Open defecation (also used in the opposite meaning as open defecation free (ODF)) is the human practice of defecating outside (in the open environment) rather than into a toilet. People may choose fields, bushes, forests, ditches, streets, canals or other open space for defecation. They do so because either they do not have a toilet readily accessible or due to traditional cultural practices. The practice is common where sanitation infrastructure and services are not available. Even if toilets are available, behavior change efforts may still be needed to promote the use of toilets. The term "open defecation free" (ODF) is used to describe communities that have shifted to using a toilet instead of open defecation. This can happen for example after community-led total sanitation programs have been implemented.
About 892 million people, or 12 percent of the global population, practiced open defecation in 2016. Seventy-six percent (678 million) of the 892 million people practicing open defecation in the world live in just seven countries.
Open defecation can pollute the environment and cause health problems. High levels of open defecation are linked to high child mortality, poor nutrition, poverty, and large disparities between rich and poor.(p11)
Ending open defecation is an indicator being used to measure progress towards the Sustainable Development Goal Number 6. Extreme poverty and lack of sanitation are statistically linked. Therefore, eliminating open defecation is thought to be an important part of the effort to eliminate poverty.
Defecating in the open is a very ancient practice. In ancient times, there were more open spaces and less population pressure on land. It was believed that defecating in the open causes little harm when done in areas with low population, forests, or camping type situations. With development and urbanization, open defecating started becoming a challenge and thereby an important public health issue, and an issue of human dignity. With the increase in population in smaller areas, such as cities and towns, more attention was given to hygiene and health. As a result, there was an increase in global attention towards reducing the practice of open defecation.
Open defecation perpetuates the vicious cycle of disease and poverty and is widely regarded as an affront to personal dignity. The countries where open defecation is most widely practised have the highest numbers of deaths of children under the age of five, as well as high levels of undernutrition, high levels of poverty, and large disparities between the rich and poor.
The term "open defecation" became widely used in the water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) sector from about 2008 onwards. This was due to the publications by the Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply and Sanitation (JMP) and the UN International Year of Sanitation. The JMP is a joint program by WHO and UNICEF to monitor the water and sanitation targets of the Sustainable Development Goal Number 6.
For monitoring purposes, two categories were created: 1) improved sanitation and (2) unimproved sanitation. Open defecation falls into the category of unimproved sanitation. This means that people who practice open defecation do not have access to improved sanitation.
In 2013 World Toilet Day was celebrated as an official UN day for the first time. The term "open defecation" was used in high-level speeches, that helped to draw global attention to this issue (for example, in the "call to action" on sanitation issued by the Deputy Secretary-General of the United Nations in March 2013).
Open defecation free
"Open defecation free" (ODF) is a phrase first used in community-led total sanitation (CLTS) programs. ODF has now entered use in other contexts. The original meaning of ODF stated that all community members are using sanitation facilities (such as toilets) instead of going to the open for defecation. This definition was improved and more criteria were added in some countries that have adopted the CLTS approach in their programs to stop the practice of open defecation.
- No visible feces found in the environment or village and
- Every household as well as public/community institutions using safe technology option for disposal of feces".
Here, 'safe technology option' means toilets that contain feces so that there is no contamination of surface soil, groundwater or surface water; flies or animals do not come in contact with the open feces; no one handles excreta; there is no smell and there are no visible feces around in the environment. This definition is part of the Swachh Bharat Abhiyan (Clean India Campaign).
The reasons for open defecation are varied. It can be a voluntary, semi-voluntary or involuntary choice. Most of the time, a lack of access to a toilet is the reason. However, in some places even people with toilets in their houses prefer to defecate in the open.
A few broad factors that result in the practice of open defecation are listed below.
- Lack of infrastructure: People often lack toilets in their houses, or in the areas where they live.
- Lack of toilets in other places: Lack of toilets in places away from people's houses, such as in schools or in the farms lead the people to defecate in the open.
