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Swachh Bharat mission

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Swachh Bharat Abhiyan (SBA) or Swachh Bharat Mission (SBM) is a nation-wide campaign in India for the period 2014 to 2019 that aims to clean up the streets, roads and infrastructure of India's cities, towns, and rural areas. The campaign's official name is in Hindi and translates to 'Clean India Mission' in English. The objectives of Swachh Bharat include eliminating open defecation through the construction of household-owned and community-owned toilets and establishing an accountable mechanism of monitoring toilet use. Run by the Government of India, the mission aims to achieve an "open-defecation free" (ODF) India by 2 October 2019, the 150th anniversary of the birth of Mahatma Gandhi,[1] by constructing 90 million toilets in rural India at a projected cost of ₹1.96 lakh crore (US$30 billion).[2] The mission will also contribute to India reaching Sustainable Development Goal Number 6 (SDG 6).

Swachh Bharat mission (SBA)
Swachh Bharat Abhiyan
Swachh Bharat Abhiyan logo.jpg
PM Modi launches the Swachh Bharat Abhiyaan (1).jpg
PM launches Swachh Bharat Abhiyan
Slogan

एक कदम स्वच्छता की ओर

One step towards cleanliness
Country India
Prime Minister(s) Narendra Modi
Launched Raj Ghat, 2 October 2014; 4 years ago (2014-10-02)
Status Active
Website swachhbharat.mygov.in

The campaign was officially launched on 2 October 2014 at Rajghat, New Delhi by Prime Minister Narendra Modi. It is India's largest cleanliness drive to date with three million government employees and students from all parts of India participating in 4,041 cities, towns, and rural areas. Modi has called the campaign Satyagrah se Swachhagrah in reference to Gandhi's Champaran Satyagraha launched on 10 April 1917.[3]

The mission has two thrusts: Swachh Bharat Abhiyan ("gramin" or 'rural'), which operates under the Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation; and Swachh Bharat Abhiyan ('urban'), which operates under the Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs.[4][5][6][7]

As part of the campaign, volunteers, known as Swachhagrahis, or 'ambassadors of cleanliness', have promoted indoor plumbing and community approaches to sanitation (CAS) at the village level.[3] Other non-governmental activities include national real-time monitoring and updates from non-governmental organizations (NGOs) such as The Ugly Indian, Waste Warriors, and SWaCH Pune (Solid Waste Collection and Handling) that are working towards its ideas of Swachh Bharat.[8]

The government has constructed 86 million toilets since 2014, reducing the number of persons who openly defecate from 550 million to fewer than 1 million in 2018.[1]

Contents

HistoryEdit

Open defecation and sewage contamination of drinking and bathing water has been an endemic sanitary problem in India.[9][10] In 2014, India was the country with the highest number of people practicing open defecation, around 530 million people.[11]

LaunchEdit

 
India's prime minister Modi at a rally to promote Swachh Bharat Mission in 2014

Swachh Bharat Abhiyan campaign, launched on 2 October 2014 on Gandhi Jayanti, aims to eradicate open defecation by 2 October 2019, the 150th anniversary of the birth of Mahatma Gandhi, by constructing 90 million toilets in rural India at a projected cost of 1.96 lakh crore (US$27 billion).[2][12][13] The national campaign spans 4,041 statutory cities and towns.[14][15] conceived in March 2014 at a sanitation conference organised by UNICEF India and the Indian Institute of Technology as part of the larger Total Sanitation Campaign, which the Indian government launched in 1999.[16]

Previous sanitation campaignsEdit

On 1 April 2000, the Government of India restructured the Comprehensive Rural Sanitation Programme and launched the Total Sanitation Campaign (TSC) which was later (on 1 April 2012) renamed "Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan" by then Prime Minister Manmohan Singh.[17][18][19] A limited randomized study of eighty villages in rural (Madhya Pradesh) showed that the TSC programme did modestly increase the number of households with latrines, and had a small effect in reducing open defecation. However, there was no improvement in the health of children."[20][21]

The earlier "Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan" rural sanitation program was hampered by the unrealistic approach.[22][23][24] Consequently, Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan was restructured by Cabinet approval on 24 September 2014 as Swachh Bharat Abhiyan.[15]

