The Third Way is a political position akin to centrism that attempts to reconcile right-wing and left-wing politics by advocating a varying synthesis of centre-right economic platforms with some centre-left social policies. The Third Way was created as a re-evaluation of political policies within various centre-left progressive movements in response to doubt regarding the economic viability of the state and the overuse of economic interventionist policies that had previously been popularised by Keynesianism, but which at that time contrasted with the rise of popularity for neoliberalism and the New Right starting in the late 1970s and throughout the 1980s. The Third Way has been promoted by social liberal and social-democratic parties. In the United States, a leading proponent of the Third Way was then-President Bill Clinton.
In the United Kingdom, Third Way social-democratic proponent Tony Blair claimed that the socialism he advocated was different from traditional conceptions of socialism and said: "My kind of socialism is a set of values based around notions of social justice. [...] Socialism as a rigid form of economic determinism has ended, and rightly". Blair referred to it as a "social-ism" involving politics that recognised individuals as socially interdependent and advocated social justice, social cohesion, equal worth of each citizen and equal opportunity. Third Way social-democratic theorist Anthony Giddens has said that the Third Way rejects the state socialist conception of socialism and instead accepts the conception of socialism as conceived of by Anthony Crosland as an ethical doctrine that views social-democratic governments as having achieved a viable ethical socialism by removing the unjust elements of capitalism by providing social welfare and other policies and that contemporary socialism has outgrown the Marxist claim for the need of the abolition of capitalism as a mode of production. In 2009, Blair publicly declared support for a "new capitalism".
The Third Way supports the pursuit of greater egalitarianism in society through action to increase the distribution of skills, capacities and productive endowments while rejecting income redistribution as the means to achieve this. It emphasises commitment to balanced budgets, providing equal opportunity which is combined with an emphasis on personal responsibility, the decentralisation of government power to the lowest level possible, encouragement and promotion of public–private partnerships, improving labour supply, investment in human development, preserving of social capital and protection of the environment. However, specific definitions of Third Way policies may differ between Europe and the United States.
The Third Way has been heavily criticised by other social democrats as well as anarchists, communists and in particular democratic socialists as a betrayal of left-wing values, with some analysts characterising the Third Way as an effectively neoliberal movement. It has also been criticised by certain conservatives, classical liberals and libertarians who advocate for laissez-faire capitalism.
As a term, the third way has been used to explain a variety of political courses and ideologies in the last few centuries. These ideas were implemented by progressives in the early 20th century. The term was picked up again in the 1950s by German ordoliberal economists such as Wilhelm Röpke, resulting in the development of the concept of the social market economy. Röpke later distanced himself from the term and located the social market economy as first way in the sense of an advancement of the free-market economy.
During the Prague Spring of 1968, reform economist Ota Šik proposed third way economic reform as part of political liberalisation and democratisation within the country. In historical context, such proposals were better described as liberalised centrally-planned economy rather than the socially-sensitive capitalism that Third Way policies tend to have been identified with in the West. In the 1970s and 1980s, Enrico Berlinguer, leader of the Italian Communist Party, came to advocate a vision of a socialist society that was more pluralist than the real socialism which was typically advocated by official communist parties whilst being more economically egalitarian than social democracy. This was part of the wider trend of Eurocommunism in the communist movement and provided a theoretical basis for Berlinguer's pursuit of the Historic Compromise with the Christian Democrats.
Third Way politics is visible in Anthony Giddens' works such as Consequences of Modernity (1990), Modernity and Self-Identity (1991), The Transformation of Intimacy (1992), Beyond Left and Right (1994) and The Third Way: The Renewal of Social Democracy (1998). In Beyond Left and Right, Giddens criticises market socialism and constructs a six-point framework for a reconstituted radical politics that includes the following values:
- Repair damaged solidarities.
- Recognise the centrality of life politics.
- Accept that active trust implies generative politics.
- Embrace dialogic democracy.
- Rethink the welfare state.
- Confront violence.
In The Third Way, Giddens provides the framework within which the Third Way, also termed by Giddens as the radical centre, is justified. In addition, it supplies a broad range of policy proposals aimed at what Giddens calls the "progressive centre-left" in British politics.
In a 1999 BBC report, the Third Way has been defined as such:
[S]omething different and distinct from liberal capitalism with its unswerving belief in the merits of the free market and democratic socialism with its demand management and obsession with the state. The Third Way is in favour of growth, entrepreneurship, enterprise and wealth creation but it is also in favour of greater social justice and it sees the state playing a major role in bringing this about. So in the words of [...] Anthony Giddens of the LSE the Third Way rejects top down socialism as it rejects traditional neo liberalism.
A social democratic variant of the Third Way which approaches the centre from a social democratic perspective has been advocated by its proponents as an alternative to both capitalism and what it regards as the traditional forms of socialism, including Marxian and state socialism, that Third Way social democrats reject. It advocates ethical socialism, reformism and gradualism that includes advocating the humanisation of capitalism, a mixed economy, political pluralism and liberal democracy.
The Third Way has been advocated by proponents as competition socialism, an ideology in between traditional socialism and capitalism. Anthony Giddens, a prominent proponent of the Third Way, has publicly supported a modernised form of socialism within the social democracy movement, but he claims that traditional socialist ideology (referring to state socialism) that involves economic management and planning are flawed and states that as a theory of the managed economy it barely exists any longer.
Under the nominally centre-left Australian Labor Party (ALP) from 1983 to 1996, the Bob Hawke and Paul Keating governments pursued many economic policies associated with economic rationalism such as floating the Australian Dollar in 1983, reductions in trade tariffs, taxation reforms, changing from centralised wage-fixing to enterprise bargaining, heavy restrictions on trade union activities including on strike action and pattern bargaining, the privatisation of government-run services and enterprises such as Qantas and the Commonwealth Bank and wholesale deregulation of the banking system. Keating also proposed a Goods and Services Tax (GST) in 1985, but this was scrapped due to its unpopularity amongst both ALP and electorate. The party also desisted from other reforms such as wholesale labour market deregulation, the eventual GST, the privatisation of Telstra and welfare reform. The Hawke Keating governments have been considered by some as laying the groundwork for the later development of both the New Democrats in the United States and New Labour in the United Kingdom. One political commentator agreed that it led centre-left parties towards the path to neoliberalism. Meanwhile, others acknowledge several neoliberal reforms, but at the same time disagreed and focused on the prosperity and social equality that they provided in the "26 years of uninterrupted economic growth since 1991", seeing it as fitting well within "Australian Labourism".