- Use of toilets for other purposes: In some rural communities, toilets are used for other purposes, such as storing household items, animals, farm products or used as kitchens. In such cases, people go outside to defecate. Another example is a lack of public toilets in cities which can be a big problem for homeless people.
Uncomfortable or unsafe toilet
- Poor quality of toilet: Sometimes people have access to a toilet, but the toilet might be broken, or of poor quality - Outdoor toilets (pit latrines in particular) typically are devoid of any type of cleaning and reek of odors. Sometimes, toilets are not well lit, especially in areas that lack electricity. Others lack doors or may not have water. Toilets with maggots or cockroaches are also disliked by people and hence, they go out to defecate.
- Risky and unsafe: Some toilets are risky to access. There may be a risk to personal safety such as - they may be dangerous to access at night due to lack of lights, criminals around them, the presence of animals such as snakes and dogs. Women and children who do not have toilets inside their houses are often found to be scared to access shared or public toilets, especially at night. Accessing toilets that are not located in the house, might be a problem for disabled people, especially at night.
- Presence of toilet but not privacy: Some toilets do not have a real door, but have a cloth hung as a door. In some communities, toilets are located in places where women are shy to access them due to the presence of men.
- Lack of water near toilet: Absence of supply of water inside or next to toilets cause people to get water from a distance before using the toilet. This is an additional task and needs extra time.
- Too many people using a toilet: This is especially true in case of shared or public toilets. If too many people want to use a toilet at the same time, then some people may go outside to defecate instead of waiting. In some cases, people might not be able to wait due to diarrhea (or result of an Irritable Bowel Syndrome emergency).
- Fear of the pit getting filled: In some places, people are scared that their toilet pits will get filled very fast if all family members use it everyday. So they continue to go out to delay the toilet pit filling up. This is especially true in the case of a pit latrine.
- Lack of awareness: People in some communities do not know about the benefits of using toilets.
- Lack of behavior change: Some communities have toilets, yet people prefer to defecate in the open. In some cases, these toilets are provided by the government or other organizations and the people do not like them, or do not value them. They continue to defecate in the open. Also, older people are often found to defecate in the open and they are hesitant to change their behavior and go inside a closed toilet.
- Prefer being in nature: This happens mostly in less populated or rural areas, where people walk outside early in the morning and go to defecate in the fields or bushes. They prefer to be in nature and the fresh air; instead of defecating in a closed space such as a toilet. There may be cultural or habitual preference for defecating "in the open air", beside a local river or stream, or even the bush.
- Combining open defecation with other activities: Some people walk early in the morning to look after their farms. Some consider it as a social activity, especially women who like to take some time to go out of their homes. While on their way to the fields for open defecation they can talk to other women and take care of their animals.
- Social norms: Open defecation is a part of people's life and daily habit in some regions (e.g. in India). It is an ancient practice and is hard for many people to stop practicing. It is a part of a routine or social norm. In some cultures, there may be social taboos where a father-in-law may not use the same toilet as daughter-in-law in the same household.
- Fecal incontinence: This medical condition can result in abrupt 'emergencies' and not enough time to access a toilet.
Prevalence and trends
The practice of open defecation is strongly related to poverty and exclusion particularly, in case of rural areas and informal urban settlements in developing countries. The Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply and Sanitation (JMP) of UNICEF and WHO has been collecting data regarding open defecation prevalence worldwide. The figures are segregated by rural and urban areas and by levels of poverty. This program is tasked to monitor progress towards the millennium development goal (MDG) relating to drinking water and sanitation. As open defecation is one example of unimproved sanitation, it is being monitored by JMP for each country and results published on a regular basis. The figures on open defecation used to be lumped together with other figures on unimproved sanitation but are collected separately since 2010.
In recent years, the number of people practicing open defecation fell from 20 percent in 2000 to 12 percent in 2015.(p34) Those 892 million people with no sanitation facility whatsoever continue to defecate in gutters, behind bushes, or in open water bodies. Most people (9 of 10) who practice open defecation live in rural areas, but the vast majority lives in two regions (Central Asia and South Asia). Seventy-six percent (678 million) of the 892 million people practicing open defecation in the world live in just seven countries.