StructureEdit

FinanceEdit

Swachh Bharat Abhiyan is expected to cost over 620 billion (US$8.6 billion).[7][25] The government provides an incentive of 12,000 (US$170) for each toilet constructed by a below-poverty-line (BPL) family.[2] An amount of 90 billion (US$1.3 billion) was allocated for the mission in the 2016 Union budget of India.[14][26] The World Bank provided a US$11.5 billion loan and $25 million in technical assistance in 2016 for the Swachh Bharat Mission to support India's universal sanitation initiation.[13] The programme has also received funds and technical support from the World Bank, corporations as part of corporate social responsibility initiatives, and by state governments under the Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan and Rashtriya Madhyamik Shiksha Abhiyan schemes.[12]

Planned initiativesEdit

The Government appointed CPWD with the responsibility to dispose off waste from Government offices.[27] The Ministry of Railways planned to have the facility of cleaning on demand, clean bed-rolls from automatic laundries, bio-toilets, dustbins in all non-AC coaches.[28] The Centre will use its Digital India project in conjunction with the Swachh Bharat Abhiyan to have solar-powered trash cans, which send alerts to sanitation crew once they are full.[29] The Swachh Bharat Swachh Vidyalaya campaign was launched the Minister of Human Resource Development, Government of India by participating in the cleanliness drive along with the school's teachers and students.[30][31]

Promotional campaignsEdit

Selected public figuresEdit

 
Manisha Koirala at Swachh Bharat Abhiyan in November 2014

Prime Minister Modi selected following public figures to propagate this campaign.[32][33] They are:

Anushka Sharma and the Vice President of India M V Naidu picked up a broom to help clean the cyclone-hit port city of Visakhapatnam, in the southern state of Andhra Pradesh, as part of the cleanliness campaign.[34][35]

Brand AmbassadorsEdit

 
One of the posters from cartoon based campaign by MCG drawn by the Cartoonist Shekhar Gurera

On 2 October 2014, Prime Minister Modi nominated following people as Brand Ambassador:

He also nominated a number of organisations, including the Institute of Chartered Accountants of India, Eenadu and India Today as well as the dabbawala of Mumbai, who deliver home-made food to lakhs of people in the city.[clarification needed]More than 3 million government employees and school and college students participated in the drive on the occasion.[36][37]

On 8 November 2014, Prime Minister carried the message to Uttar Pradesh and nominated another set of nine people for that state.[38][39]

On 5 January 2015, The minister in-charge nominated followed Telugu icons as brand ambassadors [40][41][when?][citation needed]

From later dates following were made part of the mission

Run and marathonsEdit

A Swachh Bharat Run, attended by 1,500 runners, was organized at the Rashtrapati Bhavan on 2 October 2014.[45][46]

Ordinary peopleEdit

Kunwar Bai Yadav lived in a village in Dhamtari district and sold seven of her goats to raise the money to build a toilet at her house at age 106 in 2016. She was declared a mascot of the campaign and visited by Prime Minister Narendra Modi.

Performance monitoringEdit

 
Individual household latrines coverage in rural India.


Swachh Bharat Mission (SBM) Mobile app is being used by people and Government organisations for achieving the goals of Swachh Bharat Mission.[47] For this the government of India is bringing awareness to the people through advertisements.[48]

Swachh Sarvekshan annual cleanliness surveyEdit

Swachh Sarvekshan, commissioned by Ministry of Urban Development and carried out by Quality Council of India, is an extensive sanitation survey across several hundred cities to check the progress and impact of Swachh Bharat Abhiyan and to foster a spirit of competition among the cities. The performance of each city is evaluated on five parameters:

  • Municipal solid waste, sweeping, collection and transportation
  • Municipal solid waste, processing and disposal of solid waste
  • Open defecation free/toilets
  • Capacity building and eLearning
  • Provision of public & community toilet seats
  • Information, education and communication, and behaviour change

2017 Swachh Sarvekshan surveyEdit

Swachh Sarvekshan 2017 was conducted across 500 cities between 4 January 2017 and 7 February 2017. The top 10 cities are:[49]

2016 Swachh Sarvekshan surveyEdit

The Swachh Sarvekshan-2016 ranks of 73 cities surveyed are:[50][51][52][53]

Cleanest ten cities:

Ten least clean cities (at the bottom of the list):

OutcomesEdit

 
A door-to-door garbage collection van in the city of Indore
 
Beach cleaning robot Swachh Bot, made by a maker community in Chennai

By May 2015, 71 Indian public sector undertakings and 14 companies supported the construction of 89,976.[54] Hundreds of thousands of Indian people were still employed as manual scavengers in emptying bucket toilets and pit latrines.[55][56][57]

In 2017, the national sanitation coverage rose to 65% from 38.7% on Oct 2, 2014 before the start of the campaign.[58] It was 90% in August 2018.[59] Eleven states, 314 districts and 3.25 lakh villages were declared Open Defecation Free (ODF) by 15 February 2018.