Both Hawke and Keating made some criticism too. In the lead-up to the 2019 federal election, Hawke made a joint statement with Keating endorsing Labor's economic plan and condemned the Liberal Party for "completely [giving] up the economic reform agenda". They stated that "[Bill] Shorten's Labor is the only party of government focused on the need to modernise the economy to deal with the major challenge of our time: human induced climate change".
Various ideological beliefs were factionalised under reforms to the ALP under Gough Whitlam, resulting in what is now known as the Labor Left, who tend to favour a more interventionist economic policy, more authoritative top-down controls and some socially progressive ideals; and Labor Right, the now dominant faction that is pro-business, more economically liberal and focuses to a lesser extent on social issues. The Whitlam government was first to use the term economic rationalism. The Whitlam government from 1972 to 1975 changed from a democratic socialism platform to social democracy, their precursor to the party's Third Way policies. Under the Whitlam government, tariffs across the board were cut by 25 per cent after twenty-three years of Labor being in opposition.
Former Labor Prime Minister Kevin Rudd's first speech to parliament in 1998 stated:
Competitive markets are massive and generally efficient generators of economic wealth. They must therefore have a central place in the management of the economy. But markets sometimes fail, requiring direct government intervention through instruments such as industry policy. There are also areas where the public good dictates that there should be no market at all. We are not afraid of a vision in the Labor Party, but nor are we afraid of doing the hard policy yards necessary to turn that vision into reality. Parties of the Centre Left around the world are wrestling with a similar challenge—the creation of a competitive economy while advancing the overriding imperative of a just society. Some call this the "third way". The nomenclature is unimportant. What is important is that it is a repudiation of Thatcherism and its Australian derivatives represented opposite. It is in fact a new formulation of the nation's economic and social imperatives.
While critical of economists such as Friedrich Hayek, Rudd described himself as "basically a conservative when it comes to questions of public financial management", pointing to his slashing of public service jobs as a Queensland governmental advisor. Rudd's government has been praised and credited "by most economists, both local and international, for helping Australia avoiding a post-global-financial-crisis recession" during the Global Recession.
The Italian Democratic Party is a plural social democratic party including several distinct ideologic trends. Politicians such as former Prime Ministers Romano Prodi and Matteo Renzi are proponents of the Third Way. Renzi has occasionally been compared to former British Prime Minister Tony Blair for his political views. Renzi himself has previously claimed to be as supporter of Blair's ideology of the Third Way, regarding an objective to synthesize liberal economics and left-wing social policies.
Under Renzi's secretariat, the Democratic Party took a strong stance in favour of constitutional reform and of a new electoral law on the road toward a two-party system. It is not an easy task to find the exact political trend represented by Renzi and his supporters, who have been known as Renziani. The nature of Renzi's progressivism is a matter of debate and has been linked both to liberalism and populism. According to Maria Teresa Meli of Corriere della Sera, Renzi "pursues a precise model, borrowed from the Labour Party and Bill Clinton's Democratic Party", comprising "a strange mix (for Italy) of liberal policy in the economic sphere and populism. This means that on one side he will attack the privileges of trade unions, especially of the CGIL, which defends only the already protected, while on the other he will sharply attack the vested powers, bankers, Confindustria and a certain type of capitalism".
After the Democratic Party's defeat in the 2018 general election in which the party gained 18.8% and 19.1% of the vote (down from 25.5% and 27.4% in 2013) and lost 185 deputies and 58 senators, respectively, Renzi resigned as the party's secretary. In March 2019, Nicola Zingaretti, a social democrat and prominent member of the party's left-wing with solid roots in the Italian Communist Party, won the leadership election by a landslide, defeating Maurizio Martina (Renzi's former deputy secretary) and Roberto Giachetti (supported by most Renziani). Zingaretti focused his campaign on a clear contrast with Renzi's policies and his victory opened the way for a new party.
In September 2019, Renzi announced his intention to leave the Democratic Party and create a new parliamentary group. He officially launched Italia Viva to continue the liberal and Third Way tradition within a pro-Europeanism framework, especially as represented by the French President Emmanuel Macron's La République En Marche!.
In 1979, the Labour Party professed a complete adherence to social democratic ideals and rejected the choice between a "prosperous and efficient Britain" and a "caring and compassionate Britain". Coherent with this position, the main commitment of the party was the reduction of economic inequality via the introduction of a wealth tax. This was rejected in the 1997 manifesto, along with many changes in the 1990s like the progressive dismissal of traditional social democratic ideology and the transformation into New Labour, de-emphasising the need to tackle economic inequality and focusing instead on the expansion of opportunities for all whilst fostering social capital.
Former Prime Minister Tony Blair is cited as a Third Way politician. According to a former member of Blair's staff, Blair and the Labour Party learnt from and owes a debt to Bob Hawke's government in Australia in the 1980s on how to govern as a Third Way party. Blair wrote in a Fabian pamphlet in 1994 of the existence of two prominent variants of socialism, namely one based on a Marxist–Leninist economic determinist and collectivist tradition and the other being an ethical socialism based on values of "social justice, the equal worth of each citizen, equality of opportunity, community". Blair is a particular follower of the ideas and writings of Giddens.
In 1998, Blair, then Labour Party Leader and Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, described the Third Way, how it relates to social democracy and its relation with both the Old Left and the New Right, as follows:
The Third Way stands for a modernised social democracy, passionate in its commitment to social justice and the goals of the centre-left. [...] But it is a third way because it moves decisively beyond an Old Left preoccupied by state control, high taxation and producer interests; and a New Right treating public investment, and often the very notions of "society" and collective endeavour, as evils to be undone.
