Timeline of women's suffrage
Women's suffrage – the right of women to vote – has been achieved at various times in countries throughout the world. In many nations, women's suffrage was granted before universal suffrage, so women and men from certain classes or races were still unable to vote. Some countries granted suffrage to both sexes at the same time. This timeline lists years when women's suffrage was enacted. Some countries are listed more than once, as the right was extended to more women according to age, land ownership, etc. In many cases, the first voting took place in a subsequent year.
Some women in the Isle of Man (geographically part of the British Isles but not part of the United Kingdom) gained the right to vote in 1881. Though it did not achieve nationhood until 1907, the colony of New Zealand was the first self-governing country in the world in which all women had the right to vote in, but not to stand for, parliamentary elections in 1893, followed closely by the colony of South Australia in 1894 (which, unlike New Zealand, allowed women to stand for Parliament). In Sweden, conditional women's suffrage was granted during the age of liberty between 1718 and 1772.
The Australian Commonwealth Franchise Act of 1902 enabled women to vote at federal elections and also permitted women to stand for election to the Australian Parliament, making the newly-federated country of Australia the first in the modern world to do so. In 1906, the autonomous Grand Duchy of Finland, which became the republic of Finland, was the second country in the world to implement both the right to vote and the right to run for office. Finland was also the first country in Europe to give women the right to vote. The world's first female members of parliament were elected in Finland the following year. In Europe, the last jurisdiction to grant women the right to vote was the Swiss canton of Appenzell Innerrhoden (AI), in 1991; AI is the smallest Swiss canton with c. 14,100 inhabitants in 1990. Women in Switzerland obtained the right to vote at federal level in 1971, and at local cantonal level between 1959 and 1972, except for Appenzell in 1989/1990, see Women's suffrage in Switzerland. In Saudi Arabia women were first allowed to vote in December 2015 in the municipal elections.
For other women's rights, see timeline of women's legal rights (other than voting).
- Sweden: Female taxpaying members of city guilds are allowed to vote in local city elections (rescinded in 1758) and national elections (rescinded in 1772):
- Sweden: Female taxpaying property owners of legal majority are allowed to vote in local countryside elections (never rescinded).
- Corsica: Female suffrage in the independent republic's Diet (assembly; rescinded upon annexation by France in 1769)
- US (still under British crown up until 1776) town of Uxbridge, Massachusetts: One woman, Lydia Taft, is allowed to vote in the town meeting
- Velez Province in what was then the New Granada Republic (Colombia) grants universal suffrage to men and women. The Supreme Court annulled the provision for women.
- Sweden: limited to local elections with votes graded after taxation; universal franchise achieved in 1919, which went into effect at the 1921 elections.
- The Grand Duchy of Finland ( Russian Empire): limited to taxpaying women in the countryside for municipal elections; and in 1872, extended to the cities.
- Victoria—Australian colony of Victoria: women were unintentionally enfranchised by the Electoral Act (1863), and proceeded to vote in the following year's elections. The Act was amended in 1865 to correct the error.
- Kingdom of Bohemia: limited to taxpaying women and women in "learned professions" who were allowed to vote by proxy and made eligible for election to the legislative body in 1864.
- United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland: limited to single women ratepayers for local elections under the Municipal Franchise Act. (Partial female suffrage in national elections in 1918; universal franchise in 1928.)
- United States-incorporated Territory of Wyoming: full suffrage for women.
- United States-incorporated Utah Territory: repealed by the Edmunds-Tucker Act in 1887.
- May 10, 1872, New York City: Equal Rights Party nominates Victoria C. Woodhull as their candidate for US President.
- Isle of Man (self-governing British Crown dependency, with its own parliament and legal system) (limited at first to women "freeholders"and then, a few years later, extended to include women "householders"). Universal suffrage / the franchise for all resident men and women was introduced in 1919. All men and women (with a very few exceptions such as clergy) could also stand for election from 1919.
- Ontario—Canadian province: limited to widows and spinsters to vote in municipal elections; later extended to other provinces.
- United States: Proposed Constitutional Amendment to extend suffrage and the right to hold office to women (limited to spinsters and widows who owned property).
- The municipality of Franceville in the New Hebrides (universal suffrage within its short existence. Loses self-rule within months)
- New Zealand: first self-governing colony in the world in which all women are given the right to vote in parliamentary elections. However, women were barred from standing for election until 1919.
