means not owned by persons being transported).

From the 1960s to the 1990s, the Mini-Bus Service or Bas Mini was popular.

 
Scania K270UB4x2 operated by Rapid KL.

RegulationEdit

The public transport system is regulated by various authorities, including the Commercial Vehicle Licensing Board (CVLB) of the Ministry of Entrepreneur and Co-operative Development, the Ministry of Transport and local governments such as the Dewan Bandaraya Kuala Lumpur and the other city and municipal councils.

There is no single body that regulates the whole sector.

The Integration and Restructuring of the Public Transport System in the Klang Valley (Inspak) steering committee, established in July 2003, is tasked with encouraging greater use of public transportation to reduce traffic congestion and initiate the establishment of the Klang Valley Urban Transport Authority as the regulatory authority for public transportation in the Klang Valley. Little has been said about the establishment of this authority ever since.

Rapid KL was established in 2004 by the Ministry of Finance to provide an integrated public transport system in the Klang Valley incorporating rail and bus services as part of Inspak. It holds quasi-regulatory powers in the sense that unlike other bus operators, it has much greater freedom to set its routes. Furthermore, its fare structure differs from that set by the CVLB.

By 2007, passengers have access to Touch 'n Go ticketing system on RapidKL systems, KL Monorail, and KTM Komuter.[5]

CyclingEdit

RailEdit

Klang Valley Integrated Transit SystemEdit

The Klang Valley Integrated Transit System currently consists of three light rapid transit (LRT) lines, two commuter rail lines, one monorail line, one bus rapid transit line, one mass rapid transit (MRT) line and three airport rail links, two to the Kuala Lumpur International Airport and one to the Sultan Abdul Aziz Shah Airport. The LRT lines connect the city centre with major suburbs like Petaling Jaya, Subang Jaya, Gombak, Puchong and Bukit Jalil around the city centre. The MRT and commuter rail lines link the city centre with other major towns and cities outside the city such as Shah Alam, Petaling Jaya, Klang, Rawang, Kepong, Kajang, Sungai Buloh and others. The monorail serves various locations in the city centre. Several interchanging stations integrate these rail services. Several railway stations are also served by the intercity KTM ETS service, which connects the Klang Valley with other states and regions in Peninsular Malaysia.

Commuter rail service

1 Seremban Line
Between Batu Caves and Pulau Sebang/Tampin
26 stations over 135.6 km, operated by Keretapi Tanah Melayu (KTM)
2 Port Klang Line
Between Tanjung Malim and Port Klang
33 stations over 127.5 km, operated by Keretapi Tanah Melayu (KTM)

Mass rapid transit (MRT) service

9 Kajang Line
Between Sungai Buloh and Kajang
31 stations + plus 3 provisional over 51 km, operated by Rapid Rail

Light rapid transit (LRT) service

3 Ampang Line
Between Sentul Timur and Ampang
18 stations over 15 km, operated by Rapid Rail
4 Sri Petaling Line
Between Sentul Timur and Putra Heights
29 stations + 2 provisional over 37.6 km, operated by Rapid Rail
5 Kelana Jaya Line
Between Gombak and Putra Heights
37 stations over 46.4 km, operated by Rapid Rail

Monorail service

8 KL Monorail
Between KL Sentral and Titiwangsa
11 stations over 8.6 km, operated by Rapid Rail

Bus rapid transit (BRT) service

B1 BRT Sunway Line
Between Sunway-Setia Jaya and USJ 7
7 stations over 5.6 km, operated by Rapid Bus

Airport rail link service

6 KLIA Ekspres
Non-stop between KL Sentral and KLIA & klia2
3 stations over 59.1 km, operated by Express Rail Link (ERL)
7 KLIA Transit
Between KL Sentral and KLIA & klia2
6 stations over 59.1 km, operated by Express Rail Link (ERL)
10 Skypark Link
Limited express between KL Sentral and Terminal Skypark
3 stations over 24.5 km, operated by Keretapi Tanah Melayu (KTM)

Light rapid transit (LRT)Edit

There are three fully grade-separated light rapid transit (LRT) systems in the Klang Valley, the Kelana Jaya Line, Sri Petaling Line and Ampang Line, The lines function as light metro services are all operated by Rapid Rail.

 
Kelana Jaya Line rolling stock

The Kelana Jaya Line links the city centre with the major towns and cities of Subang Jaya, Petaling Jaya and Gombak. To date, it carries over 170,000 passengers a day. At 46.4 km in length,[1] the Kelana Jaya Line is the second-longest fully automated driverless metro system in Malaysia.

The Sri Petaling Line extends from the city centre towards the south of Kuala Lumpur and through Puchong, before meeting the Kelana Jaya Line at their common terminus station, Putra Heights. The Ampang Line serves the eastern part of Kuala Lumpur as well as Ampang. Both lines share a common section between Sentul Timur and Chan Sow Lin, before diverting towards the respective terminus, and have a combined length of 45.1 km. These two lines carry over 130,000 to 150,000 per day on a weekday basis and an average of 120,000[6] per day on weekends.

A fourth LRT line is currently under construction which will connect Bandar Utama with Klang through the city of Shah Alam. T Bandar Utama-Klang Line will be connected to the Klang Valley Integrated Transit System through interchange stations with the Kelana Jaya Line, Kajang Line and Port Klang Line, allow commuters from Kuala Lumpur to travel as far as Shah Alam and Klang on the western side of Selangor.

All LRT lines run on standard-gauge tracks.