In 2002, Anthony Giddens listed problems facing the New Labour government, naming spin as the biggest failure because its damage to the party's image was difficult to rebound from. He also challenged the failure of the Millennium Dome project and Labour's inability to deal with irresponsible businesses. Giddens saw Labour's ability to marginalise the Conservative Party as a success as well its economic policy, welfare reform and certain aspects of education. Giddens criticised what he called Labour's "half-way houses", including the National Health Service and environmental and constitutional reform.
In 2008, Charles Clarke, a former United Kingdom Home Secretary and the first senior Blairite to attack Prime Minister Gordon Brown openly and in print, stated: "We should discard the techniques of 'triangulation' and 'dividing lines' with the Conservatives, which lead to the not entirely unjustified charge that we simply follow proposals from the Conservatives or the right-wing media, to minimize differences and remove lines of attack against us".
Brown was succeeded by Ed Miliband's One Nation Labour in 2010 and self-described democratic socialist Jeremy Corbyn in 2015 as the Leader of the Labour Party. This led some to comment that New Labour is "dead and buried".
The Third Way as practised under New Labour has been criticised as being effectively a new, centre-right and neoliberal party. Some such as Glen O'Hara have argued that while containing "elements that we could term neoliberal", New Labour was more left-leaning than it is given credit for.
In the United States, Third Way adherents embrace fiscal conservatism to a greater extent than traditional economic liberals, advocate some replacement of welfare with workfare and sometimes have a stronger preference for market solutions to traditional problems (as in pollution markets) while rejecting pure laissez-faire economics and other libertarian positions. The Third Way style of governing was firmly adopted and partly redefined during the administration of President Bill Clinton.
As a term, it was introduced by political scientist Stephen Skowronek. Third Way Presidents "undermine the opposition by borrowing policies from it in an effort to seize the middle and with it to achieve political dominance". Examples of this are Richard Nixon's economic policies which were a continuation of Lyndon B. Johnson's Great Society as well as Clinton's welfare reform later.
Along with Blair, Prodi, Gerhard Schröder and other leading Third Way adherents, Clinton organized conferences to promote the Third Way philosophy in 1997 at Chequers in England. The Third Way think tank and the Democratic Leadership Council are adherents of Third Way politics.
In 2013, American lawyer and former bank regulator William K. Black wrote that "Third Way is this group that pretends sometimes to be center-left but is actually completely a creation of Wall Street—it's run by Wall Street for Wall Street with this false flag operation as if it were a center-left group. It's nothing of the sort".
Other leaders who have adopted elements of the Third Way style of governance include Viktor Klima and Alfred Gusenbauer in Austria, Fernando Henrique Cardoso and Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva in Brazil, Jean Chrétien and Paul Martin in Canada, Ricardo Lagos and Michelle Bachelet (only her first period) in Chile, Juan Manuel Santos in Colombia, Helle Thorning-Schmidt in Denmark, Paavo Lipponen in Finland, Gerhard Schröder of Germany, Costas Simitis in Greece, Ferenc Gyurcsány in Hungary, Ehud Barak, Ehud Olmert and Tzipi Livni in Israel, Muammar Gaddafi in Libya Wim Kok of the Netherlands, Helen Clark in New Zealand, Alan García and Alejandro Toledo in Peru, Leszek Miller and Marek Belka in Poland, António Guterres and José Sócrates of Portugal, Victor Ponta in Romania, Thabo Mbeki in South Africa, Kim Dae-jung and Roh Moo-hyun in South Korea and Ingvar Carlsson and Göran Persson in Sweden.
By the 2010s, social democratic parties that accepted Third Way politics such as triangulation and the neoliberal shift in policies such as austerity, deregulation, free trade, privatisation and welfare reforms such as workfare experienced a drastic decline as the Third Way had largely fallen out of favour in a phenomenon known as Pasokification. Scholars have linked the decline of social democratic parties to the declining number of industrial workers, greater economic prosperity of voters and a tendency for these parties to shift closer to the centre-right on economic issues, alienating their former base of supporters and voters. This decline has been matched by increased support for more left-wing and populist parties as well as Left and Green social-democratic parties that rejected neoliberal and Third Way policies.
Democratic socialism has emerged in opposition to Third Way social democracy on the basis that democratic socialists are committed to systemic transformation of the economy from capitalism to socialism whereas social-democratic supporters of the Third Way were more concerned about challenging the New Right and win social democracy back to power. This has resulted in analysts and critics alike arguing that in effect it endorsed capitalism, even if it was due to recognising that outspoken opposition to capitalism in these circumstances was politically nonviable; and that it was anti-social democratic in practice. Others saw it as theoretically fitting with modern socialism, especially liberal socialism, distinguishing it from both classical socialism and traditional democratic socialism or social democracy.
Third Way economic policies began to be challenged following the Great Recession, and the rise of right-wing populism has put the ideology into question. Many on the left have become more vocal in opposition to the Third Way, with the most prominent example in the United Kingdom being the rise of self-identified democratic socialist former Labour Party Leader Jeremy Corbyn as well as Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez and Bernie Sanders in the United States.
After the dismantling of his country's Marxist–Leninist government, Czechoslovakia's conservative finance minister Václav Klaus declared in 1990: "We want a market economy without any adjectives. Any compromises with that will only fuzzy up the problems we have. To pursue a so-called 'third way' [between central planning and the market economy] is foolish. We had our experience with this in the 1960s when we looked for a socialism with a human face. It did not work, and we must be explicit that we are not aiming for a more efficient version of a system that has failed. The market is indivisible; it cannot be an instrument in the hands of central planners".
Left-wing opponents of the Third Way argue that it represents social democrats who responded to the New Right by accepting capitalism. The Third Way most commonly uses market mechanics and private ownership of the means of production and in that sense it is fundamentally capitalist. In addition to opponents who have noticed this, other reviews have claimed that Third Way social democrats adjusted to the political climate since the 1980s that favoured capitalism by recognising that outspoken opposition to capitalism in these circumstances was politically nonviable and that accepting capitalism as the current powers that be and seeking to administer it to challenge laissez-faire liberals was a more pressing immediate concern. With the rise of neoliberalism in the late 1970s and early 1980s and the Third Way between the 1990s and 2000s, social democracy became synonymous with it. As a result, the section of social democracy that remained committed to the gradual abolition of capitalism and oppose the Third Way merged into democratic socialism. Many social democrats opposed to the Third Way overlap with democratic socialists in their committiment to an alternative to capitalism and a post-capitalist economy and have not only criticised the Third Way as anti-socialist and neoliberal, but also as anti-social democratic in practice.