In 2015, India was reported to be the country with the highest number of people practicing open defecation: 524 million people or 40% of the total population. These numbers have since then been reduced significantly due to the efforts of the Indian government's Clean India Mission. However, some of the government data may reflect only the availability of toilets but not the actual daily use of toilets.
The countries with large numbers of people who openly defecate are listed in the table below.
|Country||Total country population (in thousands) in 2015 as reported in 2017 by JMP||Percentage of people who defecate in the open and absolute numbers (data from 2015 as reported in 2017 by JMP)||More recent estimates of people defecating in the open (not JMP data but government data)|
|Chad||14,037||68% or 10 million|
|China||1,376,049||2% or 28 million|
|Eritrea||5,228||76% or 4 million|
|Ethiopia||99,391||27% or 27 million|
|India||1,311,051||39.84% or 524 million||Developments since 2017:|
|Indonesia||257,564||12% or 31 million|
|Niger||19,899||71% or 14 million|
|Nigeria||182,202||26% or 47 million|
|Pakistan||188,925||12% or 23 million|
|South Sudan||12,340||61% or 8 million|
|Sudan||40,235||27% or 11 million|
The negative public health impacts of open defecation are the same as those described when there is no access to sanitation at all. Open defecation—and lack of sanitation and hygiene in general—is an important factor that cause various diseases; the most common being diarrhea and intestinal worm infections but also typhoid, cholera, hepatitis, polio, trachoma, and others.
In 2011, infectious diarrhea resulted in about 0.7 million deaths in children under five years old and 250 million lost school days. It can also lead to malnutrition and stunted growth among children.
Certain diseases are grouped together under the name of waterborne diseases, which are diseases transmitted via fecal pathogens in water. Open defecation can lead to water pollution when rain flushes feces that are dispersed in the environment into surface water or unprotected wells.
Young children are particularly vulnerable to ingesting feces of other people that are lying around after open defecation, because young children crawl on the ground, walk barefoot, and put things in their mouths without washing their hands. Feces of farmed animals are equally a cause of concern when children are playing in the yard.
Those countries where open defecation is most widely practiced have the highest numbers of deaths of children under the age of five, as well as high levels of malnourishment (leading to stunted growth in children), high levels of poverty and large disparities between rich and poor.
Research from India has shown that detrimental health impacts (particularly for early life health) are even more significant from open defecation when the population density is high: "The same amount of open defecation is twice as bad in a place with a high population density average like India versus a low population density average like sub-Saharan Africa."
Safety of women
There are strong gender impacts connected with open defecation. The lack of safe, private toilets makes women and girls vulnerable to violence and is an impediment to girls' education. Women are at risk of sexual molestation and rape as they search for places for open defecation that are secluded and private, often during hours of darkness.
Lack of privacy has an especially large effect on the safety and sense of dignity of women and girls in developing countries. They face the shame of having to defecate in public so often wait until nightfall to relieve themselves. They risk being attacked after dark, though it means painfully holding their bladder and bowels all day. Women in developing countries increasingly express fear of assault or rape when having to leave the house after dark. Reports of attacks or harassment near or in toilet facilities, as well as near or in areas where women defecate openly, are common.
There are several drivers used to eradicate open defecation, one of which is behaviour change. SaniFOAM (Focus on Opportunity, Ability and Motivation) is a conceptual framework which was developed specifically to address issues of sanitation and hygiene. Using focus, opportunity, ability and motivation as categories of determinants, SaniFOAM model identifies barriers to latrine adoption while simultaneously serving as a tool for designing, monitoring and evaluating sanitation interventions. The following are some of the key drivers used to fight against open defecation in addition to behavior change:
- Political will
- Sanitation solutions that offer a better value than open defecation
- Stronger public sector local service delivery systems
- Creation of the right incentive structures
Efforts to reduce open defecation are more or less the same as those to achieve the MDG target on access to sanitation. A key aspect is awareness raising (for example via the UN World Toilet Day at a global level), behaviour change campaigns, increasing political will as well as demand for sanitation. Community-Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) campaigns have placed a particular focus on ending open defecation by "triggering" the communities themselves into action.