- Cook Islands (British protectorate) universal suffrage.
- Colorado (US state) (first state in the union to enfranchise women by popular vote)
- South Australia: universal suffrage, extending the franchise from property-owning women (granted in 1861) to all women, the first colony in Australia to do so.
- United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland: Local Government Act confirms single women's right to vote in local elections and extends this franchise to some married women. By 1900, over 1 million women were registered for local government elections in England.
- South Australia: South Australian women became the first in the world to stand for election. This right had been granted the previous year in an act of the South Australian Parliament.
- South Australia (Australian state): were allowed to vote in Australia's first federal election
- Western Australia (Australian state): were allowed to vote in Australia's first federal election
- Australia: The Australian Constitution gives the federal franchise to all persons allowed to vote for the lower house in each state unless the Commonwealth Parliament stipulates otherwise. South Australian and Western Australian women had been able vote in the first federal election in 1901. During the first Parliament, the Commonwealth passes legislation extending federal franchise to non-Aboriginal women in all states. Aboriginal women have the vote in South Australia in 1901. The Commonwealth Franchise Act 1902 withdraws any such Aboriginal voting rights for federal elections, providing that, "No aboriginal native of Australia ... shall be entitled to have his name placed on an Electoral Roll unless so entitled under section forty-one of the Constitution.
- New South Wales (Australian state)
- Australia: The first independent nation to hold national elections where women were given the vote nationwide, was the Commonwealth of Australia. This occurred in all states and territories in the second federal election in 1903, but in 1901 women were able to vote in the first federal election in the states of South Australia and Western Australia.
- Tasmania (Australian state)
- Grand Duchy of Finland ( Russian Empire) (first in Europe to give women the right to vote and stand for parliament). The world's first female members of parliament were elected in Finland the following year.
- New Hebrides: Perhaps inspired by the Franceville experiment, the Anglo-French Condominium of the New Hebrides grants women the right to vote in municipal elections and to serve on elected municipal councils. (Limited to British, French, and other colonists, and excluding indigenous women.)
- California (US state)
- Argentina: Julieta Lanteri, doctor and leading feminist activist, votes in the election for the Buenos Aires City Legislature. She had realized that the government did not make specifications regarding gender, and appealed to justice successfully, becoming the first South American woman to vote.
- Portugal: Carolina Beatriz Ângelo becomes the first Portuguese woman to vote due to a legal technicality; the law is shortly thereafter altered to specify only literate male citizens over the age of 21 had the right to vote.
- New York (US State)
- Belarusian People's Republic
- Latvia (as an independent country)
- British Columbia (Canadian province)
- Ontario (Canadian province)
- Canada (limited to war widows, women serving overseas, and women with family serving overseas)
- Russian Republic
- Ukrainian People's Republic
- Uruguay (per Constitution)
- Crimean People's Republic[clarification needed]
- Michigan (US state)
- South Dakota (US state)
- Oklahoma (US state)
- Canada (limited to women over 21, "not alien-born", and meeting provincially determined property qualifications)
- Denmark First four women elected to the Folketing
- Nova Scotia (Canadian province)
- Hungary Limited to women over the age of 24 who were literate. (full suffrage granted in 1945)
- Moldavian SSR (Soviet Union)
- Russian SFSR (Soviet Union)
- Kyrgyz SSR (Soviet Union)
- United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland (limited to women over 30, compared to 21 for men and 19 for those who had fought in World War One; various property qualifications remained; see Representation of the People Act 1918.)
- Afghanistan 
- Belgium (limited to voting at municipal level)
- Hungarian Soviet Republic universal suffrage to trade union members only
- Isle of Man - all adults could vote or be elected - Widows and single women who owned property could vote from 1881.
- Sweden (legalised, first election 1921)
- Netherlands (right to stand in election protected in 1917)
- New Zealand (women have the right to stand for election into parliament)
- New Brunswick (Canadian province) (limited to voting. Women's right to stand for office protected in 1934)
- Minnesota (US state)
- Southern Rhodesia (British Crown Colony) (women now allowed to vote and stand for election into parliament)
- South West Caucasian Republic
- Irish Free State (equal parliamentary (Oireachtas) suffrage upon independence from UK. Partial suffrage granted as part of UK in 1918.)