Mass rapid transit (MRT)Edit

 
Ampang Line rolling stock

The Klang Valley currently has one mass rapid transit (MRT) line, the Kajang Line. The Kajang Line provides high-capacity metro services between the city and the outer parts of the Klang Valley. The lines run from Sungai Buloh to Kajang, running through the city centre. The line is 51 km long and is currently the longest full-automated driverless metro system in Malaysia. The line is owned by MRT Corp but is also operated by Rapid Rail, and functions as part of the Rapid KL system.

A second MRT line, the Putrajaya Line, is currently under construction which, once complete, will run from Sungai Buloh to Putrajaya, pass through the city centre. It will provide rail transport to southern Kuala Lumpur and Seri Kembangan before terminating at Putrajaya. It will also be the second rail link from Kuala Lumpur to Putrajaya, the country's administrative capital, after the Express Rail Link lines.

 
A KLIA Ekspres leaving Bandar Tasik Selatan Station. KLIA Express and KLIA Transit shares the same track

Commuter railEdit

Commuter rail in the Klang Valley is mainly operated by Keretapi Tanah Melayu (KTM). It operates three lines in the Klang Valley, namely the Port Klang Line, Seremban Line, and Skypark Link. All three lines integrate at KL Sentral, the largest railway station and intermodal transportation hub in Malaysia, which is also served by other rapid transit lines. The commuter lines provide long-distance rail transport to the outer fringes of the Klang Valley, as well Batu Caves, Shah Alam, Petaling Jaya and Klang in Selangor. The Seremban Line travels south as far as Pulau Sebang in Malacca, while the Port Klang Line extends to Tanjung Malim in Perak. The Skypark Link functions as an airport rail link from the city centre to the Sultan Abdul Aziz Shah Airport (Subang Airport) in Subang.

The KTM Komuter system is the only rail system in the Klang Valley which runs on metre-gauge tracks. The KTM Komuter shares the same tracks with the KTM ETS, providing interchanges with the inter-city rail service.

Airport rail linksEdit

Express airport rail link is provided by both the Skypark Link to the Subang Airport, as well as the KLIA Ekspres line operated by Express Rail Link (ERL) to the Kuala Lumpur International Airport (KLIA). The KLIA Ekspress provides non-stop service between KL Sentral and KLIA, without stopping in any of the stations in between. The journey only takes 28 minutes with a maximum speed of 160 km/h. 15-minute intervals during peak hours and 20-minute intervals during off-peak hours.

The KLIA Transit line shares the same tracks as the KLIA Ekspres. Also operated by ERL, KLIA Transit stops at all stations between KL Sentral and KLIA, providing commuter rail service apart from a rail link from the city centre to the airport. The ERL lines are currently the only rail link between Kuala Lumpur and Putrajaya.

The Skypark Link, KLIA Transit, and KLIA Ekspres share a common terminus at KL Sentral station, allowing passengers to transfer between the airports using the rail lines.

While the KTM Komuter system uses metre-gauge tracks, the ERL system uses standard-gauge tracks.

MonorailEdit

 
KL Monorail

Previously operated by KL Infrastructure Group, the monorail service in Kuala Lumpur serves as a people mover system within the city. It connects the KL Sentral transport hub with the Golden Triangle area of Kuala Lumpur. The system spans over 8.6 km, with 11 elevated stations, and has 36,000 daily passengers. Since November 2007, the monorail service has been taken over by Prasarana Malaysia and merged into the Rapid KL network.[7]

Inter-city railEdit

KTM Electric Train Service (ETS)Edit

The main Inter-city rail service in Malaysia is provided by Keretapi Tanah Melayu (KTM), which operates the KTM ETS service. KTM ETS operates along the KTM West Coast railway line, between Padang Besar in Perlis and Gemas in Negeri Sembilan. Almost all KTM ETS services originate or run through the Kuala Lumpur Sentral station (KL Sentral) and connects the city centre with all the states along the West Coast of Peninsular Malaysia.

At Padang Besar, the West Coast line connects with the Thai railway network operated by the State Railway of Thailand. At Gemas, the railway line is connected with the KTM East Coast railway line. The West Coast line terminates at the Woodlands Train Checkpoint in Singapore. The East Coast line, as well as the remaining southern portion of the West Coast line, is served by KTM Intercity, another inter-city rail service also operated by KTM, providing rail transport to the East Coast states and Johor, and crossing the international border into Singapore. KTM Intercity and KTM ETS interchange at Gemas station.

The railway lines are built on the metre gauge. The line between Padang Besar and Gemas is double-tracked and electrified, while the southern part of the West Coast line as well as the entire East Coast line is single-tracked and not electrified, allowing on diesel hauled trains to run on them.

Double tracking and electrification works of the southern portion of the West Coast line between Gemas and Johor Bahru are currently underway. Once completed, the KTM ETS system will be expanded to the south, connecting Kuala Lumpur and the Klang Valley with the entire West Coast rail line.

Kuala Lumpur–Singapore High-Speed RailEdit

Plans are underway to construct Asia's first transnational high-speed rail system (HSR) between Kuala Lumpur and Singapore.

BusesEdit

 
RapidKL bus

The Kuala Lumpur Mini Bus service is one of the oldest bus services in Malaysia and commenced operation in 1975.[8] The Klang Valley's bus service was rather poor compared to other cities around the world before the bus network revamp, resulting in only 16% of the total population in Klang Valley using public transport.[9]

On 1 December 2015, the Land Public Transport Agency (formerly SPAD) under the Ministry of Transport revamped the bus network. Through this exercise, all bus routes were reorganised into 8 smaller corridors based on the main trunk roads connecting Kuala Lumpur's city center. In total, 8 stage bus corridors were introduced, namely the Ampang Corridor, Cheras Corridor, Sungai Besi Corridor, Klang Lama Corridor, Lebuhraya Persekutuan Corridor, Damansara Corridor, Jalan Ipoh Corridor, and Jalan Pahang Corridor were revamped under the Klang Valley region.[10]

Rapid Bus is the largest single operator of the bus network in Malaysia. Bus fare varies with bus operator, where Rapid Bus uses a cashless system and other operators uses cash system. Within the city centre, Rapid Bus also operates eight free GoKL City Bus lines.