Democratic and market socialists argue that the major reason for the economic shortcomings of command economies was their authoritarian nature rather than socialism itself, that it was a failure of a specific model and that therefore socialists should support democratic models rather than abandon it. Economists Pranab Bardhan and John Roemer argue that Soviet-type economies and Marxist–Leninist states failed because they did not create rules and operational criteria for the efficient operation of state enterprises in their administrative, command allocation of resources and commodities and the lack of democracy in the political systems that the Soviet-type economies were combined with. According to them, a form of competitive socialism that rejects dictatorship and authoritarian allocation in favor of democracy could work and prove superior to the market economy.
Although close to New Labour and a key figure in the development of the Third Way, sociologist Anthony Giddens dissociated himself from many of the interpretations of the Third Way made in the sphere of day-to-day politics. For him, it was not a succumbing to neoliberalism or the dominance of capitalist markets. The point was to get beyond both market fundamentalism and top-down socialism—to make the values of the centre-left count in a globalising world. He argued that "the regulation of financial markets is the single most pressing issue in the world economy" and that "global commitment to free trade depends upon effective regulation rather than dispenses with the need for it".
- Bobbio, Norberto; Cameron, Allan (1997).Left and Right: The Significance of A Political Distinction. University of Chicago Press. p. 8. ISBN 0-226-06245-7. ISBN 978-0-226-06245-7.
- "BBC News — UK Politics — What is the Third Way?". BBC News. 27 September 1999. Retrieved 16 June 2019.
- Lewis, Jane; Surender, Rebecca (2004). Welfare State Change: Towards a Third Way? Oxford University Press. pp. 3–4, 16.
- Richardson, James L. (2001). Contending Liberalisms in World Politics: Ideology and Power. Lynne Rienner Publishers. p. 194.
- Whyman, Philip (2005). Third Way Economics: Theory and Evaluation. Springer. ISBN 978-0-2305-1465-2.
- Edsall, Thomas B. (28 June 1998). "Clinton and Blair Envision a 'Third Way' International Movement". The Washington Post. p. A24. Retrieved 19 July 2020.
- Hastings, Adrian; Mason, Alistair; Pyper, Hugh (2000). The Oxford Companion to Christian Thought. Oxford University Press. p. 677.
- Freeden, Micharl (2004). Liberal Languages: Ideological Imaginations and Twentieth-Century Progressive Thought. Princeton University Press. p. 198.
- Giddens, Anthony (1998). Beyond Left and Right: The Future of Radical Politics. Cambridge, England, United Kingdom: Polity Press. pp. 71–72.
- "Speech by Tony Blair at the 'New world, new capitalism' conference". Tony Blair Office. Archived from the original on 10 March 2013.
- Lewis, Jane; Surender, Rebecca (2004). Welfare State Change: Towards a Third Way? Oxford University Press. p. 4.
- Rosenau, Pauline Vaillancourt (2003). The Competition Paradigm: America's Romance with Conflict, Contest, and Commerce. Lanham, Maryland, United States; Oxford, England, United Kingdom: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc. p. 209.
- Black, Bill (28 March 2013). "Gender Wage Gap is Shrinking - Male Wages are Going Down". The Real News Network. Retrieved 31 March 2013.
- Black, Bill (10 January 2013). "Third Way's" "Fresh Thinking": The EU Is Our Model for Austerity". The Huffington Post. Retrieved 10 January 2013.
- Black, Bill (3 March 2013). "Seriously? New York Times Calls Wall Street Front Group "Center-Left". AlterNet. Retrieved 3 March 2013.
- Barrientos, Armando; Powell, Martin (2004). "The Route Map of the Third Way". In Hale, Sarah; Leggett, Will; Martell, Luke (eds.). The Third Way and Beyond: Criticisms, Futures and Alternatives. Manchester University Press. pp. 9–26. ISBN 978-0-7190-6598-9.
- Romano, Flavio (2006). Clinton and Blair: The Political Economy of the Third Way. Routledge Frontiers of Political Economy. 75. London: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-37858-1.
- Hinnfors, Jonas (2006). Reinterpreting Social Democracy: A History of Stability in the British Labour Party and Swedish Social Democratic Party. Critical Labour Movement Studies. Manchester University Press. ISBN 978-0-7190-7362-5.
- Lafontaine, Oskar (2009). Left Parties Everywhere?. Socialist Renewal. Nottingham, England: Spokesman Books. ISBN 978-0-85124-764-9.
- Corfe, Robert (2010). The Future of Politics: With the Demise of the Left/Right Confrontational System. Bury St Edmunds, England: Arena Books. ISBN 978-1-906791-46-9.
- Bashan, Patrick (5 November 2002). "Is the Third Way at a Dead End?". Cato Institute. Archived from the original on 13 June 2007. Retrieved 7 July 2007.
- Veal, A. J. (2010). Leisure, Sport and Tourism, Politics, Policy and Planning. pp. 34–35. ISBN 9781845935238.
- Romano, Flavio (2006). Clinton and Blair: The Political Economy of the Third Way. Routledge Frontiers of Political Economy. 75. London: Routledge. p. 2. ISBN 978-0-415-37858-1.
- Röpke, Wilhelm (1951). Die Lehre von der Wirtschaft, Erlenbach-Zürich (in German). pp. 56–59.
- Sassoon, Donald (July 1984). "Berlinguer: architect of Eurocommunism" (PDF). Marxism Today. Communist Party of Great Britain. Retrieved 14 November 2016.
- Macmillan, Harold (1938). The Middle Way: A Study of the Problem of Economic and Social Progress in a Free and Democratic Society. London: Random House.