As India has such a high number of people practicing open defecation, various Indian government-led initiatives are ongoing to reduce open defecation in that country. It began as the "Total Sanitation Campaign", which was relaunched as Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan in 2012 and integrated into the wider Swachh Bharat Abhiyan (Clean India Mission) in 2014 - see country section below for more details.
Also in 2014, UNICEF began a multimedia campaign against open defecation in India, urging citizens to "take their poo to the loo."
Simple sanitation technology options
There are some simple sanitation technology options available to reduce open defecation prevalence if the open defecation behavior is due to not having toilets in the household and shared toilets being too far or too dangerous to reach, e.g., at night.
People might already use plastic bags (also called flying toilets) at night to contain their feces. However, a more advanced solution of the plastic toilet bag has been provided by the Swedish company Peepoople who are producing the "Peepoo bag", a "personal, single-use, self-sanitizing, fully biodegradable toilet that prevents feces from contaminating the immediate area as well as the surrounding ecosystem". This bag is now being used in humanitarian responses, schools, and urban slums in developing countries.
Bucket toilets and urine diversion
Bucket toilets are a simple portable toilet option. They can be upgraded in various ways, one of them being urine diversion which can make them similar to urine-diverting dry toilets. Urine diversion can significantly reduce odors from dry toilets. Examples of using this type of toilet to reduce open defecation are the "MoSan" toilet (used in Kenya) or the urine-diverting dry toilet promoted by SOIL in Haiti.
The Government of India (GoI) has taken up an initiative called Swachh Bharat Mission (Clean India Mission) wherein a large scale drive has been initiated to construct toilets on mass level. The government has increased subsidies on toilet construction to INR 15,000. The Government of India claims that the situation has been improving rapidly since 2015, mainly due to the Swachh Bharat Abhiyan campaign. According to Government of India's October 2018 estimate, only 5% of the total population have no access to toilets and are still doing open defecation. As of September 2018, around 93 percent of the rural population had access to proper sanitation, with the number of people defecating in the open reduced to 150 million, down from 550 million in 2014. The goal is to declare India open defecation free (ODF) before 2 October 2019, but the government of India is approaching the initiative much faster and India is likely to achieve ODF status before the deadline. However, some newspaper articles suggest that open defecation has not fallen as rapidly and sustainably as the government claims.
In an attempt to stop city residents from urinating and defecating in public, a city council in western India is planning to pay residents to use public toilets. In 2015, the Ahmedabad Municipal Corporation announced it will give residents one rupee a visit in a bid to draw them into its 300 public toilets and away from open areas and public walls, which often reek of urine.
In India, the State of Rajasthan became the first state in the country to make a "functional toilet" mandatory in the house of a contestant for contesting elections to Panchayati Raj institutions. The post of village head is called "sarpanch" in Rajasthan, India. A person cannot contest for the post of sarpanch unless they have a functional toilet at their residence.
A number of industries in India are manufacturing affordable toilets using pre-fabrication techniques to meet high demand for toilets created after this new legislation.
Society and culture
Public defecation for other reasons
In developed countries, open defecation is either due to homelessness, or considered to be a part of voluntary, recreational outdoor activities in remote areas. It is difficult to estimate how many people practice open defecation in these communities.
- Clasen; Boisson; Routray; Torondel; et al. (2014). "Effectiveness of a rural sanitation programme on diarrhoea, soil-transmitted helminth infection, and child malnutrition in Odisha, India: a cluster-randomised trial". The Lancet Global Health. 2 (11): e645–e653. doi:10.1016/S2214-109X(14)70307-9. ISSN 2214-109X. PMID 25442689.