On 18 June 2020, Rapid Bus released new features on real time locations of bus in Google Maps, via collaboration with Google Transit[11][12][13][14]. Almost 170 RapidKL's bus routes are covered with this real time feature. Rapid Bus also plans to expand the application to MRT feeder bus service, Rapid Penang, and Rapid Kuantan in the future.

 
The Ampang–Kuala Lumpur Elevated Highway at the eastern fringes of the city

Several bus operators operate in Kuala Lumpur, linking the city centre with the suburbs of the Klang Valley. The main operator is Prasarana's subsidiaries of Rapid Bus, who took over the operations of the two main bus operators, Intrakota and Cityliner.

Other operators include Metrobus, Selangor Omnibus, Setara Jaya Bus, Len Seng, Transnasional/Kenderaan Klang-Banting, Triton, Seranas and Wawasan Sutera.

Klang ValleyEdit

Buses in Klang Valley are run by many transport operators and have many uses. There are nine stage bus operators within the Klang Valley, including Kuala Lumpur, which together operate about 3,200 stage buses.[15]

Local busesEdit

Local buses (not to be confused with Rapid KL's Local Shuttle) or stage buses are run by the integrated network operator Rapid KL as well as privately owned Metrobus, Causeway Link, Len Seng, Selangor Omnibus, Setara Jaya, Cityliner (KKBB), Wawasan Sutera, Nadi Putra, & Sri Indah.

Metrobus and Rapid KL are the two main bus companies within the boundaries of Kuala Lumpur from 2006 to 2015. As there is no difference between public transport in Kuala Lumpur and public transport for the whole Klang Valley, most of the other bus companies other than Rapid KL and Metrobus are normally confined to Klang Valley areas that are outside the boundaries of Kuala Lumpur.

The largest operator, Rapid KL, operates 179 bus routes along with the Ampang Line, Sri Petaling Line, and Kelana Jaya Line.

Bus stopsEdit

There are several major bus stops in Kuala Lumpur.

Important bus interchangeEdit

List of City bus interchanges:

Express and long-distance buses: (to other states in Malaysia including Singapore and Southern Thailand

The old and former bus interchanges and terminals:

  • Pasaramakota bus station (Demolished by MRT Corp built for MRT Pasar Seni)
  • Terminal Putra (Defunct)

Bus operatorsEdit

RapidKL by Rapid BusEdit

 
RapidKL, the largest bus operator in Klang Valley

Rapid Bus is the largest bus operator in the Klang Valley. Currently, there are 179 routes, which integrates with Klang Valley's Rail Systems. The bus routes operated by Rapid Bus were previously operated by Intrakota Komposit Sdn Bhd, a subsidiary of DRB-HICOM Bhd; and Cityliner Sdn Bhd, a subsidiary of Park May Bhd. In 2005, Rapid KL buses carried around 190,000 passengers daily. Many of the other bus companies listed here including Metrobus are slowly being phased out and being defunct or unpopular with commuters.

On 18th June 2020, Rapid Bus released new features on real time locations of bus in Google Maps, via collaboration with Google Transit[16][17][18][19]. Almost 170 RapidKL's bus routes are covered with this real time feature including MRT feeder bus service.

Selangor Omnibus Co.Edit

 
Selangor Omnibus at Chow Kit.

Established in 1937, Selangor Omnibus is the oldest company in Malaysia, starting its operation between Kuala Lumpur and Kuala Selangor, connecting the northwest and the city centre of Kuala Lumpur. Its famous red and white coloured bus makes it easily recognisable by passengers travelling towards Kuala Selangor. Since then, Selangor Omnibus started covering the northwest rural areas such as Bestari Jaya, Ijok, Paya Jaras, Kepong and Jinjang. Until today, Selangorbus has covered almost 20 northern areas with 6 routes, using combination of new and old buses.

 
Selangor Omnibus's Silverbus SL900, one of newest fleet in Selangorbus.

Setara Jaya Bus (SJ Bus)Edit

Setara Jaya Bus were established in 1989, connecting Tanjung Malim, Rawang, Selayang and Kuala Lumpur areas, using second-hand buses purchased from RapidKL.

Cityliner by Konsortium TransNasionalEdit

 
Cityliner bus in Penang

Konsortium Transnasional Berhad (KTB) is the largest private stage bus operator in Malaysia, serving people in states namely Kedah, Penang, Pahang, Kelantan, Negeri Sembilan, and Selangor. With a fleet of more than 700 buses, ranging from mini to double-decker, the red and grey signature colour of Cityliner has been a major mode of transport, connecting rural and urban areas, villages to towns ferrying thousands of passengers every day of the year. From school-going children to housewives buying groceries and workers commuting to work, with trips schedule tailored to the local needs, Cityliner has become part of daily life for many Malaysians.

Cityliner has pioneered the stage bus industry with many firsts. With the rising environmental concerns and increasing fuel prices, Cityliner was the first in the country to opt for Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) technology which allows the buses to run on an alternative source of fuel commonly known as Natural Gas.

Cityliner was also the first in Klang Valley to introduce double-decker stage buses. The additional seating capacity enables Cityliner to carry a double number of passengers of a single deck at one time thus making it the most efficient among the stage bus providers.