- Prince Edward Island (Canadian province)
- Yucatán (Mexican state) (limited to regional and congressional elections)
- Ecuador (a doctor, Matilde Hidalgo de Prócel, sues and wins the right to vote)
- Spain (limited to single women and widows in local elections. First women mayors)
- Mongolia (no electoral system in place prior to this year)
- Saint Lucia
- Kazakh SSR (Soviet Union)
- Tajik SSR (Soviet Union)
- Italy (limited to local elections)
- Dominion of Newfoundland (limited to women 25 and older; men can vote at age 21. Equal suffrage granted in 1946.)
- Turkmen SSR (Soviet Union)
- Uruguay (women's suffrage is broadcast for the first time in 1927, in the plebiscite of Cerro Chato)
- Romania (limited to local elections only, with restrictions)
- Puerto Rico (literate women given the right to vote. Equal suffrage granted in 1935.)
- Ecuador (the right of women to vote is written into the Constitution)
- South Africa (Women's Enfranchisement Act, 1930: limited to white women on the same basis as white men.)
- Turkey (limited to municipal elections).
- Chile (limited to municipal level for female owners of real estate under Legislative Decree No. 320)
- Portugal (with restrictions following level of education)
- Spain (universal suffrage)
- Chile (limited to municipal level under Law No. 5,357)
- Portugal (suffrage is expanded)
- Tabasco (Mexican state) (limited to regional and congress elections only)
- Turkey (parliamentary elections; full voting rights).
- British Raj
- British Burma (women are granted the right to vote)
- Irish Free State (equal suffrage at local elections; partial suffrage as part of the UK from 1869, extended in 1918.)
- El Salvador (with restrictions requiring literacy and a higher age)
- Romania (women are granted suffrage on equal terms with men with restrictions on both men and women; in practice the restrictions affected women more than men)
- Dutch East Indies (limited to European women only)
- Panama (with restrictions. Full suffrage granted in 1946.)
- Dutch East Indies
- Guatemala (Literate only)
- French Togoland
- French Somaliland
- North Korea
- Liberia (Americo women only; indigenous men and women were not enfranchised until 1951)
- Mandatory Palestine
- Portugal (expands suffrage)
- Republic of China (includes Taiwan: with restrictions)
- Mexico (limited to municipal level)
- United Nations adopted The Universal Declaration of Human Rights Article 21
- Israel (establishment of the state)
- South Korea
- Dutch Surinam
- Chile (right expanded to all elections on January 8 by Law No. 9,292)
- Netherlands Antilles 
- People's Republic of China (establishment of the state)
- Costa Rica
- Antigua and Barbuda
- Saint Christopher-Nevis-Anguilla
- Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
- Vaud (Swiss canton)
- Neuchâtel (Swiss canton)
- San Marino
- Cayman Islands
- Australia (universal suffrage Australian Aboriginals men and women)
- Brunei (revoked) (including men)
- Northern Rhodesia
- Democratic Republic of the Congo
- Ecuador (women's vote made obligatory, like that of men's)
- South Yemen
- Basel-Landschaft (Swiss canton)
- Bermuda (universal)
- Portugal (few electoral rights were reserved for men)
- Switzerland (federal level)
- Bangladesh (suffrage enshrined in constitution adopted after independence. (For pre 1971 rights see British Raj 1935 and Pakistan 1947)
- Timor Timur (Indonesia)
- Portugal (all restrictions were lifted after the Carnation Revolution)
- Namibia (Namibia never held an election until 1989. Namibia gained independence from the South African government in 1990.)
- Appenzell Innerrhoden (Swiss canton) was forced to accept women's suffrage by the Federal Supreme Court of Switzerland
Note: in some countries both men and women have limited suffrage. For example, in Brunei, which is a sultanate, there are no national elections, and voting exists only on local issues. In the United Arab Emirates the rulers of the seven emirates each select a proportion of voters for the Federal National Council (FNC) that together account for about 12% of Emirati citizens.
- Timeline of first women's suffrage in majority-Muslim countries
- Timeline of women's suffrage in the United States
- Timeline of women's legal rights (other than voting)
- List of the first female holders of political offices in Europe
- List of suffragists and suffragettes
- List of women's rights activists
- Women's suffrage organizations
- 'New Zealand women and the vote', URL: http://www.nzhistory.net.nz/politics/womens-suffrage, (Ministry for Culture and Heritage), updated 17 July 2014.