- Bryant, Christopher G. A.; Jary, David (2003), "Anthony Giddens", in Ritzer, George (ed.), The Blackwell Companion to Major Contemporary Social Theorists, Malden, Massachusetts Oxford: Blackwell, ISBN 9781405105958
- Bryant, Christopher G. A.; Jary, David (2003). "Anthony Giddens". Chapter 10. Anthony Giddens. Wiley. pp. 247–273. doi:10.1002/9780470999912.ch11. ISBN 9780470999912. Extract.
- Giddens, Anthony (1998). The Third Way: The Renewal of Social Democracy. Polity Press, pp. 44–46. ISBN 9780745622668
- Kelly, Michael (26 September 1992). "The 1992 Campaign: The Democrats; Clinton Says He's Not Leaning Left but Taking a New 'Third Way'". The New York Times. p. 7. Retrieved 10 July 2020.
- Arora, N. D. (2010). Political Science for Civil Services Main Examination. Tata McGraw-Hill Education. pp. 9, 22.
- Döring, Daniel (2007). Is 'Third Way' Social Democracy Still a Form of Social Democracy?. Norderstedt, Germany: GRIN Verlag. p. 3.
- Lowe, Rodney (1993). The Welfare State in Britain Since 1945. Palgrave. ISBN 978-1403911933.
- Lavelle, Ashley (1 December 2005). "Social Democrats and Neo-Liberalism: A Case Study of the Australian Labor Party". Political Studies. 53 (4): 753–771. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9248.2005.00555.x. S2CID 144842245.
- Humphrys, Elizabeth (8 October 2018). How Labour Built Neoliberalism: Australia's Accord, the Labour Movement and the Neoliberal Project. Brill Academic Publishers. ISBN 978-90-04-38346-3.
- Badham, Van (6 April 2017). "Australian Labor led centre-left parties into neoliberalism. Can they lead it out?" The Guardian. Retrieved 15 February 2020.
- Swan, Waye (13 May 2017). "Was embracing the market a necessary evil for Labour and Labor?" The Conversation. Retrieved 15 February 2020.
- Jacotine, Keshia (25 August 2017). "The Hawke-Keating agenda was Laborism, not neoliberalism, and is still a guiding light" The Guardian. Retrieved 15 February 2020.
- Snow, Deborah (30 March 2017). "Paul Keating says neo-liberalism is at 'a dead end' after Sally McManus speech". The Syndeny Morning Herald. Retrieved 15 February 2020.
- Robertson, Tim (20 April 2017). "We are all neoliberals now". Eureka Street. Retrieved 15 February 2020. "The Left's failure is, therefore, not so much that neoliberalism has failed, but that when it did there existed no alternative that could challenge its dominance. Keating, even now, proposes no solutions; he offers, simply, a critique."
- Hartcher, Peter (8 May 2019). "Bob Hawke and Paul Keating reunite for the first time in 28 years to endorse Labor's economic plan". The Canberra Times. Retrieved 15 February 2020.
- "John Quiggin — Journal Articles 1997 - Economic rationalism". uq.edu.au.
- "The Whitlam Institute: The Whitlam Collection: Tariff Reduction". Archived 20 July 2005 at the Wayback Machine
- Rudd, Kevin (11 November 1998). "First Speech to Parliament". Parliament of Australia. Archived from the original on 23 December 2007. Retrieved 9 December 2006.
- Rudd, Kevin (16 November 2006). "What's Wrong with the Right" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 1 December 2006. Retrieved 15 May 2019.
- Hartcher, Peter (14 October 2006). "Howard's warriors sweep all before them". Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 4 December 2006.
- "New Labor Leader Outlines Plan". The 7.30 Report. 4 December 2006. Retrieved 5 December 2006.
- "Labor elects new leader". The 7.30 Report. 4 December 2006. Retrieved 5 December 2006.
- Arnold, Martin (18 November 2005). "Presidential hopeful Strauss-Kahn seeks third way à la française". Financial Times. Retrieved 7 November 2016.
- Lohrenz, Carolin (15 January 2014). "Hollande chooses 'third way' on economy". Deutsche Welle. Retrieved 7 November 2016.
- Alcaro, Riccardo; Le Corre, Philippe (25 November 2014). "France's and Italy's New 'Tony Blairs': Third Way or No Way?". Brookings Institution. Retrieved 8 November 2016.
- Milner, Susan (6 February 2017). "Emmanuel Macron and the building of a new liberal-centrist movement". London School of Economics. Retrieved 23 May 2017.
- "All aboard the Third Way". BBC News.
- Enrico Franceschini; John Lloyd (3 April 2014). "Tony Blair: "Renzi mio erede, con la sua corsa alle riforme cambierà l'Italia". La Repubblica.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
- "Intervista a Matteo Renzi di Claudio Sardo". L'Unità. Archived from the original on 1 July 2015.
- "Irpef, Imu e la terza via di Gutgeld, "guru" economico di Renzi". Formiche Net. 9 June 2013.
- Concita De Gregorio (31 October 2011). "Il populista di centro". La Repubblica. Retrieved 17 May 2014.
- "La cura omeopatica Renzi per battere Berlusconi". Europa Quotidiano. 6 September 2013. Archived from the original on 6 October 2014. Retrieved 17 May 2014.
- "Ma Renzi pensa che il premier punti a un futuro in Europa". Corriere della Sera. Retrieved 17 May 2014.
- Sala, Alessandro (3 April 2018). "Elezioni 2018: M5S primo partito, nel centrodestra la Lega supera FI". Corriere della Sera (in Italian). Retrieved 18 February 2020.
- Matteucci, Piera (4 March 2018). "Elezioni politiche: vincono M5s e Lega. Crollo del Partito democratico. Centrodestra prima coalizione. Il Carroccio sorpassa Forza Italia". Repubblica (in Italian). Retrieved 18 February 2020.
- "Renzi: "Lascerò dopo nuovo governo. Pd all'opposizione". Ma è scontro nel partito: "Via subito". Orfini: "Percorso previsto dallo statuto". Repubblica (in Italian). 5 March 2018. Retrieved 18 February 2020.