- WHO and UNICEF (2017) Progress on Drinking Water, Sanitation and Hygiene: 2017 Update and SDG Baselines. In WASH data reports page. Geneva: World Health Organization (WHO) and the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), 2017
- Progress on drinking water and sanitation, 2014 Update. WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply and Sanitation (JMP). 2014. ISBN 9789241507240.
- Ahmad, J (30 October 2014). "How to eliminate open defecation by 2030". devex. Retrieved 2 May 2016.
- O'Reilly, Kathleen (1 January 2016). "From toilet insecurity to toilet security: creating safe sanitation for women and girls". Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Water. 3 (1): 19–24. doi:10.1002/wat2.1122. ISSN 2049-1948.
- "Nearly a Billion People Still Defecate Outdoors. Here's Why". 25 July 2017. Retrieved 4 October 2017.
- "United Nations Deputy Secretary-General's Call to Action on Sanitation" (PDF). United Nations. 2013. Retrieved 19 October 2014.
- Cavill; Chambers; Vernon (2015). Sustainability and CLTS: Taking Stock Frontiers of CLTS: Innovations and Insights Issue 4. IDS. p. 18. ISBN 978-1-78118-222-2.
- "Guidelines for ODF Verification" (PDF). Indian Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation. 2015.
- "Definition of ODF – Open Defecation Free (Indian government publication)". 18 June 2015. Retrieved 5 October 2017.
- Routray, Parimita; Schmidt, Wolf-Peter; Boisson, Sophie; Clasen, Thomas; Jenkins, Marion W. (10 September 2015). "Socio-cultural and behavioural factors constraining latrine adoption in rural coastal Odisha: an exploratory qualitative study". BMC Public Health. 15: 880. doi:10.1186/s12889-015-2206-3. ISSN 1471-2458. PMC 4566293. PMID 26357958.
- Bardosh, Kevin (1 November 2015). "Achieving "Total Sanitation" in Rural African Geographies: Poverty, Participation and Pit Latrines in Eastern Zambia". Geoforum. 66 (Supplement C): 53–63. doi:10.1016/j.geoforum.2015.09.004.
- "Understanding Gendered Sanitation Vulnerabilities: A Study in Uttar Pradesh - Resources • SuSanA". www.susana.org. Retrieved 23 October 2017.
- "Public Bathrooms Become Ground Zero In The Opioid Epidemic". www.wbur.org. Retrieved 16 October 2018.
- O’Connell, Kathryn. "What Influences Open Defecation and Latrine Ownership in Rural Households?: Findings from a Global Review" (PDF).
- "Nowhere to go How a lack of safe toilets threatens to increase violence against women in slums" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 11 June 2014.
- Kwiringira, Japheth; Atekyereza, Peter; Niwagaba, Charles; Günther, Isabel (19 June 2014). "Descending the sanitation ladder in urban Uganda: evidence from Kampala Slums". BMC Public Health. 14: 624. doi:10.1186/1471-2458-14-624. ISSN 1471-2458. PMC 4071028. PMID 24948084.
- "Document". www.amnesty.org. Retrieved 23 October 2017.
- Tsinda, Aime; Abbott, Pamela; Pedley, Steve; Charles, Katrina; Adogo, Jane; Okurut, Kenan; Chenoweth, Jonathan (10 December 2013). "Challenges to Achieving Sustainable Sanitation in Informal Settlements of Kigali, Rwanda". International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 10 (12): 6939–6954. doi:10.3390/ijerph10126939. PMC 3881150. PMID 24336021.
- O’Reilly, Kathleen (1 November 2006). ""Traditional" women, "modern" water: Linking gender and commodification in Rajasthan, India". Geoforum. 37 (6): 958–972. doi:10.1016/j.geoforum.2006.05.008.