- Karlsson Sjögren, Åsa, Männen, kvinnorna och rösträtten: medborgarskap och representation 1723–1866 [Men, women and suffrage: citizenship and representation 1723–1866], Carlsson, Stockholm, 2006 (in Swedish)
- Brief history of the Finnish Parliament
- Centenary of women's full political rights in Finland
- "Bilanz der ständigen Wohnbevölkerung nach Kanton, 1991–2016" (XLS) (official site). Neuchâtel, Switzerland: Federal Statistical Office, FSO. 30 August 2017. Retrieved 2018-05-07.
- Bonnie G. Smith, ed. (2008). The Oxford Encyclopedia of Women in World History. Oxford University Press. pp. 171 vol 1. ISBN 9780195148909.CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link)
- "Women dominate new Swiss cabinet". BBC News.
- Photograph Tasneem Alsultan, National Geographic. "In a Historic Election, Saudi Women Cast First-Ever Ballots".
- *Wierdsma Schik, P. (1857). "Akademisch proefschrift over de staatsregtelijke geschiedenis der Staten van Friesland van 1581 tot 1795". Google Books (in Dutch). W. Eekhoff. p. 18. Retrieved 11 June 2018.
- Lucien Felli, "La renaissance du Paolisme". M. Bartoli, Pasquale Paoli, père de la patrie corse, Albatros, 1974, p. 29. "Il est un point où le caractère précurseur des institutions paolines est particulièrement accusé, c'est celui du suffrage en ce qu'il était entendu de manière très large. Il prévoyait en effet le vote des femmes qui, à l'époque, ne votaient pas en France."
- Lydia Chapin Taft Biography Women's Suffrage by Frances Stanford | Humanities 360
- "Women and the vote: Page 5 – World suffrage timeline". Nzhistory.net.nz. New Zealand History. Retrieved 12 October 2015.
- M C Mirrow, Latin American Constitutionalism: The Constitution of Cadiz and its legacy
- P. Orman Ray: Woman Suffrage in Foreign Countries. The American Political Science Review. Vol. 12, No. 3 (Aug. 1918), pp. 469–474
- "Women in Parliament – Parliament of Victoria". Parliament.vic.gov.au. Retrieved 2013-05-06.
- "Female Suffrage before 1918", The History of the Parliamentary Franchise, House of Commons Library, 1 March 2013, pp. 37–9, retrieved 16 March 2016,
by 1900 the number of women registered for the local government franchise in England was over 1 million
- Heater, Derek (2006). Citizenship in Britain: A History. Edinburgh University Press. p. 136. ISBN 9780748626724.
- "Women's rights". The National Archives. Retrieved 11 February 2015.
- "Which Act Gave Women the Right to Vote in Britain?". Synonym. Retrieved 11 February 2015.
- Rea, Tom. "Right Choice, Wrong Reasons: Wyoming women win the right to vote". wyohistory.org. Retrieved 26 August 2015.
- Myers, Rebecca (28 May 2013). "General History of Women's Suffrage in Britain". The Independent. Retrieved 26 August 2015.
- "Canada-WomensVote-WomenSuffrage". Faculty.marianopolis.edu. 1916-01-27. Retrieved 2013-05-06.
- United States House of Representatives (1888-04-30). "House Joint Resolution (H.J. Res.) 159, Proposing an Amendment to the Constitution to Extend the Right to Vote to Widows and Spinsters who are Property Holders". National Archives Catalog. National Archives and Records Administration. Retrieved 29 July 2016.
- "Wee, Small Republics: A Few Examples of Popular Government," Hawaiian Gazette, Nov 1, 1895, p 1
- 'New Zealand women and the vote', URL: http://www.nzhistory.net.nz/politics/womens-suffrage, (Ministry for Culture and Heritage), updated 17-Jul-2014
- Women's Suffrage
- 'World suffrage timeline', URL: http://www.nzhistory.net.nz/politics/womens-suffrage/world-suffrage-timeline, (Ministry for Culture and Heritage), updated 5 August 2015
- Chapin, Laura (21 August 2010). "Colorado Led the Way on Women's Suffrage". usnews.com. Retrieved 26 August 2015.
- Alan Fenna; Jane Robbins; John Summers (5 September 2013). Government Politics in Australia. Pearson Higher Education AU. pp. 312–. ISBN 978-1-4860-0138-5.