- Casadio, Giovanna; Custodero, Alberto (12 March 2018). "Direzione Pd, Martina: "Governino Lega e M5s". Renzi assente: "Mi dimetto ma non mollo". Repubblica (in Italian). Retrieved 18 February 2020.
- Giuffrida, Angela (3 March 2019). "Nicola Zingaretti elected as leader of Italy's Democratic party". The Guardian. Retrieved 18 February 2020.
- Marra, Wanda (4 March 2019). "Zingaretti segretario. Il renzismo archiviato: "Voltiamo pagina". Il Fatto Quotidiano (in Italian). Retrieved 18 February 2020.
- "Primarie PD – Zingaretti: "Ora voltiamo pagina, pronti al riscatto di chi soffre per ingiustizie" (video)" (in Italian). Sky TG24. 4 March 2019. Retrieved 18 February 2020.
- Cuzzocrea, Annalisa (17 September 2019). "Renzi lascia il Pd: "Uscire dal partito sarà un bene per tutti. Anche per Conte". Repubblica (in Italian). Retrieved 23 February 2020.
- "Renzi: "Il nome della nuova sfida che stiamo per lanciare sarà Italia viva". Corriere della Sera. 17 September 2019. Retrieved 23 February 2020.
- Sciorilli Borrelli, Silvia; Barigazzi, Jacopo (7 September 2019) [5 September 2019]. "Matteo Renzi's triumphant return". Politico. Retrieved 23 February 2020.
- Broder, David (18 September 2019). "Matteo Renzi's new centrist party Italia Viva faces a struggle for relevance". New Statesman. Retrieved 23 February 2020.
- Segond, Valérie (17 September 2019). "Italie: Matteo Renzi fausse compagnie au Parti démocrate". Le Figaro (in French). Retrieved 23 February 2020.
- Meiler, Oliver (17 September 2019). "Der "Eindringling" geht". Süddeutsche Zeitung (in German). Retrieved 23 February 2020.
- "Leopolda 10, Renzi: "Non tartassare partite Iva. Noi come Macron, vogliamo i voti del Pd. Centrodestra finito, delusi FI vengano da noi". Il Fatto Quotidiano (in Italian). 20 October 2019. Retrieved 23 February 2020.
- "Renzi vuole essere il nuovo Macron". Il Foglio (in Italian). 21 October 2019. Retrieved 23 February 2020.
- Brittan, Samuel (20 November 1998). "Some reflections on the third way". Archived from the original on 19 July 2011. Retrieved 10 March 2010.
- "1979 Labour Party Manifesto".
- "1997 Labour Party Manifesto".
- Ferragina, Emanuele; Arrigoni, Alessandro (2016). "The Rise and Fall of Social Capital: Requiem for a Theory?". Political Studies Review.
- "Leader: Blair's new third way". the Guardian. 8 May 2005.
- "BBC News — UK Politics — All aboard the Third Way". BBC News.
- "How the British came, saw and helped Rudd". The Age. 17 December 2007.
- Stephen D. Tansey, Nigel A. Jackson. Politics: the basics. Fourth Edition. Oxon, England, UK; New York, New York, USA: Routledge, 2008. Pp. 97.
- Grice, Andrew (7 January 2002). "Architect of 'Third Way' attacks New Labour's policy 'failures'". The Independent. Retrieved 13 June 2017.
- Totaro, Paola (8 May 2008). "Most Britons want Brown to go: poll". The Age. Archived from the original on 14 May 2008. Retrieved 8 May 2008.
- "Jeremy Corbyn's policies: how will he lead Labour?". The Week. 12 September 2015.
- Jones, Owen (13 June 2017). "New Labour is dead. Jeremy Corbyn's shadow cabinet must stay as it is". The Guardian. Retrieved 8 February 2020.
- Calamur, Krishnadev (18 August 2015). "How a Socialist Prime Minister Might Govern Britain". The Atlantic. Archived from the original on 19 April 2016. Retrieved 8 February 2020.
- Ross, Tim; Dominiczak, Peter; Riley-Smith, Ben (30 March 2018). "Death of New Labour as Jeremy Corbyn's socialist party begins a period of civil war". The Telegraph. Retrieved 8 February 2020.
- "Sacrifices in the scramble for power". BBC News. 22 February 2000. "Some even go so far as to say New Labour is a betrayal of everything the party's founders stood for and that, to all intents and purposes, is a different party merely using the same name. They often claim it represents Margaret Thatcher's greatest victory in wiping socialism off the British political map. Under New Labour, the demand for "the common ownership of the means of production" has been dumped and the free market warmly embraced. Trades unions, who helped found the party, are now held at arms length. [...] Instead New Labour looks determined to remain firmly in the centre of British politics - even though the centre moved decidedly to the right during the Thatcher years." Retrieved 18 February 2020.
- Cammack, Paul (2004). "Giddens's Way with Words". In Hale, Sarah; Leggett, Will; Martell, Luke (eds.). The Third Way and Beyond: Criticisms, Futures and Alternatives. Manchester University Press. ISBN 978-0-7190-6598-9.
- O'Nara, Glen (20 November 2018). "New Labour was far more leftwing than it is given credit for". The Guardian. "A great deal of what Tony Blair did in power was not neoliberal at all, or had neoliberal elements but was aimed in a quite different direction, or was better thought of as social democratic or even socialist. [...] The creation of a national minimum wage and a tax credits system benefitting the low paid halted the remorseless march of inequality that had so scarred Britain in the 1980s. [...] No government that rebuilt the public sphere, radically improved the state healthcare system, improved maintained schools and took on homelessness can possibly be painted only in those terms." Retrieved 18 February 2020.
- The Survivor:Bill Clinton in the White House, John F Harris, Random House, 2005.
- Skowronek, Stephen (1993). The Politics Presidents Make. ISBN 0-674-68937-2.
- Valelly, Rick (31 October 2013). "An Overlooked Theory on Presidential Politics". Archived 25 February 2016 at the Wayback Machine.
- Shea, Christopher (23 November 2003). "Regime change". The Boston Globe. Boston.com. Retrieved 15 February 2020.