- In 2016, Kunwar Bai Yadav, a woman claiming to be 105 years old, said she had never heard about a toilet until that year, and had always gone into the nearby woods to defecate. Only when she learned about them, did she have one built in her community. Source: BBC News (India): "How a 105-year-old ended open defecation in her village", 1 November 2016
- "Revealed Preference for Open Defecation: Evidence from a new survey in rural north India (longer working paper) | r.i.c.e." riceinstitute.org. Retrieved 23 October 2017.
- "Data and estimates". JMP - WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme (JMP) for Water Supply and Sanitation. WHO/UNICEF. Archived from the original on 19 February 2015. Retrieved 12 March 2015.
- "People practicing open defecation (% of population)". data.worldbank.org. Retrieved 22 August 2017.
- "Progress on Drinking Water, Sanitation and Hygiene - 2017 (JMP data made available in WASHWatch website)". WASHWatch. World Health Organization (WHO) and the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF). Retrieved 26 September 2017.
- "Independent Verification of Swachh Bharat Gramin confirms 93% usage of toilets". Press Information Bureau. 27 March 2018. Retrieved 11 March 2019.
- "World's Largest Sanitation Program Notches Another Win- Independent Verification Agency Confirms Over 96% Usage Of Toilets Under Swachh Bharat". Swarajya. 5 March 2019. Retrieved 11 March 2019.
- http://swachhbharatmission.gov.in/sbmcms/index.htm Retrieved 15 October 2018.
- "Over 83 9 million toilets constructed under Swachh Bharat Mission". UNI India. Retrieved 14 September 2018.
- "Cleaning Up India With Gandhiji". Economic Times. Retrieved 20 September 2018.
- "Call to action on sanitation" (PDF). United Nations. Retrieved 15 August 2014.
- Chaturvedi, Vishnu; Spears, Dean; Ghosh, Arabinda; Cumming, Oliver (2013). "Open Defecation and Childhood Stunting in India: An Ecological Analysis of New Data from 112 Districts". PLoS ONE. 8 (9): e73784. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0073784. ISSN 1932-6203. PMC 3774764. PMID 24066070.
- Walker, CL; Rudan, I; Liu, L; Nair, H; Theodoratou, E; Bhutta, ZA; O'Brien, KL; Campbell, H; Black, RE (20 April 2013). "Global burden of childhood pneumonia and diarrhoea". Lancet. 381 (9875): 1405–16. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(13)60222-6. PMID 23582727.
- Spears, Dean; Ghosh, Arabinda; Cumming, Oliver (16 September 2013). "Open Defecation and Childhood Stunting in India: An Ecological Analysis of New Data from 112 Districts". PLOS ONE. 8 (9): e73784. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0073784. ISSN 1932-6203. PMC 3774764. PMID 24066070.
- Mara, Duncan (1 March 2017). "The elimination of open defecation and its adverse health effects: a moral imperative for governments and development professionals". Journal of Water Sanitation and Hygiene for Development. 7 (1): 1–12. doi:10.2166/washdev.2017.027. ISSN 2043-9083.
- "WHO | Diarrhoeal disease". World Health Organization. 2013. Retrieved 10 March 2014.
- Vyas (2014). Population density and the effect of sanitation on early-life health], slide 19 (presentation at UNC conference in Oct. 2014) (PDF). Research Institute for Compassionate Economics, project (r.i.c.e.).
- House, Sarah, Suzanne Ferron, Marni Sommer and Sue Cavill (2014) Violence, Gender & WASH: A Practitioner’s Toolkit – Making water, sanitation and hygiene safer through improved programming and services. London, UK: WaterAid/SHARE.
- Lennon, S. (2011). Fear and anger: Perceptions of risks related to sexual violence against women linked to water and sanitation in Delhi, India - Briefing Note. SHARE (Sanitation and Hygiene Applied Research for Equity) and WaterAid, UK
- Cavill, Sue. "Violence, gender and WASH: A practitioner's toolkit: Making Water, Sanitation and hygiene safer through improved programming and services". WaterAid, SHARE Research Consortium. Retrieved 7 October 2015.