The high debt in Kuala Lumpur's Cityliner company, Kenderaan Klang-Banting Berhad results in termination of the company in Kuala Lumpur, resulting some routes were either transferred to other company such as Seranas or Wawasan Sutera, or terminated.

Len SengEdit

 
Len Seng's latest fleet, ex-Genting Scania K270 second hand bus
 
An old Hino manufactured bus owned by Syarikat Bas Len Seng (a bus company in Kuala Lumpur) or also known as Len Seng Omnibus Company

Len Seng Omnibus was formed in the early 60s, covering routes to Ampang Jaya, Setapak and Wangsa Maju. After revamped the routes by SPAD, the company mainly serves the Wangsa Maju areas of bus services 252 (Seksyen 10 Wangsa Maju - Hub Munshi Abdullah). Due to competition on Rapid Bus services 251 (Jentayu AU3 - Seksyen 10 Wangsa Maju - Chow Kit) and T251 (LRT Sri Rampai - Seksyen 10 Wangsa Maju), the services became unpopular, resulting in termination of the services.

Nadi PutraEdit

Founded in 1999, Nadi Putra is a bus service that is owned by Perbadanan Putrajaya. It operates mainly around Putrajaya and Cyberjaya, as well as trunk buses that link from Putrajaya to Kuala Lumpur, Bandar Saujana Putra and Seri Kembangan.

Since the company took over by GETS Global Berhad in 2018, the service quality has declined, much of the buses were left abandoned due to poor maintenance and service. Until today, only some of the Putrajaya routes still operate using 15 KBES Foton express bus, while the trunk routes were either abandoned or transferred to KR Travel And Tours.

Causeway LinkEdit

Causeway Link was founded in 2003 and is based in Johor Bahru, Johor. Apart from its services in Johor and Singapore, the company mainly serves the areas in Port Klang, Klang and Puchong, Selangor. The company has previously served in the Kepong and Segambut areas of Kuala Lumpur until its transfer to Selangor Omnibus in July 2017. It also operates PJ Free Bus from Bandar Utama to Damansara Damai and Taman Bahagia.

Wawasan SuteraEdit

Established in 2004 as an express bus service to airports, Wawasan Sutera started its operation from Klang to Kuala Selangor in 2009. The company begin took over the CityLiner routes to Banting, as some routes still shows demand of passengers travelling to some areas in Banting and Klang.

KR Travel and Tours (KRTT)Edit

Founded in 2002, KR Travel and Tours began its operation with tour coach and factory bus services. The company began to operate stagebus service to Klang Valley with takeover of CityLiner route 732 from KLIA to Banting. Until today, KRTT has 3 routes in Klang Valley, connecting Putrajaya areas to Serdang and Kuala Lumpur and Banting to KLIA.

Klang Valley Bus Network RevampEdit

The Klang Valley Bus Network Revamp or 'Greater Kuala Lumpur Bus Network Revamp (BNR) is a plan implemented by Land Public Transport Commission (SPAD) in Klang Valley and Greater Kuala Lumpur of Malaysia, starting from 1 December 2015.[20]

This plan aims to improve the stage bus services in these areas by providing commuters with higher bus service frequency that covers a wider area, which will subsequently improve its reliability.[20]

Under this system, existing bus corridors were reorganized into eight bus corridors:[20]

  • Ampang Corridor
  • Cheras Corridor
  • Damansara Corridor
  • Jalan Ipoh Corridor
  • Jalan Pahang Corridor
  • Klang Lama Corridor
  • Lebuhraya Persekutuan Corridor
  • Sungai Besi Corridor

TaxisEdit

 
Proton Persona taxi in Kuala Lumpur, where taxis are coloured in red-white, yellow-blue, green, or yellow

Teksi BermeterEdit

Taxis have been a common sight in Kuala Lumpur ever since the 1950s, and in the 1970s and 1980s, the Morris Oxford was a common model used as a taxi. Metered taxis (Malay: Teksi Bermeter) can be hailed throughout the city. However, traffic jams are fairly common in KL, especially during rush hour, and it might be difficult to get a taxi at that time. There have been many instances of taxi drivers charging extravagant fares, especially for tourists, who are therefore advised to travel in taxis which charge fares according to a meter, and insist that the meter is used.

Taxi stands are available around the city and most taxis will stop at the taxi stand. Taxis in Kuala Lumpur are coloured in various colours such as a combination of red-white, red, yellow-blue, green, or yellow. However, taxis could be easily recognised as the taxis' vehicle registration number carries a prefix H for normal taxis and LIMO for an airport limousine.

Motor-TaxisEdit

Fixed rate and metered motorcycle-taxi or "motor-taxi[21]" can now be found in and utilized by KL citizens as well as tourists since its introduction on Nov 16, 2016.[21]

Transit hubsEdit

Intercity travelEdit

For intercity travel, the main transit hubs in Kuala Lumpur are:

  • Pudu Sentral — an intercity bus terminal located in the city centre. A new bus terminal, Plaza Rakyat is planned to replace neighbouring Pudu Sentral. However, the construction has been halted indefinitely. There are an LRT and MRT station nearby that connects to the building. Express buses to airports still operates at this terminal.
  • KL Sentral — Kuala Lumpur's main railway station and bus hubs for shuttles to Genting Highlands, KLIA and klia2.
  • Pekeliling Bus Terminal — the combination of local and express buses to Genting Highlands, Bentong, Raub, Kuala Lipis, Jerantut and Temerloh.
  • Duta Bus Terminal — for buses operated by Transnasional, Airport Coach (bus services to KLIA) and northern express bus.
  • Terminal Bersepadu Selatan - The newest transport hub in the Klang Valley, replaced Pudu Sentral as the major hub for all intercity buses in the Klang Valley. Connecting with KTM Seremban Line, KTM ETS, KLIA Transit & LRT Sri Petaling Line.