The cities and towns which have been declared ODF stood at 22 per cent and the urban wards which have achieved 100 per cent door-to-door solid waste collection stood at 50 per cent. The number of Swachhagrahi volunteers working across urban local bodies rose to 20,000, and those working in rural India rose to more than a lakh. The number of schools with separate toilet facilities for girls rose from 0.4 million (37 per cent) to almost one million (91 per cent).[58]

As per an independent survey released by Quality Council of India in August 2017, overall national rural "household access to toilet" coverage increased to 62.45 per cent and usage of what? 91.29 per cent, with Haryana topping the national ranking with 99 per cent of households in rural areas covered and usage of 100 per cent.[60] World Health Organisation (WHO) has in its report stated that at least 180,000 diarrhoeal deaths were averted in rural India since the launch of the Swachhta Bharat Mission.[61]

Inspired by the Clean India Mission, a robot named Swachh Bot was built by a maker community in Chennai to clean the wastes on Besant Nagar beach.[2][62]

Arbitrarily Disbursement of Incentives under Swachh Bharat Mission

As per an independent Research report published by ABC Live Haryana, Disbursement of Incentives under Swachh Bharat Mission (Urban) in the state of Haryana has been made Arbitrarily by ignoring the guidelines of Swachh Bharat Mission (Urban).[63]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b "An Indian village's fight to take the 'poo to the loo'". AFP. 2 October 2018. Retrieved 3 October 2018.
  2. ^ a b c d "MDWS Intensifies Efforts with States to Implement Swachh Bharat Mission", Business Standard, 18 March 2016 (press release)
  3. ^ a b "Satyagraha to Swachhagrah: Narendra Modi addresses rally in Champaran". Business Standard. 10 April 2018. Archived from the original on 12 April 2018.
  4. ^ {http://sbm.gov.in/sbmcms/index.htm}{http://www.swachhbharaturban.in/sbm/home/#/SBM}
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  13. ^ a b "India, World Bank sign $1.5 billion loan pact for Swachh Bharat Mission", The Economic Times, 30 March 2016
  14. ^ a b "Budget 2016: Swachh Bharat Abhiyan gets Rs 9,000 crore", The Economic Times, 29 February 2016
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  22. ^ IRC:India: Unrealistic approach hampers rural sanitation programme Archived 5 October 2008 at the Wayback Machine., 1 June 2007
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  29. ^ "When Swachh Bharat met Digital India: Now solar-powered trash cans to send alerts when full", The Economic Times, 18 March 2016
  30. ^ Swachch Bharat Swachch Vidhalaya Archived 29 October 2014 at the Wayback Machine.
  31. ^ Swachh Bharat-Swachh Vidyalaya Campaign
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  42. ^ a b admin. "swachh bharat brand ambassador List". Telangana State Portal - Latest News Updates.
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  50. ^ [1]
  51. ^ "Cleanliness ranking for 73 cities is out. Mysuru cleanest, Modi's Varanasi among dirtiest", India Today, 15 February 2016
  52. ^ "Chandigarh Declared Second Cleanest City of India in 2016 Swachh Bharat Survey", Chandigarh Metro
  53. ^ Nagaon topped 8th cleanest city in India
  54. ^ "Saffron Agenda for Green Capitalism? - Swarajya". Swarajya.
  55. ^ "Swachh Bharat Abhiyan should aim to stamp out manual scavenging".
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  58. ^ a b "At The Half-way Mark", The Indian Express, 31 July 2017
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  63. ^ Satish, Bhasin. "Know How Clean Haryana in Swachh Bharat Mission". ABC Live Haryana. ABC Live Haryana. Retrieved 13 April 2018.

External linksEdit