- Lennon, Shirley (November 2011). "Fear and anger: Perceptions of risks related to sexual violence against women linked to water and sanitation in Delhi, India". SHARE (Sanitation and Hygiene Applied Research for Equity) and WaterAid, UK. Retrieved 7 October 2015.
- Devine, J (2009). Introducing Sanifoam: A Framework to Analyze Sanitation Behaviors to Design Effective Sanitation Programs. Washington, DC, USA: World Bank.
- Devine, J (2010). "Beyond tippt-taps: The role of enabling products in scaling up and sustaining handwashing". Waterlines. 29 (4): 304–314. doi:10.3362/1756-3488.2010.033.
- "Field Notes: UNICEF Policy and Programming in Practice" (PDF). UNICEF. Retrieved 10 March 2015.
- "Why take poo to the loo". Poo2Loo. Retrieved 10 March 2015.
- Wheaton, A. (2009). Results of a medium-scale trial of single-use, self-sanitising toilet bags in poor urban settlements in Bangladesh. Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit GmbH (GTZ), Dhaka, Bangladesh
- Owako, E. (2012). Nyando peepoo trial project report. Kenya Red Cross, Kenya
- Naeem, K., Berndtsson, M. (2011). Peepoo Try Pakistan - Sindh Floods, November 2011. UN-HABITAT, Pakistan
- Mijthab M., Woods E., Lokey H., Foote A., Rieck. C (2013). Sanivation and MoSan Toilet - 4 week Service Pilot in Karagita Naivasha, Kenya. GIZ and Sanivation
- Russel, K. (2013). Mobile sanitation services for dense urban slums - Various documents on results from research grant. Stanford University, U.S.
- "Over 83.9 million toilets constructed under Swachh Bharat Mission". AFP. 14 September 2018. Retrieved 8 January 2019.
- Staff Reporter (15 April 2015). "Subsidy for toilet construction". The Hindu.
- "India has 60.4 per cent people without access to toilet: Study". The Indian Express. Press Trust of India. 19 November 2015. Retrieved 26 September 2017.
- "Swachh Bharat Mission a failure: Jairam". The Hindu. Special Correspondent. 6 October 2018. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 1 May 2019.CS1 maint: others (link)
- SHARMA, NIDHI (5 June 2018). "Swachh Bharat Abhiyan: Where progress on paper hits quicksand of ground reality". The Economic Times. Retrieved 1 May 2019.
- Pareek, Shabdita (13 November 2017). "UN Dismisses Swachh Bharat Saying It Has Failed To Eliminate Manual Scavenging From India". ScoopWhoop. Retrieved 1 May 2019.
- "Indian city to pay residents to use public toilets". Dawn. Retrieved 9 June 2015.
- Aarti Dhar (27 March 2015). "Rajasthan passes bill on eligibility for panchayat polls". The Hindu.
- Biswas, Soutik (6 October 2014). "Why India's sanitation crisis needs more than toilets". BBC News. BBC. Retrieved 10 March 2015.
- "India has highest number of people practicing open defecation |". DNA India. 19 November 2014. Retrieved 10 March 2015.
- "More than 40m Pakistanis defecate openly: Unicef - Pakistan". Dawn. 8 March 2015. Retrieved 10 March 2015.
- "Lack of toilets tied to stunted growth in Pakistan: UNICEF". Express Tribune. 13 March 2012. Retrieved 10 March 2015.
- "Over 43 million people in Pakistan defecate in the open". The News International. Retrieved 10 March 2015.
- "Municode Library". library.municode.com. Retrieved 30 January 2018.
- "Public Urination/Defecation - Columbus Criminal Attorney". Columbus Criminal Attorney. 13 August 2012. Retrieved 30 January 2018.
- "'Mad Pooper': Jogger Wanted for Defecating in Front Yards of Colorado Homes". WNEP.com. 19 September 2017. Retrieved 30 January 2018.
- Dispatch, Allison Manning, The Columbus. "The world is NOT your toilet, Columbus police note". The Columbus Dispatch. Retrieved 30 January 2018.