Local rail transportEdit

  • KL Sentral — a modern multi-modal transport hub served by KTM Komuter, KTM ETS, LRT, MRT, ERL, monorail as well as local buses, airport buses to the KLIA, and several intercity buses
  • Masjid Jamek — an LRT interchange between the LRT Kelana Jaya Line, LRT Ampang Line & LRT Sri Petaling Lines.
  • Bandar Tasik Selatan station — a train interchange between the LRT Sri Petaling Line, KTM Seremban Line, KTM ETS, and ERL KLIA Transit.

Local bus terminalsEdit

KL Sentral, Titiwangsa, KLCC, Maluri, and Medan Pasar form Rapid KL's bus interchanges in the city. Meanwhile, private bus operators are mostly based at the Jalan Tun Tan Cheng Lock (formerly known as Jalan Cheng Lock) area which includes Pasaramakota, Central Market, Bangkok Bank, Medan Pasar, Kotaraya, Sinar Kota and Puduraya. Several suburban bus hubs serve as terminals and interchanges.

Legacy terminalsEdit

Traditionally, most bus services, whether local or intercity originated from the city centre, especially in the areas around Jalan Tun Tan Cheng Lock. Recently transport operators have decided to unilaterally move operations elsewhere. For example, executive bus operators, especially those headed for Singapore, have switched to less congested locations like the Kuala Lumpur Railway Station, KL Sentral, Bangsar and Petaling Jaya. Rapid KL itself has shifted operations to its city hubs. The government meanwhile has been encouraging buses to use other newer terminals like Pasarakyat and Duta Bus Terminal.

The Kuala Lumpur Railway Station ceased to serve intercity trains in 2001 when operations shifted to neighbouring KL Sentral. However, many other operations such as KTM Komuter services and postal services by Pos Malaysia are still maintained there.

Intermodal hubsEdit

There are various intermodal transport hubs in Kuala Lumpur, with one major intermodal transport hub in the city centre of Kuala Lumpur, the Kuala Lumpur Sentral transport hub.

Kuala Lumpur Sentral
 
Kuala Lumpur Sentral is the largest railway station in Southeast Asia.

Kuala Lumpur Sentral (KL Sentral) or Sentral Kuala Lumpur is a transit-oriented development that houses the main railway station of Kuala Lumpur, which has officially taken over the role of Kuala Lumpur Railway Station. It is the largest railway station in Southeast Asia.

Stesen Sentral is designated the transport hub within its KL Sentral development project, although both the public and connected transit lines generally refer to the station itself as "KL Sentral". Among rail lines in Kuala Lumpur, Kelana Jaya Line, KL Monorail, KTM Komuter, KTM Intercity, KLIA Ekspres and KLIA Transit integrate in this railway station.

Located within Stesen Sentral, the KL City Air Terminal (KL CAT) is virtually an extension of the Kuala Lumpur International Airport. KL CAT also has luggage check-in services. Currently, only passengers flying Malaysia Airlines, Cathay Pacific, Emirates, and Royal Brunei Airlines can check-in their luggage at KL CAT. KL Sentral has also been made a city bus hub by RapidKL under its bus network revamp. It is the bus hub for the city shuttle bus (BANDAR) and trunk routes(UTAMA). Furthermore, some buses departing to Kuala Lumpur International Airport's Low-Cost Carrier Terminal also originate from KL Sentral. Stesen Sentral will be able to accommodate 50 million passengers a year[when?] and up to 100 million by 2020.

Puduraya

Puduraya is the main bus terminus for Kuala Lumpur. Long-distance buses arrive and leave from Puduraya for all over Malaysia. Under Kuala Lumpur 2020 Structural Plan, there are plans to move some bus operators to inter-regional hubs in other parts of Kuala Lumpur such as Perhentian Duta, Gombak Hub, and Bandar Tasik Selatan hub to avoid massive congestion in Puduraya.[22] Puduraya is accessible via Ampang Line, at Plaza Rakyat Station

RoadsEdit

 
Jalan Ampang and Tun Razak junction in central Kuala Lumpur. An elevated pedestrian walkway spans the two roads, connecting nearby buildings to the LRT Ampang Park underground station.

Roads are the major arteries of Kuala Lumpur's transport network. The road network system in Kuala Lumpur is similar to the city road network system in major Chinese cities, where it has ring roads. The main ring roads in Kuala Lumpur are Kuala Lumpur Inner Ring Road, Kuala Lumpur Middle Ring Road 1, and Kuala Lumpur Middle Ring Road 2. Roads in Kuala Lumpur are usually 3 lanes in each direction, and certain roads such as Jalan Sultan Ismail and Jalan Bukit Bintang are one-way streets.[23]

Expressways

Expressways in Kuala Lumpur are tolled roads. They serve as an alternative during peak periods at which time some parts of Kuala Lumpur's ring roads become highly congested. Kuala Lumpur is well connected by many intracity expressways such as the Ampang–Kuala Lumpur Elevated Highway. Moreover, Kuala Lumpur is the home for the world's first[24] SMART Tunnel, which is a unique solution to Kuala Lumpur's long-term traffic problems and floodwater mitigation woes.

Most expressways in Kuala Lumpur adopt an open toll collection system. NKVE is the only closed toll system in Klang Valley. In the open toll system, the user pays the toll at each toll plaza, while for the closed toll system, the tolls are to be paid at the toll plazas when exiting the expressway. Payment options includes cash, stored value card Touch 'n Go or the electronic toll collection system SmartTAG.