- Posner, Richard (17 July 2011). "The Federal Deficit Mess". The Becker-Posner Blog. Retrieved 22 July 2011.
Obama resembles such Presidents as Nixon and Clinton in the following respect. They are what the political scientist Stephen Skowronek calls practitioners of "third way" politics (Tony Blair was another), who undermine the opposition by borrowing policies from it in an effort to seize the middle and with it to achieve political dominance. Think of Nixon's economic policies, which were a continuation of Johnson's "Great Society"; Clinton's welfare reform and support of capital punishment; and Obama's pragmatic centrism, reflected in his embrace, albeit very recent, of entitlements reform.
- Blumenthal, Sidney (2003). The Clinton Wars.
- "BBC News — EUROPE - 'Third Way' gets world hearing". BBC News.
- DLC: "About The Third Way" Archived 28 June 2001 at Archive.today.
- Novak, Philipp (5 February 2016). "Letter from ... Vienna". Progress Online. Retrieved 7 November 2016.
- Schreiber, Leon Amos (2011). The third way in Brazil? Lula's presidency examined (Thesis). Stellenbosch University. Retrieved 8 November 2016.
- Altman, Daniel (6 July 2005). "The irresistible, unassailable Third Way? Not anymore". The New York Times. Retrieved 8 November 2016.
- Krauss, Clifford. "Man in the News: Ricardo Lagos Escobar; A Chilean Socialist in the Clinton-Blair Mold". Retrieved 9 November 2018.
- Herløv Lund, Henrik (15 October 2005). "Helle Thorning Schmidt: "New Labour" i Danmark?" [Helle Thorning Schmidt: "New Labour" in Denmark?]. Kritisk Debat (in Danish). Retrieved 8 November 2016.
- Kuisma, Mikko; Ryner, Magnus (3 September 2012). "Third Way decomposition and the rightward shift in Finnish and Swedish politics". Contemporary Politics. 18 (3): 325–342. doi:10.1080/13569775.2012.702975. S2CID 154784244.
- Barrientos, Armando; Powell, Martin (2004). "The Route Map of the Third Way". In Hale, Sarah; Leggett, Will; Martell, Luke (eds.). The Third Way and Beyond: Criticisms, Futures and Alternatives. Manchester University Press. p. 18. ISBN 978-0-7190-6598-9.
- Tassis, Chrisanthos D. (December 2015). "Transformation of Policies and Politics in Greece towards and inside the European Union 1950-2012" (PDF). Review of History and Political Science. 3 (2): 41–49. doi:10.15640/rhps.v3n2a5. Retrieved 8 November 2016.
- Condon, Christopher (17 April 2006). "Man who would be Blair". Financial Times. Retrieved 8 November 2016.
- Brown, Justin (January 2001). "As Clinton exits, 'third way' faces setback". Christian Science Monitor.
- Greenberg, Stanley B. (2009). Dispatches from the War Room: In the Trenches with Five Extraordinary Leaders. Thomas Dunne Books. p. 313. ISBN 9780312351526.
The stories and reality increased the pressure on the government to make investments to relieve poverty, but Barak was self-consciously committed to 'Third Way' economic policies of lower spending, inflation, and interest rates that produced such growth in the United States and Britain.
- Wilson, Jeremy (11 December 2015). "Tony Blair listened to Colonel Gaddafi's third way theories". Business Insider.
- Giddens, Anthony (28 August 2006). "The colonel and his third way". New Statesman. Retrieved 14 November 2016.
- Walker, David (3 September 2001). "Goodbye, third way". The Guardian. Retrieved 21 November 2012.
- Dalziel, Paul (December 2001). "Third Way Economic Management in New Zealand". Economic and Labour Relations Review. 12 (2): 193–207. doi:10.1177/103530460101200203. S2CID 154050948.
- "An interview with Helen Clark". The Economist. 8 May 2003. Retrieved 7 November 2016.
- "Peru contemplates a return to a troubled future". The Economist. 12 April 2001. Retrieved 8 November 2016.
- Rae, Gavin (21 August 2013). "The false promise of a new left in Poland". OpenDemocracy. Retrieved 8 November 2016.
- Costa Lobo, Marina; Magalhães, Pedro C. (2001). "The Portuguese Socialists and the Third Way" (PDF). European Consortium for Political Research. Retrieved 7 November 2016. Cite journal requires
- Pearlstein, Steven (6 May 2009). "In Portugal, as in America, a 'Third Way' Is Reemerging". The Washington Post. Retrieved 11 May 2009.
- Magdin, Radu (19 September 2014). "Looking to New Labour". Progress Online. Retrieved 8 November 2016.
- Vale, Peter; Barrett, Georgina (10 December 2009). "The curious career of an African modernizer: South Africa's Thabo Mbeki". Contemporary Politics. 15 (4): 445–460. doi:10.1080/13569770903416521.
- Chung, Johng-Eun (October 2012). From Developmental to Neo-Developmental Cultural Industries Policy: The Korean Experience of the "Creative Turn" (PDF) (PhD). University of Glasgow. Retrieved 9 November 2016.
- Andersson, Jenny (September 2006). "The People's Library and the Electronic Workshop: Comparing Swedish and British Social Democracy". Politics & Society. 34 (3): 431–460. doi:10.1177/0032329206290472. S2CID 145605833.
- Guinan, Joe (2013). "Returns to Capital". The Good Society. 22 (1): 44–60. doi:10.5325/goodsociety.22.1.0044. JSTOR 10.5325/goodsociety.22.1.0044.
- Karnitschnig, Matthew (2 March 2018). "Who killed European social democracy?". Politico. Retrieved 29 November 2019.
- Buck, Tobias (17 October 2018). "How social democracy lost its way: a report from Germany". Financial Times. Retrieved 29 November 2019.
- Lawson, Neal (20 December 2018). "Averting the death of social democracy". Social Europe. Retrieved 29 November 2019.
- Barbieri, Pierpaolo (25 April 2017). "The Death and Life of Social Democracy". Foreign Affairs. Retrieved 15 November 2019.