- August Bebel (12 November 2014). Woman and Socialism (English Edition). Socialist Literature Company. pp. 196–. GGKEY:PAF3FSJXP21.
- Frances Maule; Annie Gertrude Webb Porritt (1917). Woman Suffrage: History, Arguments, and Results : a Collection of Six Popular Booklets Covering Practically the Entire Field of Suffrage Claims and Evidence : Designed Especially for the Convenience of Suffrage Speakers and Writers and for the Use of Debaters and Libraries. National Woman Suffrage Publishing Company.
- "Constitution of the State of Utah (Article IV Section 1)". 1896-01-04.
- Documenting a Democracy, Museum of Australian Democracy, retrieved 13 October 2011
- Bourdiol, Julien (1908), Condition internationale des Nouvelles-Hebrides, p 106
- Pipes, Richard (1997). The Formation of the Soviet Union: Communism and Nationalism, 1917–1923. Harvard University Press. p. 81. ISBN 9780674309517.
- Sulkunen, Irma; Nevala-Nurmi, Seija-L eena; Markkola, Pirjo, eds. (2009). Suffrage, Gender and Citizenship: international perspectives on parliamentary reforms. Newcastle upon Tyne, England: Cambridge Scholars. pp. 242–243. ISBN 978-1-4438-0162-1.
- See article 4 of the 1918 constitution of the R.S.F.S.R..
- Lewis, Jone Johnson. "International Woman Suffrage Timeline". About.com. Retrieved 2 November 2013.
- Popescu, Camelia. "Lupta pentru dreptul de vot feminin în România interbelică". Historia.ro. Adevărul Holding. Retrieved 4 January 2014.
- "This Day in World History: February 6, 1935 – Turkey Holds First Election That Allows Women to Vote". OUP Blog.
- "This Day in World History: February 6, 1935 – Turkey Holds First Election That Allows Women to Vote". OUP Blog.
- "Local Government (Extension of Franchise) Act, 1935, Section 2". Irish Statute Book. Retrieved 4 November 2017.; O'Kelly, Seán T. (1 June 1933). "Dáil Éireann debate - Thursday, 1 Jun 1933: Cement (No. 2) Bill, 1933—Money Resolution. - Local Government (Extension of Franchise) Bill, 1933.—Second Stage". Dáil Éireann Debates. Vol.47 No.18 p.21 cc.2301–2303. Retrieved 4 November 2017.
The qualifications are to be found in the Representation of the People Act, 1918, and except for an alteration in the qualifying date there has been no change in the law in respect of this franchise.... The Bill extends local government franchise to every person who is a citizen of Saorstát Eireann who has attained the age of 21 years and is not subject to legal incapacity
- Fraser, Hugh (1918). "Franchises (women)". The Representation of the people act, 1918 : with explanatory notes. London: Sweet and Maxwell. pp. 73–76.
- "Summary: Rights to Vote in Romania". Retrieved 6 October 2014.
- "CONSTITUŢIA: României din 1938". Retrieved 6 October 2014.
- "The Evolution of Bermuda's Franchise". Parliamentary Registry Bermuda.
- (in Italian) Extension to the women of the right to vote Archived 2008-05-26 at the Wayback Machine.
- "Women's Suffrage". Ipu.org. 1997-05-23. Retrieved 2013-05-06.
- Gregory Hammond, The Women's Suffrage Movement and Feminism in Argentina From Roca to Peron (U of New Mexico Press; 2011)
- The Universal Declaration of Human Rights
- "El Voto Feminino en Ecuador, published 6 April 1991, accessed 1 November 2010". Hoy.com.ec. 2011-10-14. Retrieved 2013-05-06.
- Women's Suffrage
- Darwish, Adel (October 25, 2002). "Bahrain's women vote for first time". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved May 25, 2010.
- African Women and Children. Apollo Rwormie. 2001. ISBN 9780275962180.
- "Woman Suffrage Timeline International – Winning the Vote Around the World". Womenshistory.about.com. 1908-04-25. Retrieved 2013-05-06.
- "Kuwait grants women right to vote". CNN. May 16, 2005. Retrieved 13 April 2014.
- "Full Text of Iraqi Constitution". Washington Post. October 12, 2005. Retrieved 17 November 2016.
- "Women in Saudi Arabia 'to vote and run in elections'". BBC News. London. September 25, 2011. Retrieved September 25, 2011.