Access from the city to the surrounding areas is facilitated by a series of expressways that are both integrated and complex. From the city centre to the south-western areas, access is provided mainly from Federal Highway which connects the city to Klang and bridging Petaling Jaya, Subang Jaya, Kelana Jaya and Shah Alam. New Pantai Expressway provides an alternative route to Subang Jaya, bypassing the morning and evening traffic congestion on the Federal Highway. An alternative connection to Shah Alam, Subang Jaya, and Klang is provided by New Klang Valley Expressway which connects with the Sprint Expressway. This connects the city centre to Damansara, to the west. The New Klang Valley Expressway also provides connections to Sungai Buloh and Kepong and is linked to the northern section of the North–South Expressway, which provides access to northern states like Perak, Penang and Kedah. The connection from Damansara in the northwest to Puchong in the south-west of Kuala Lumpur is facilitated by Damansara–Puchong Expressway, which also provides a connection to Putrajaya.

Access from the city centre to southern areas is provided by Sungai Besi Expressway, which leads to the Bukit Jalil and Sungai Besi areas. The highway runs in parallel with the Kuala Lumpur–Seremban Expressway. The highway also provides an alternative route to Kajang by connecting with Kajang Dispersal Link Expressway.

Access from the city centre to south-eastern areas is provided by Cheras Highway which connects to Cheras. The highway is connected with Cheras–Kajang Expressway, which provides access to Kajang and that highway itself is connected with Kajang–Seremban Highway and Kajang Dispersal Link Expressway, giving alternative access to Seremban and southern parts of the city.

The connection from the city centre to eastern areas is provided by Ampang–Kuala Lumpur Elevated Highway. The highway is connected to Kuala Lumpur Middle Ring Road 2 for access to Batu Caves and Gombak. Near Karak Expressway, it provides access to the east coast area of Malaysia. There is no dedicated highway leading from the city centre to the northern areas such as Batu Caves However, Jalan Kuching is the main road from the city to the northern area.

The MMR2 connects with KESAS Highway which provides yet another alternative route to Shah Alam and Subang Jaya. The KESAS highway also has connections to Kuala Lumpur–Seremban Expressway which integrates with the southern section of North–South Expressway and North–South Expressway Central Link which provide access to Kuala Lumpur International Airport.

The connection from the city to Putrajaya is facilitated by a direct highway, Kuala Lumpur–Putrajaya Expressway which also provide connections to Kuala Lumpur International Airport through North–South Expressway Central Link. The highway also provides alternative access to southern areas of the city such as Puchong and Bukit Jalil.

Below is a non-exhaustive list of expressway serving the Klang Valley area:

Route number Expressway Name Areas Served Connections to other Expressways
  New Klang Valley Expressway Subang Jaya, Klang, Damansara North–South Expressway, North–South Expressway Central Link, Sprint Expressway
  KESAS Highway Shah Alam, USJ, Klang, Kota Kemuning, Bukit Jalil, Sri Petaling Kuala Lumpur–Putrajaya Expressway, Kuala Lumpur–Seremban Expressway
  North–South Expressway Central Link Putrajaya, Cyberjaya, Kuala Lumpur International Airport, Saujana Putra, Shah Alam, Nilai New Klang Valley Expressway, North–South Expressway
 
( )
Cheras–Kajang Expressway Cheras, Kajang Cheras Highway, Kajang–Seremban Highway, Kajang Dispersal Link Expressway, SMART Tunnel
  Sungai Besi Expressway Sungai Besi, Bandar Tasik Selatan Kajang Dispersal Link Expressway, North–South Expressway
  New Pantai Expressway Subang Jaya Federal Highway, Kuala Lumpur–Seremban Expressway
  Kajang Dispersal Link Expressway Kajang, Cheras, Sungai Long South Klang Valley Expressway, Cheras–Kajang Expressway, Sungai Besi Expressway
  Kuala Lumpur–Putrajaya Expressway Putrajaya, Cyberjaya Kuala Lumpur–Seremban Expressway, KESAS Highway
  Kajang–Seremban Highway Kajang, Semenyih, Seremban Cheras–Kajang Expressway, Cheras Highway
  Sprint Expressway Damansara, Taman Duta New Klang Valley Expressway, Federal Highway
  Duta–Ulu Klang Expressway Taman Duta, Ulu Klang, Gombak New Klang Valley Expressway, Kuala Lumpur–Rawang Highway, Kuala Lumpur Middle Ring Road 2, Karak Expressway
  Kuala Lumpur–Seremban Expressway Kuala Lumpur, Seremban, Kajang, Bangi, Nilai North–South Expressway Central Link, North–South Expressway, SMART Tunnel, Kuala Lumpur–Putrajaya Expressway
  Salak Expressway Taman Coughnaut, Sungai Besi Cheras Highway, Cheras–Kajang Expressway, Kuala Lumpur–Seremban Expressway, SMART Tunnel
  SMART Tunnel Jalan Sultan Ismail, Jalan Tun Razak Federal Highway, Kuala Lumpur–Seremban Expressway, Cheras Highway
  Cheras Highway Cheras, Sungai Besi | Cheras–Kajang Expressway, Kuala Lumpur Middle Ring Road 1, Kuala Lumpur Middle Ring Road 2, Salak Expressway
  Federal Highway Klang, Petaling Jaya, Subang Jaya, Kelana Jaya and Shah Alam New Pantai Expressway, Sprint Expressway

AirportsEdit

 
Qatar Airways, Malaysia Airlines and Shenzhen Airlines parked at Kuala Lumpur International Airport
 
Kuala Lumpur International Airport

The first airport in Kuala Lumpur, Simpang Airport, commenced operations in 1952 and was the main airport for Malaysia until 1965. In 1965, the Subang International Airport became the main international airport in Kuala Lumpur and Malaysia until 1998, before being taken over by the new constructed Kuala Lumpur International Airport (KLIA) in Sepang. The Simpang Airport was taken over by and converted into an air-base for the Royal Malaysian Air Force, while the Subang Airport (renamed Sultan Abdul Aziz Shah Airport) was repurposed as a general aviation and low-cost carrier airport.