- Allen, Christopher S. (1 September 2009). "'Empty Nets': Social Democracy and the 'Catch-All Party Thesis' in Germany and Sweden". Party Politics. 15 (5): 635–653. doi:10.1177/1354068809336389. ISSN 1354-0688. S2CID 144281202.
- Benedetto, Giacomo; Hix, Hix; Mastrorocco, Nicola (1 July 2019). "The Rise and Fall of Social Democracy, 1918-2017" (PDF). Retrieved 29 November 2019.
- Loxbo, Karl; Hinnfors, Jonas; Hagevi, Magnus; Blombäck, Sofie; Demker, Marie (9 July 2019). "The decline of Western European social democracy: Exploring the transformed link between welfare state generosity and the electoral strength of social democratic parties, 1975–2014". Party Politics: 1354068819861339. doi:10.1177/1354068819861339. ISSN 1354-0688.
- Berman, Sheri; Snegovaya, Maria (10 July 2019). "Populism and the Decline of Social Democracy". Journal of Democracy. 30 (3): 5–19. doi:10.1353/jod.2019.0038. S2CID 199293070. Retrieved 29 November 2019.
- Adams, Ian (1999). Ideology and Politics in Britain Today. "Social democracy to New Labour". Manchester University Press. p. 127. ISBN 978-0-719-05056-5.
- Huges, Laura (24 February 2016). "Tony Blair admits he can't understand the popularity of Jeremy Corbyn and Bernie Sanders". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 14 May 2019. "In a joint Guardian and Financial Times interview, Mr Blair said he believed some of Mr Sanders' and Mr Corbyn's success was due to the "loss of faith in that strong, centrist progressive position", which defined his own career. He said: "One of the strangest things about politics at the moment – and I really mean it when I say I'm not sure I fully understand politics right now, which is an odd thing to say, having spent my life in it – is when you put the question of electability as a factor in your decision to nominate a leader, it's how small the numbers are that this is the decisive factor. That sounds curious to me."
- Tarnoff, Ben (12 July 2017). "How social media saved socialism". The Guardian. Retrieved 14 May 2019. "Socialism is stubborn. After decades of dormancy verging on death, it is rising again in the west. In the UK, Jeremy Corbyn just led the Labour party to its largest increase in vote share since 1945 on the strength of its most radical manifesto in decades. In France, the leftist Jean-Luc Melenchon recently came within two percentage points of breaking into the second round of the presidential election. And in the US, the country's most famous socialist – Bernie Sanders – is now its most popular politician. [...] For the resurgent left, an essential spark is social media. In fact, it's one of the most crucial and least understood catalysts of contemporary socialism. Since the networked uprisings of 2011 – the year of the Arab spring, Occupy Wall Street and the Spanish indignados – we've seen how social media can rapidly bring masses of people into the streets. But social media isn't just a tool for mobilizing people. It's also a tool for politicizing them."
- "Democratic socialism hits the heartland: Ocasio-Cortez, Sanders to campaign in deep-red Kansas". NBC News. 20 July 2018. Retrieved 14 May 2019.
- "No Third Way Out: Creating A Capitalist Czechoslovakia". Reason. June 1990. Retrieved 22 April 2007.
- Romano, Flavio (2006). Clinton and Blair: The Political Economy of the Third Way. Oxon, England, UK; New York City, New York, USA: Routledge. p. 5.
- Romano, Flavio (2006). Clinton and Blair: The Political Economy of the Third Way. Oxon, England, United Kingdom; New York City, New York, United States: Routledge. p. 113.
- Lewis, Jane; Surender, Rebecca (2004). Welfare State Change: Towards a Third Way?. Oxford University Press.
- Busky, Donald F. (20 July 2000). Democratic Socialism: A Global Survey. Praeger. pp. 7–8. ISBN 978-0275968861. "Democratic socialism is the wing of the socialist movement that combines a belief in a socially owned economy with that of political democracy."
- Anderson, Gary L.; Herr, Kathryn G. (2007). Encyclopedia of Activism and Social Justice. SAGE Publications. p. 448. ISBN 978-1412918121. "Some have endorsed the concept of market socialism, a post-capitalist economy that retains market competition but socialises the means of production, and in some versions, extends democracy to the workplace. Some holdout for a non-market, participatory economy. All democratic socialists agree on the need for a democratic alternative to capitalism."
- Gregory, Paul; Stuart, Robert (2003). Comparing Economic Systems in the Twenty-First. South-Western College Pub. p. 152. ISBN 0-618-26181-8.
- Giddens, Anthony (2000). The Third Way and its Critics. Polity Press. p. 32. ISBN 0745624502.
- Giddens, Anthony (1998). The Third Way; A Renewal of Social Democracy. Polity Press. pp. 148–149. ISBN 0745622666.
- Ferragina, Emanuele; Arrigoni, Alessandro (2016). "The Rise and Fall of Social Capital: Requiem for a Theory?". Political Studies Review.
- Giddens, Anthony (1998). The Third Way: The Renewal of Social Democracy. Polity. ISBN 978-0745622675.
- Giddens, Anthony (2000). The Third Way and its Critics. Polity. ISBN 978-0745624501.
- Labour Party (1979). The Labour Way is the Better Way Archived 30 July 2013 at the Wayback Machine.
- Labour Party (1997). Labour's New Deal for a Lost Generation Labour Party.
- Macmillan, Harold (1939). The Middle Way; A Study of the Problem of Economic and Social Progress in A Free and Democratic Society. ISBN 978-0715813331.
- Tony Blair; Gerhard Schröder (July 1998). Europe: The Third Way/Die Neue Mitte. Working documents (in English and German) (2nd ed.). Johannesburg: Friedrich Ebert Foundation, South Africa Office. p. 10. OCLC 914829456.
|Look up third way in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.|
- "Third Way Debate Summary". Nexus.
- Aaronovitch, David (1 July 2003). "Why Tony is not a guitar-wielding fascist dictator". The Guardian.
- Harrington, Patrick. "The Third Way — an Answer to Blair". Third Way. Archived from the original on 13 October 2007.
- "What Is the Third Way?". BBC News. 27 September 1999.