Kuala Lumpur is the main gateway for Malaysia as it has the country biggest airport, Kuala Lumpur International Airport, about 25 million passengers used the airport, making it the busiest airport in Malaysia.[25]

The city is served by 2 airports, which is Kuala Lumpur International Airport and Sultan Abdul Aziz Shah Airport(formerly. Subang International Airport). Both airports have international connections, but Sultan Abdul Aziz Shah Airport is solely for turboprop aircraft and private jets only.[26] Kuala Lumpur International Airport apart from being the main passenger gateway, it is also the main cargo destination in Malaysia by cargo traffic.[25] Kuala Lumpur International Airport is linked to the city centre by KLIA Express by railway, major expressways, and bus service. Whereas Subang Airport is well connected by road networks and bus service.

Kuala Lumpur International Airport (KLIA) is capable of handling 35 million passengers and 1.2 million tonnes of cargo a year in its current phase. It is currently ranked as the 13th busiest airport in the world by international passenger traffic where it has handled 24,129,748 passengers in the year 2006. In the same year, it is also ranked 30th busiest airport in the world by cargo traffic where it has handled 677 446 metric tonnes of cargo.[27] Kuala Lumpur International Airport is one of the only few airports in East Asia to have links to South America, where Malaysia Airlines, has flights out of Kuala Lumpur International Airport to Buenos Aires via Johannesburg and Cape Town.

Both airports are operated by Malaysia Airports and are the hub for Malaysia Airlines, Malaysia Airlines Cargo, AirAsia and AirAsia X in Kuala Lumpur International Airport and Firefly, Transmile Air Services and Berjaya Air in Subang Airport. Moreover, KLIA is also the stopover point for the kangaroo route for Malaysia Airlines.

PortsEdit

 
Quay Cranes at Northport.
 
Container ship docking at one of Port Klang's Berth

Port Klang is one of the main sea ports of Malaysia, located in the district of Klang in the state of Selangor. It serves the Klang Valley, including the federal capital Kuala Lumpur and federal administrative capital Putrajaya.

Port Klang was originally known as Port Swettenham when it was founded under British colonial rule in 1893, after the then British Resident High Commissioner for the Malay State, Sir Frank Swettenham. The official opening of the port was on 15 September 1901, which developed as a new port after a study found that its coastal area had a harbour with deep anchorage, free from dangers, and very suitable for wharves. Its development was accelerated further with the extension of a railway line from Kuala Lumpur to the new port. The Port Klang Authority, established 1 July 1963, administers the three ports in the Port Klang area: Northport, Southpoint and West Port. As of November 2007, West Port, part of the three ports in Port Klang, has handled 4 million twenty-foot equivalent units (TEU) worth of containerised cargo, and is moving towards its 4.3 millionth TEU by end of 2007. Together with North port and South port, Port Klang handled 7.12 million TEU of containerised cargo and 133.5 million tonnes of conventional cargo in 2007.[28]

Apart from cargo ships, Port Klang also features a cruise ship terminal in Westport where SuperStar Virgo and Queen Mary 2,[29] the world's second-largest passenger ship has docked in the terminal for an excursion. Port Klang is also the home port of call for SuperStar Gemini.

Port Klang has its free zone, called Port Klang Free Zone (PKFZ). It is an integrated 1,000-acre (4.0 km2) international cargo distribution and consolidation centre situated in Port Klang, the world's 13th-ranked port in 2005 in terms of throughput volume.[30] The PKFZ is designed to promote entrepot trade and manufacturing industries involved in producing goods primarily for export. In 2007, PKFZ Authority has secured US$220 million and projected to secure another US$184 million[31] in 2008. The project is similar to Dubai's Jebel Ali Free Zone, which previously PKFZ is managed by Jebel Ali Free Zone Authority (JAFZA).

Port Klang is well connected by road and railway networks. On the rail, Port Klang is connected by Keretapi Tanah Melayu, whereas by road, Port Klang is connected by Federal Highway and Shah Alam Expressway

Recent effortsEdit

Recent efforts on urban transportation design address both the functional and aesthetic aspects of the city’s built environment. The Kuala Lumpur Structure Plan 2020 particularly cites good transportation linkage as essential factors to the success of the city, noting that public transportation would enable greater flexibility and movement. For the residents of Kuala Lumpur, it is important to provide a transportation structure that allows members of the community to equal accessibility. The KLCH recognizes “low public transport modal share”[32] as the key problem to high demands on road infrastructure and traffic congestion.

To increase public transportation usage, KLCH is currently expanding and constructing the Mass Rapid Transit lines that would provide more coverage to areas within the conurbation. Additional attention to the design of the newest public transport facilities is made to accommodate individuals with special needs. Also, to avoid traffic congestion occurring on local streets, major bus and rail interchange stops will be strategically located at points of intersections of major roads.[4] Recent studies also show that people of Klang Valley are willing to use public transport system if it is efficient and comfortable [33] However, this shift is highly impacted by peers pressure (subjective norm)[34].

On 18th June 2020, RapidKL's subsidiary Rapid Bus released new features on real time locations of bus in Google Maps, via collaboration with Google Transit[35][36][37][38]. Almost 170 RapidKL's bus routes are covered with this real time feature. Rapid Bus also plans to expand the application to MRT feeder bus service, Rapid Penang, and Rapid Kuantan in the future.

Future ProjectsEdit

Plaza RakyatEdit

Plaza Rakyat is a mixed-use skyscraper complex initiated during the 1990s that was to be completed but was halted due to the 1997 Asian financial crisis. The building was intended to replace Puduraya bus depot and also to provide better connectivity to Ampang Line's Plaza Rakyat LRT station. As of May 2013, the site remains abandoned.

Multi Lane Free FlowEdit

By 2008, expressways in Kuala Lumpur will introduce Multi-Lane Free Flow system similar to SmartTAG. Under the Multi-Lane Free Flow, which is similar to the system used extensively in Europe, the United States, Australia, Canada and Singapore, the toll charges will be deducted electronically as vehicles beating special tags pass through the plazas normal driving speeds as fast as 180 km/h, as there will be no barriers.[39] Trails of the system is expected to be run starting November 2008 with the Sungai Pencala Toll Plaza on the Damansara–Puchong Expressway(LDP) as the test site.[40] Shah Alam toll plaza as also been selected as a new test site for the system beginning December 2008.[41]|This system will implement in 2010 by stages

Outer ring railway serviceEdit

Currently in proposal phase as of April 2008, KTM propose a railway link to connect all suburbs in the Klang Valley. The 70 km line will be a circular loop and expected to link Sentul, Kepong, Sungai Buloh, Kelana Jaya, Shah Alam, Cheras and Bandar Tasik Selatan without going through the city centre.[42]

Bandar Tasik Selatan integrated transport hubEdit

The Bandar Tasik Selatan station will be upgraded to an integrated transport hub. It is expected to serve buses coming from the south of Kuala Lumpur. Construction has started since November 2007 and expected to complete by 2010.[43] Currently, the station serves Ampang Line, Rawang-Seremban Route of the KTM Komuter and KLIA Ekspres line.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

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  2. ^ "Department of Statistics Malaysia Official Portal". www.statistics.gov.my. Archived from the original on 2016-06-23. Retrieved 2016-11-14.
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  4. ^ a b Emizul. "KLCH Strategic Plan". www.dbkl.gov.my. Retrieved 2016-11-14.
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  6. ^ Amapng Line Ridership
  7. ^ Prasarana new operator of KL Monorail Archived 2007-12-01 at the Wayback Machine
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  15. ^ "GTP Annual Report 2013" (PDF). Jabatan Perdana Menteri. p. 57. Archived from the original (PDF) on 20 October 2014. Retrieved 16 October 2014.
  16. ^ "Aplikasi Google Maps Untuk Bantu Rancang Perjalanan Dengan Bas". Retrieved 2020-06-21.
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  18. ^ "Rapid Bus collaborates with Google Maps app to help users plan trips, view real-time location of buses". Retrieved 2020-06-21.
  19. ^ "https://themalaysianreserve.com/2020/06/19/rapidkl-users-can-now-plan-bus-trips-via-google-maps/". Retrieved 2020-06-21. External link in |title= (help)
  20. ^ a b c "The Bus Network Revamp (BNR)". Suruhanjaya Pengangkutan Awam Darat (SPAD). Archived from the original on 3 May 2017. Retrieved 1 January 2017.
  21. ^ a b "Teksi motosikal 'Dego Ride' bantu elak sesak". BH Online. 2016-11-23. Retrieved 2016-12-22.
  22. ^ KL 202 Structural Plan
  23. ^ One Way Streets in Golden Triangle
  24. ^ World First Dual Purpose Road Tunnel opens Archived 2006-05-22 at the Wayback Machine
  25. ^ a b Malaysia Airports 2006 Air Statistics
  26. ^ Subang Airport for Turboprops only Archived 2007-12-18 at the Wayback Machine
  27. ^ Airport Traffic
  28. ^ Port Klang expects to handle 7.74m TEU this year
  29. ^ QM2 Sails into Port Klang
  30. ^ Port Klang Free Zone
  31. ^ Two more new investors for PKFZ
  32. ^ "Kuala Lumpur Structure Plan 2020 : Transportation". www.dbkl.gov.my. Retrieved 2016-11-14.
  33. ^ Kaffashi, Sara (2016-11-01). "Are Malaysians eager to use their cars less? Forecasting mode choice behaviors under new policies" (PDF). Land Use Policy. 56: 274–290. doi:10.1016/j.landusepol.2016.05.005.
  34. ^ Kaffashi, Sara (2019-10-20). "Transforming to a low carbon society; an extended theory of planned behaviour of Malaysian citizens". Journal of Cleaner Production. 235: 1255–1264. doi:10.1016/j.jclepro.2019.07.047.
  35. ^ "Aplikasi Google Maps Untuk Bantu Rancang Perjalanan Dengan Bas". Retrieved 2020-06-21.
  36. ^ "Google Maps app to help Rapid bus users plan trips". Retrieved 2020-06-21.
  37. ^ "Rapid Bus collaborates with Google Maps app to help users plan trips, view real-time location of buses". Retrieved 2020-06-21.
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  39. ^ "Works Department of Malaysia to introduce Multi-Lane Free Flow in Kuala Lumpur". Ministry of Works Malaysia. Retrieved 2007-03-08.
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  43. ^ "RM570mil terminal project to proceed". The Star. 2008-07-08. Retrieved 2008-07-08.

External linksEdit